Bibliography: Democracy (page 487 of 605)

This bibliography is independently curated for the I'm with Jill website.  Some of the authors featured on this page include Wolff-Michael Roth, T. V. Panfilova, Brenna Bohny, Roxana Enache, Ann-Sofie Holm, Michiel van Eijck, Marta Infante, Graziela Lobato-Creekmur, Michele S. Moses, and James David Gilmour.

Arreman, Inger Erixon; Holm, Ann-Sofie (2011). Privatisation of Public Education? The Emergence of Independent Upper Secondary Schools in Sweden, Journal of Education Policy. This article explores the upper secondary (or post-16) school market. The study on which it is based, funded by the Swedish Research Council, was entitled "Upper-secondary education as a market". Empirical data include official statistics, policy documents, school publications, company reports and school visits. Printed and other news media were also scrutinised to identify how the marketisation of education is represented in public discourse. A number of themes emerged from the study which included mapping the expansion of the school market, chains of ownership and influence, marketing strategies, choice and the school market and issues raised in the media. These imply that there is a new market discourse which represents a clear break with previous social democratic education policies primarily aimed at enhancing citizenship and wider democratic values within an inclusive public school. However, critiques have also emerged including a call for strengthened regulations of and control over independent schools and concern about an education market equated more with shares and profits rather than pedagogy and student citizenship.   [More]  Descriptors: Citizenship, Democracy, School Publications, Marketing

Pashby, Karen (2011). Cultivating Global Citizens: Planting New Seeds or Pruning the Perennials? Looking for the Citizen-Subject in Global Citizenship Education Theory, Globalisation, Societies and Education. This paper engages with a selection of scholarly writing in English that was published in the last decade and written from particular liberal democratic contexts (predominantly the UK, the USA, and Canada). The literature diagnoses the need for a more complex theory of citizenship education and theorises schooling for citizenship in a global orientation. The analysis calls for more explicit attention to the assumptions about the citizen subject student, the "who" of global citizenship education (GCE). Overall, the findings suggest the assumed subject of GCE pedagogy is the autonomous and European citizen of the liberal nation-state who is seen as normative in a mainstream identification as citizen and who must work to encourage a liberal democratic notion of justice on a global scale by "expanding" or "extending" or "adding" their sense of responsibility and obligation to others linearly through the local to national to global community. Thus, this theoretical work contributes a more complex notion of the citizen-subject to accommodate more diversity and to begin to recognise unequal power relations. Ultimately, however, the conceptualisation of global citizen education assumes a particular normative national citizen, and this assumption must be probed and made more explicit.   [More]  Descriptors: Citizenship, Citizenship Education, Foreign Countries, English

Bai, Tongdong (2011). Against Democratic Education, Journal of Curriculum Studies. This is the fourth of five commentaries discussing Zongjie Wu's essay, "Interpretation, autonomy, and transformation". It argues that he may have committed two methodological mistakes in his contrast between traditional Chinese education and contemporary Chinese (and Western) education: reverse-Orientalism and a form of fundamentalism. It will then argue that the distinction Wu's essay correctly reveals is not between China and the West, but between forms of a philosophical education and those of the mass education. In contemporary Western democratic education, the philosophical, political, and mass forms of education are collapsed into one, mass education, and by arguing for preservation of philosophical education on a mass level, Wu also implicitly adopts this conflation position. However, this commentary will argue that this conflation needs to be corrected, and the traditional Confucian education actually tries to strike a middle way between, and to correct, the forms of pre-democratic Western education and democratic education.   [More]  Descriptors: Democracy, Foreign Countries, Mass Instruction, Democratic Values

