Bibliography: Democracy (page 497 of 605)

This annotated bibliography is reformatted and customized for the I'm with Jill website.  Some of the authors featured on this page include Kathy Bickmore, Mary Pat MacKinnon, Les Voakes, Sarah Barton, Willem H. Vanderburg, Richard Hatcher, Tonette S. Rocco, Arife Figen Ersoy, Ken Williams, and Christina Parker.

Ersoy, Arife Figen (2014). Active and Democratic Citizenship Education and Its Challenges in Social Studies Classrooms, Eurasian Journal of Educational Research. Problem Statement: Turkey's passive and task-oriented approach to citizenship education, which has endured since the Ottoman Empire period, has begun to change into more active and democratic citizenship education since Turkey joined the European Union. Identifying the practical problems as well as describing the challenges when practicing the Social Studies curriculum will contribute to citizenship education and its development, both in Turkey and in similar countries. Purpose of Study: The purpose of the present study is to explore the active and democratic citizenship education procedures in Social Studies course in Turkey and to determine the challenges encountered in active citizenship education. Methodology: The study was conducted using a holistic, multiple-case study design. Data were collected through interviews, classroom observations and documents. In this study, extreme or deviant case sampling was used. The study was conducted in two schools: a state school with a low socioeconomic background and a private school with high socioeconomic background. A total of six volunteer teachers and 30 students from both of the schools participated in the study. Findings: The study found that the citizenship perceptions, political views and educational backgrounds of the teachers had an effect on the citizenship education in their lessons. Furthermore, the age, maturity level, gender and social environment of the students had an effect on implementing citizenship education. Also, the test-centered educational system, traditional school organizations and culture, and the relevant legislations and regulations limited the ability of teachers to handle political issues and had negative effects on citizenship education. Discussion and Recommendation: The findings of the present study revealed that the students' task-based and passive perception of citizenship did not demonstrate any change at the beginning and end of the Social Studies course. The findings from this study suggest that, in general, citizenship education in Social Studies courses tends to offer, in part, a set of social moral values that focus more on theory and exams and lack opportunities for practice. At the end of this course, students are raised as apolitical citizens with low political literacy who lack effective thinking and participation skills. Therefore, teachers should be trained in active citizenship education, democratic school culture should be developed and the relevant legislations should be readjusted to provide teachers with more freedom in their academic concerns along with active citizenship education.   [More]  Descriptors: Foreign Countries, Citizenship Education, Democratic Values, Democracy

Berdahl, Robert M. (2009). Research Universities: Their Value to Society Extends Well Beyond Research, Association of American Universities. A recent ranking undertaken by Jiao Tong University in Shanghai shows 36 U.S universities among the top 50 universities in the world, with eight of the top 10 in the United States. Author Fareed Zakaria has declared: "[H]igher education is the United States' best industry. In no other field is the United States' advantage so overwhelming. Although China and India are opening new institutions, it is not that easy to create a world-class university out of whole cloth in a few decades." America's lead may be less secure than Zakaria suggests. Neither the University of California, San Diego (ranked 13th) nor the University of California, Santa Barbara (ranked 35th) existed 50 years ago. China, at least, is pouring substantial resources into building a number of world-class research universities, while oil-rich Saudi Arabia is intent on building a research university in the next few years to equal the best universities anywhere. The competitive advantage the United States currently enjoys is obvious, but retaining it cannot be taken for granted; the support from state governments for their "flagship" public universities and the partnership between research universities and the federal government must be renewed and enhanced if America's lead is to be sustained.   This paper attempts to describe the importance of research universities to education and science and to society more broadly.   [More]  Descriptors: Research Universities, College Role, Scientific Research, Public Policy