Carvalho, Edward J., Ed.; Downing, David B. (2011). Academic Freedom in the Post-9/11 Era. Education, Politics and Public Life, Palgrave Macmillan. Academic freedom has been a principle that undergirds the university since 1915. Beyond this, it also protects a spirit of free inquiry essential to a democratic society. But in the post-9/11 present, the basic principles of academic freedom have been deeply challenged. There have been many startling instances where the rhetoric of national security and terror, corporate interests, and privatization have cast a pall over the terrain of academic freedom. In the post-9/11 university, professors face job loss or tenure denial for speaking against state power, while their students pay more tuition and fall deeper in debt. This timely collection features an impressive assembly of the nation's leading intellectuals, addressing some of the most urgent issues facing higher education in the United States today. Spanning a wide array of disciplinary fields, "Academic Freedom in the Post-9/11 Era" seeks to intervene on the economic and political crises that are compromising the future of educational institutions. This book begins with "Reframing Academic Freedom" by Edward J. Carvalho and David B. Downing. Part I, State of the Union, contains: (1) Academic Unfreedom in America: Rethinking the University as a Democratic Public Sphere (Henry A. Giroux); (2) Barefoot in New Zealand: The Politics of Campus Conflict (Cary Nelson); and (3) Marketing McCarthyism: The Media's Role in the War on Academic Freedom (John K. Wilson). Part II, Churchill V. University of Colorado, contains: (4) The Myth of Academic Freedom: Experiencing the Application of Liberal Principle in a Neoconservative Era (Ward Churchill). Part III, The Image and Reality of Teaching the Israel-Palestine Conflict, contains: (5) Civility and Academic Life (Norman G. Finkelstein); and (6) The Risk of Knowing (Irene Gendzier). Part IV, Neoliberal Freedoms, Contingency, and Capital, contains: (7) Caught in the Crunch (Ellen Messer-Davidow); (8) Academic Bondage (Jeffrey J. Williams); (9) Take Your Ritalin and Shut Up (Marc Bousquet); and (10) Neoliberalism and the Crisis of Intellectual Engagement (Sophia A. McClennen). Part V, Reflections and "Tightrope Hopes," contains: (11) Generation Kill: Nietzschean Meditations on the University, War, Youth, and Guns (Susan Searls Giroux); (12) The Post-9/11 University: It Could Have Been Much Worse (Robert M.O'Neil); (13) Lessons from History: Interview with Noam Chomsky (Edward J. Carvalho); (14) "Taking Back the Street Corner": Interview with Martin Espada (Edward J. Carvalho); and (15) Preserving the Democratic Experiment: Interview with Cornel West (Edward J. Carvalho).   [More]  Descriptors: Academic Freedom, Universities, College Faculty, Politics of Education

Apple, Michael W. (2011). Democratic Education in Neoliberal and Neoconservative Times, International Studies in Sociology of Education. Given the increasing power of neoliberal and neoconservative agendas in education internationally, critically democratic policies and practices are now even more important. Yet, one of the major problems with critical work in education has been the fact that some of the academic leaders of the "critical pedagogy" movement and of critical and democratic education in general in many nations have not been sufficiently connected to the actual realities of schools and classrooms. Yet, only when it is linked much more to concrete issues of educational policy and practice–and to the daily lives of educators, students, social movements and community members–can a critical and democratic education succeed. I point to a number of such linkages and suggest that because of this the ways we think about the role of education in social transformation needs to be made more nuanced and complex.   [More]  Descriptors: Critical Theory, Democracy, Role of Education, Social Change

Tan, Yao Sua (2011). Democratization of Secondary Education in Malaysia: Attitudes towards Schooling and Educational Aspirations, Asia Pacific Journal of Education. As a consequence of the democratization of secondary education in Malaysia beginning in the 1990s, many students who do not have academic credentials are allowed to progress to upper secondary education. This study examines the attitudes of these students towards two important aspects of schooling–namely, learning and examinations, as well as their educational aspirations–to assess the extent to which they have fulfilled the aims of the democratization of secondary education, among which is to produce more highly trained and well-educated manpower. A questionnaire survey and in-depth interviews were conducted in five sampled schools to explore the issues from various perspectives. The attitudes of the students towards learning and examinations as well as their levels of educational aspirations were generally found to be wanting regardless of their background. This study has revealed the internal contradiction of the democratization of secondary education in Malaysia. The democratization of secondary education within the ambit of a highly academic and examination-oriented education system has not served the needs of academically weak students. This study has also revealed the lack of alternative educational opportunities available to these students. The lack of resolve among teachers to handle these students and enough counsellors to guide them through the schooling process further complicate their problems.   [More]  Descriptors: Credentials, Secondary School Students, Tests, Academic Aspiration

Chikoko, Vitallis; Gilmour, James David; Harber, Clive; Serf, Jeff (2011). Teaching Controversial Issues and Teacher Education in England and South Africa, Journal of Education for Teaching: International Research and Pedagogy. This paper argues the importance in and for a democratic state and society of discussing controversial issues in education. In particular it analyses two national educational contexts, that of England and South Africa. It considers both whether they provide a suitable framework for teaching controversial issues in school classrooms and if they prepare teachers to be able to organise discussions of controversial issues in schools. The paper then examines interview data on teaching controversial issues with university tutors and student teachers in four universities, two in England and two in South Africa. The data suggest that there are still serious obstacles in both countries to teaching controversial issues in schools and in preparing teacher education students to teach about controversial issues.   [More]  Descriptors: Student Teacher Attitudes, Controversial Issues (Course Content), Teacher Education Curriculum, Interviews