Farmer, Tod Allen (2009). Preparing Pluralistic Urban Superintendents, International Journal of Educational Leadership Preparation. The United Nations projects that the United States will have the highest migration rates of any nation in the world between 2000 and 2050. As American society becomes increasingly diverse, it is paramount that superintendent preparation programs produce pluralistic urban superintendents capable of synergistically energizing an increasingly heterogeneous work force. Inherent in this charge is the egalitarian approach to graduate program design. Pluralistic leadership development is premised upon egalitarian principles that transcend individual cultural norms. Graduate programs seeking to enhance pluralistic leadership development must permeate egalitarianism through the amalgamation of both acquiescence and expectation. Students must feel welcomed into the pluralistic professional learning community yet be simultaneously challenged by the high expectations of a progressive superintendent preparation program.   [More]  Descriptors: Urban Schools, Student Diversity, Cultural Pluralism, Superintendents

Ranson, Stewart (2008). The Changing Governance of Education, Educational Management Administration & Leadership. The 1988 Education Reform Act sought to deconstruct the framework of post-Second World War social democratic governance and replace the tacit rule of professional providers with mechanisms of choice and market competition, thus empowering parents and school leaders. Functions, powers and responsibilities were fundamentally reconstituted and have transformed the governance of education. New Labour, when it came to power in 1997, did not alter but extended the practices of this neo-liberal polity. Now, within the frame of this regime, a new re-constitution of the governance of education may be emerging: schools, colleges and agencies are encouraged not to compete, but to collaborate in creating a community of practice with families. Two modes of governance are developing in parallel. This article concludes that only a wider reconstituting of the public sphere, one that restricts the power that the advantaged are accruing from the education market place, can enable very different purposes of learning, and conditions necessary for a cosmopolitan civic society to emerge.   [More]  Descriptors: Democracy, Governance, Educational Change, Educational Legislation

Voakes, Les (2003). Listening to the Experts, New Directions for Evaluation. Describes a partnership of youth and adults in Ontario, Canada in the generative process of participatory evaluation as youth and adults jointly produced a conference as a participatory evaluation and worked as democratic equals toward a common goal. Descriptors: Adults, Democracy, Evaluation Methods, Program Evaluation

Barton, Sarah; Hatcher, Richard (2014). The Consequences of the Trojan Horse Affair and a Possible Way Forward for Birmingham, FORUM: for promoting 3-19 comprehensive education. The UK government seized the opportunity of the Trojan Horse affair to launch a damaging Islamophobic attack, eagerly relayed by a racist press, on the Muslim community in Birmingham and beyond, abusing Ofsted and the Prevent strategy as blatant instruments of ideologically-driven policy. The various reports found no evidence of radicalisation or extremism but did find evidence of governance malpractice in some schools, informed by conservative Muslim views and enabled by the lack of local accountability of governing bodies as a result of the government's policies of academy autonomy and disempowered local authorities. The debate now is focused on moving forward, and this article ends by proposing that a Children's Zone approach offers a strategy which ensures that the community is centrally involved in a new democratic partnership.   [More]  Descriptors: Islamic Culture, Islam, Muslims, Evidence

Williams, Ken (2009). A Future of Leadership Development, Academy for Educational Development. Leadership and leadership development are popular topics today. Concurrent with the construction of leadership theory, leadership development has emerged as a practice, with programs, consultants, reports, and networking opportunities proliferating. Given the reality of limited resources, it is critical that investments in and approaches to leadership development are built on a foundation of knowledge, curiosity, empathy, and passion for meaningful change that is based on value. Ultimately, leadership development is about getting opportunities and resources to people who can contribute, in inspiring ways, to the success of organizations, communities, fields, nation, world, and species. It is an engaging process that blends both art and science with hope. In this essay the author talks about how leadership development is a way to catalyze personal growth and structural change, through a set of opportunities and challenges, a support system, and enriching companionship. When practiced with care, leadership development and its associated support are the gifts that keep on giving, when ideas and programs fall to the wayside, and the beauty of human dignity is cherished all the more. Appendices include: (1) Frameworks for Reflective Practices; and (2) Key Sources of Power. (Contains 36 endnotes.) [For the supplement report, "A Short Supplement to A Future of Leadership Development," see ED520169.]   [More]  Descriptors: Leadership Training, Human Dignity, Empathy, Leadership

Camicia, Steven P. (2009). Identifying Soft Democratic Education: Uncovering the Range of Civic and Cultural Choices in Instructional Materials, Social Studies. Although student deliberation of public issues is recognized as a vital component of democratic education, little research focuses on the range of perspectives available to students during such deliberation. Social justice and legitimacy demand a wide range of inclusion, choices, and perspectives during student deliberation. This article contrasts soft versus deliberative democratic education, where the range of perspectives is correspondingly narrow or broad. Unfortunately, research shows that social studies textbooks promote soft democratic education by privileging dominant cultural representations, ideologies, and metanarratives of American exceptionality. This article presents content analysis as a method for identifying the range of civic and cultural perspectives in curricula. Once these perspectives are identified, social studies educators can revise curricula to increase inclusion and strengthen student deliberation. To illustrate this method, the author examines two sets of instructional materials. While on opposite opposite sides of the ideological spectrum, the sets are similar in their narrow range of perspectives concerning controversial public issues.   [More]  Descriptors: Social Justice, Textbooks, Democracy, Citizenship Education

Bickmore, Kathy; Parker, Christina (2014). Constructive Conflict Talk in Classrooms: Divergent Approaches to Addressing Divergent Perspectives, Theory and Research in Social Education. Dialogue about social and political conflicts is a key element of democratic citizenship education that is frequently advocated in scholarship but rarely fully implemented, especially in classrooms populated by ethnically and economically heterogeneous students. Qualitative case studies describe the contrasting ways 2 primary and 2 middle-grade teachers in urban Canadian public schools infused conflict dialogue pedagogies into their implemented curricula. These lessons, introducing conflict communication skills and/or content knowledge embodying conflicting viewpoints as learning opportunities, actively engaged a wide range of students. At the same time, even these purposively selected teachers did "not" often facilitate sustained, inclusive, critical, and imaginative exchange or deliberation about heartfelt disagreements, nor did they probe the diversity and equity questions surrounding these issues. The case studies illustrate a democratic education dilemma: Even in the classrooms of skilled and committed teachers, opportunities for recognition of contrasting perspectives and discussion of social conflicts may not necessarily develop into sustained democratic dialogue nor interrupt prevailing patterns of disengagement and inequity.   [More]  Descriptors: Conflict, Democracy, Citizenship Education, Urban Schools

MacKinnon, Mary Pat (2008). Talking Politics, Practicing Citizenship, Education Canada. The message emerging from a recent research series on youth civic and political participation is clear: today's youth are not disengaged from associational and small "p" political life, but they are increasingly disenchanted with formal political institutions and practices. Generation Y (those born after 1979) has less formal political knowledge than previous generations and is highly suspicious of political spin and insincerity. Despite being the most educated generation in Canadian history, many of them don't grasp how governments and political institutions work nor do they understand the impact of politics on their everyday lives. The decline in formal political participation, including voting, is complex and cannot be explained by any single theory. The evidence points to an interconnected and overlapping web of factors, including generational effects, socio-economic circumstances, changes in socialization patterns, decline in deference, devaluing of the public sphere and "politics", disenchantment with political practices and institutions, failure of political institutions to reach out to youth and attend to their needs and expectations, the pervasive influence of Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) on all facets of youth life, low levels of political efficacy, and declining political literacy. This article focuses on one piece, albeit pivotal, of the civic and political health puzzle: the role of the education system in preparing young people for active citizenship. Civic (or citizenship as it is also called) education remains a singularly important and effective institution to address gaps and deficits in political knowledge and skills. It plays an important role in preparing youth to undertake the public responsibilities and rights associated with democratic citizenship.   [More]  Descriptors: Citizenship, Democracy, Citizenship Education, Politics