Carlock, Russell H., Jr. (2016). "La unión hace la fuerza": Community Organizing in Adult Education for Immigrants, Harvard Educational Review. Adult English as a second language (ESL) educators have struggled to move beyond skills-based instruction to implement more student-centered, contextualized pedagogy that prepares students to become active citizens and to solve real-world problems, even as the growing number of immigrants make adult education increasingly important for determining the future of civic life in the United States. In this article, Russell Carlock investigates how community organizing can support adult education to foster democratic engagement among immigrant parents. The author co-taught and observed ESL classes with a community-based organization in the Boston area and examined how organizing strategies supported a content-based, student-centered curriculum that encouraged immigrant parents' civic engagement in their children's school and the wider community. Ethnographic data revealed two components of community organizing that catalyzed activism among immigrant parents in an adult ESL class: building a civic learning community and developing a public voice. Findings suggest that adult educators may use organizing to facilitate deeper learning and civic action among students.   [More]  Descriptors: Adult Education, Community Action, Activism, Immigrants

Paguyo, Christina H.; Moses, Michele S. (2011). Debating Affirmative Action: Politics, Media, and Equal Opportunity in a "Postracial" America, Peabody Journal of Education. This article explores how race-conscious education policy is interpreted in the political landscape of a "postracial" America. Based on a qualitative media analysis of the press coverage surrounding Amendment 46, an antiaffirmative action initiative, we examine language, statistics, and messages leveraged by advocates and critics of the ballot measure. We argue that despite using some of the same data sources, terms, and concepts, proponents and opponents of Amendment 46 proposed divergent policies. We analyzed this phenomenon vis-a-vis the framework of conflicting racial projects (Omi & Winant, 1994), moral paradigms of race (Loury, 2002), and interpretations of equality of educational opportunity (Howe, 1997). Arguably, the public's understanding of race-conscious education policies relies in part on opportunities for researchers, journalists, and the public to deliberate about issues related to race. We conclude with some recommendations for fostering more communication and understanding based in deliberative democratic theory (Gutmann & Thompson, 1996, 2004).   [More]  Descriptors: Race, Democracy, Affirmative Action, Educational Opportunities

Costa, Rejane Pinto (2011). The Brazilian National Curriculum for Foreign Languages Revisited through a Multiculturalism and Peace Studies Approach, Online Submission. This study emerged from a broader research completed during my Masters Course.  (THEORY/METHODOLOGY) Theory and methodology were guided by the critical multiculturalism as seen in McLaren (1997, 2000). In my doctoral thesis, this concept was deepened by and linked to the peace studies of Galtung (1990, 2005, 2006), to empower multicultural peace education's potential to value cultural diversity and work for peace. (PURPOSE) The objective of this study is to promote new dialogues and perspectives towards the understanding of Brazilian national curriculum for foreign language in a multicultural and peace oriented approach. This work is chiefly relevant since it pinpoints language as a means to building differences and homogenizing identities as shown by McLaren (1997) and Freire (2001). Their views illustrate the need to call the attention of education professionals to the importance of decolonizing discourses to promote a more democratic education.   [More]  Descriptors: Cultural Pluralism, National Curriculum, Democracy, Peace

Panfilova, T. V. (2011). Higher Education Reform in Russia: Democratization or Bureaucratization?, Russian Education and Society. Recent reforms have increased the level of administrative oversight, and also of interference of the structure and content of university education in Russia. This is leading to a weakening of Russian higher education. In this article, the author talks about the reform of the system of higher education in Russia and the bureaucratization of higher education as a consequence of the reform.   [More]  Descriptors: Higher Education, Educational Change, Foreign Countries, Administrative Organization

Bohny, Brenna; Taylor, Monica; Clark, Sa-Qwona S.; D'Elia, Susan; Lobato-Creekmur, Graziela; Tarnowski, Stephanie Brown; Wasserman, Sara (2016). What Happens in Vegas Doesn't Always Stay in Vegas: Negotiating the Curriculum Leads to Agency and Change, Studying Teacher Education. Through a self-study methodology, six doctoral students and a professor examine how our semester long doctoral level class became a transformative space for all participants. We investigate how each individual was able to participate in the construction of a powerful and meaningful learning community, which led to a re-visioning of ourselves as women and teacher educators. Feminist pedagogy and positioning theory provide a guiding framework for both the class and our own reflective research. Our findings include, but are not limited to, showing how negotiating the curriculum led to a doctoral class becoming a safe space and how this negotiation led to transferring democratic practices to our teaching and the tensions associated with that. This work contributes to the field of teacher education as it focuses on the importance of fostering classroom and school cultures where knowledge production is facilitated through democratized practices. Our study highlights the value of creating a learning community where all members, both students and teacher, share power, privilege, and voice. It is in these types of positive educational environments that true meaning making and change can occur.   [More]  Descriptors: Doctoral Degrees, College Faculty, Graduate Students, Doctoral Programs

Matus, Claudia; Infante, Marta (2011). Undoing Diversity: Knowledge and Neoliberal Discourses in Colleges of Education, Discourse: Studies in the Cultural Politics of Education. In this article we analyze discourses of "diversity" in colleges of education in Chile. We contend that the use of discourses of diversity, as reproducing the separation between mainstream subjectivities and those uncontained by the category of normal, is one of the ways universities align themselves with the rules of a democratic society, based on ideas of multicultural understandings and tolerant communities proliferated by inter-governmental institutions such as the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) and others. Our interest is to question the marginalization of cultural politics through the intensification of these discourses. At the same time, we explore the relations between the advancement of neutral discourses of difference and the value-free practices expressed in neoliberal educational agendas. We use discourse analysis to read interviews with future teachers. We understand students' narratives as perpetuating normative ways of thinking and legitimating those knowledges promoted by institutional curricula.   [More]  Descriptors: Schools of Education, Democracy, Discourse Analysis, Foreign Countries

van Eijck, Michiel; Roth, Wolff-Michael (2011). Cultural Diversity in Science Education through "Novelization": Against the "Epicization" of Science and Cultural Centralization, Journal of Research in Science Teaching. Science educators are confronted with the challenge to accommodate in their classes an increasing cultural and linguistic diversity that results from globalization. Challenged by the call to work towards valuing and keeping this diversity in the face of the canonical nature of school science discourse, we propose a new way of thinking about and investigating these problems. Drawing on the work of Mikhail Bakhtin, we articulate "epicization" and "novelization" as concepts that allow us to understand, respectively, the processes of (a) centralizing and homogenizing culture and language and (b) pluralizing culture and language. We present and analyze three examples that exhibit how existing mundane science education practices tend, by means of "epicization," towards a unitary language and to cultural centralization. We then propose "novelization" as a way for thinking the opening up of science education by interacting with and incorporating alternative forms of knowing that arise from cultural diversity.   [More]  Descriptors: Science Education, Cultural Context, Context Effect, Cultural Pluralism

Enache, Roxana (2011). Possible Orientations of the European Dimension in Romanian Educational Policy, Policy Futures in Education. Curricular reform in any educational system should be to balance national, European or international elements and should integrate diversity. European education calls for a democratic citizenship education that includes a political, cultural, social and economic education–an overall European dimension, which implies an awareness of the drive and diversity of European culture and to learn to live in a European context. This type of education is characteristic of a special category of strategies–namely, partnership strategies. Other educational strategies that are supported to achieve the European dimension may be based on the ability to adapt to a particular context, the transfer of knowledge and experience, participation, and the ability to anticipate and to innovate. The author reviews evidence (the curriculum, syllabi, textbooks, etc.), the intended curriculum and implemented and effective strategies in order to highlight the Romanian education policy to implement and achieve the European dimension in the Romanian curriculum. Obviously, the role of education is very important in the transmission and cultivation of values that determine, in turn, the behaviours, attitudes and specific reactions of responsible citizens, for Europe needs such people. Romanians, who have a sense of social responsibility, but in a latent form, should leave, on the one hand, the old values, which discourage initiative and free expression of opinions and effective involvement, and, on the other, learn to become responsible, to engage socially and to implement those values that are identified with the psycho-moral characteristics of the Romanians themselves: altruism, tolerance, innovation, honesty and fairness.   [More]  Descriptors: Educational Policy, Foreign Countries, Educational Change, Democracy

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