Korkmaz, H. Eylem; Erden, Münire (2014). A Delphi Study: The Characteristics of Democratic Schools, Journal of Educational Research. The authors aim to identify characteristics of democratic schools. The Delphi technique used in this study is based on attaining a consensus among a group of experts over 3 rounds with 22 experts from 9 countries participating in the first round. By the end of the third round, 339 items referring to democratic school characteristics were identified, categorized into values and philosophy, collaborative learning organization, founding process, decision-making model, policy forming, curriculum, learner, teaching staff, nonteaching staff, relations, physical properties, and financial resource management. The result shows that every single category bears importance in creating a democratic school.   [More]  Descriptors: Delphi Technique, Institutional Characteristics, Democracy, Democratic Values

Slater, Robert O. (2008). American Teachers: What Values Do They Hold?, Education Next. In a liberal-democratic society there is always a desire to separate the teaching of values from the teaching of reading, writing, and mathematics, the so-called value-neutral subjects. But teachers have learned–and every parent who has done homework with his child knows–that, like it or not, they teach values in the course of teaching these subjects. They teach, for example, the value of hard work, of doing things that you might not like, of persevering in the face of difficulty, of listening to and respecting the efforts of adults, of self-initiated effort, of postponement of gratification, and of meeting deadlines. All of these simple lessons are moral instruction, lessons about what is important and about what ought to be taken seriously. So even if what they teach is value-neutral, teachers' and parents' teaching–by the manner in which they do it and the nature of their interactions in the course of it–conveys messages to children about how they should regard themselves, consider others, and meet their obligations. During the course of the 2005-06 school year, each teacher spent upward of 1,260 hours working with the nation's 54 million elementary and secondary school students. It would seem useful to know something about the values they hold. Where do America's elementary and secondary school teachers stand on freedom of speech, family values, and economic inequality, for example? What do they believe about religion and human nature? The short answer to these questions is that no one knows. To get a better sense of teachers' values, one can turn to the National Opinion Research Center's (NORC) General Social Survey, one of the largest, most reliable, and frequently used data sets in the social sciences. It is an almost-annual, national sample of Americans in which one can find demographic information and information on teachers' values from 1972 to 2006.   [More]  Descriptors: Ethical Instruction, Freedom of Speech, Democracy, Social Sciences

Beaudoin, Nelson (2008). The Magic Is in the Students, Principal Leadership. Educators who search for ways to engage students often forget that the magic is really inside them–not educators themselves, as Keith Harvie's poem "Wizard" illustrates. After more than three decades of trying to improve the students' educational experience in the schools where the author has worked, he has come to believe that the answer lies within students. Elevating student voice and creating a democratic school pay off in student satisfaction and academic performance. When student input is encouraged and valued in a democratic environment, students are more involved, more satisfied, and more academically successful. Here, the author discusses how to foster student voice and to promote student relevance.   [More]  Descriptors: Student Attitudes, Educational Experience, Educational Change, High School Students

Mizzi, Robert C., Ed.; Rocco, Tonette S., Ed.; Shore, Sue, Ed. (2016). Disrupting Adult and Community Education: Teaching, Learning, and Working in the Periphery, SUNY Press. This groundbreaking book critiques the boundaries of where adult education takes place through a candid examination of teaching, learning, and working practices in the social periphery. Lives in this context are diverse and made through complex practices that take place in the shadows of formal systems: on streetscapes and farms, in vehicles and homes, and through underground networks. Educators may be family members, friends, or colleagues, and the curriculum may be based on needs, interests, histories, and cultural practices. The case studies presented here analyze adult education in the lives of sex workers, LGBTQ activists, undocumented migrants, disabled workers, homeless youth, immigrants, inmates, and others. Focusing on learning at the social margins, this book challenges readers to reconceptualize local, national, and transnational adult education practices in light of neoliberalism and globalization. Following the introduction, Starting Somewhere: Troubling Perspectives of Periphery and Center in Adult and Community Education (Robert C. Mizzi, Sue Shore, and Tonette S. Rocco), this book contains the following chapters: (1) Lifelong Learning as Critical Action for Sexual and Gender Minorities as a Constituency of the Learner Fringe (André P. Grace); (2) Youth Development in Context: Housing Instability, Homelessness, and Youth "Work" (Naomi Nichols); (3) A Synergy of Understanding: Intimidation Technologies and Situated Learning in United States and Jamaican Prisons (Joshua C. Collins, Lincoln D. Pettaway, Chaundra L. Whitehead, and Steve J. Rios); (4) Listen Carefully, Act Thoughtfully: Exploring Sex Work as an Adult Education Context (Shannon Deer and Dominique T. Chlup); (5) Using Democratic Deliberation in an Internationalization Effort in Higher Education (Hilary Landorf and Eric Feldman); (6) Beyond Death Threats, Hard Times, and Clandestine Work: Illuminating Sexual and Gender Minority Resources in a Global Context (Robert C. Mizzi, Robert Hill, and Kim Vance); (7) Invisible Women: Education, Employment, and Citizenship of Women with Disabilities in Bangladesh (Shuchi Karim); (8) Moving Beyond Employability Risks and Redundancies: New Microenterprise and Entrepreneurial Possibilities in Chile (Carlos A. Albornoz and Tonette S. Rocco); (9) Shopping at Pine Creek: Rethinking Both-Ways Education through the Context of Remote Aboriginal Australian Ranger Training (Matthew Campbell and Michael Christie); (10) Vocational Teacher Education in Australia and the Problem of Racialized Hope (Sue Shore); (11) Unauthorized Migrant Workers: (L)Earning a Life in Canada (Susan M. Brigham); (12) Shifting the Margins: Learning, Knowledge Production, and Social Action in Migrant and Immigrant Worker Organizing (Aziz Choudry); (13) Making the Invisible Visible: The Politics of Recognition in Recognizing Immigrant's International Credentials and Work Experience (Shibao Guo); (14) How Welcome Are We?: Immigrants as Targets of Uncivil Behavior (Fabiana Brunetta and Thomas G. Reio, Jr.); (15) The Sputnik Moment in the Twenty-First Century: America, China, and the Workforce of the Future (Peter Kell and Marilyn Kell); (16) Radical International Adult Education: A Pedagogy of Solidarity (Bob Boughton); (17) From Generation to Generation: Teaching Adults to Teach about the Holocaust (Mark J. Webber with Michael Brown); (18) Study Abroad Programs, International Students, and Global Citizenship: Colonial-Colonizer Relations in Global Higher Education (Korbla P. Puplampu and Lindsay Wodinski); and (19) Teaching, Learning, and Working in the Periphery: Provocations for Researchers and Practitioners (Sue Shore, Robert C. Mizzi, and Tonette S. Rocco). An index is included. [Foreword by John Field.]   [More]  Descriptors: Adult Education, Lifelong Learning, Sexuality, Occupations

Vanderburg, Willem H. (2009). The Antieconomy Hypothesis (Part 2): Theoretical Roots, Bulletin of Science, Technology & Society. The hypothesis of an antieconomy developed in part 1 is incommensurate with mainstream economics. This article explores three reasons for this situation: the limits of discipline-based scholarship in general and of mainstream economics in particular, the status of economists in contemporary societies, and the failure of economists to accept any responsibility for the consequences flowing from the application of their theories. Politicians are unable to resist their economic advisors who speak in the name of science, with the result that the democratic process in relation to economic issues is essentially paralyzed. [For Part 1, see EJ825551. For Part 3, see EJ825553.]   [More]  Descriptors: Economic Impact, Economic Factors, Economic Research, Democracy

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