Bibliography: Democracy (page 484 of 605)

This annotated bibliography is compiled and customized for the I'm with Jill website.  Some of the authors featured on this page include Eleanor Chelimsky, Patrick Slattery, Jeffrey R. Henig, Inga Belousa, Roger Trigg, Laada Bilaniuk, Max Stephenson, Kristen L. Buras, Debra Satz, and J. Spencer Clark.

Henig, Jeffrey R. (2008). The Evolving Relationship between Researchers and Public Policy, Phi Delta Kappan. When it comes to the role of research in shaping public policy and debate, one might reasonably argue that this is the best of times. No Child Left Behind (NCLB), with its frequent mention of evidence-based decision making, has underscored the role that objective knowledge should play in a democratic society. The Institute of Education Sciences, through its grant policies, promotion of randomized field trials, and its What Works Clearinghouse, has provided detailed road maps of what greater reliance on strong research design might mean. Research findings and debates get deep coverage in such outlets as "Education Week" and instant coverage in the blogosphere. Advocacy groups appear anxious to enlist researchers as spokespersons and draw on social science evidence to add legitimacy to their causes. Paradoxically, it might just as well be argued that this is the worst of times. Among policy makers and many scholars, educational research has a reputation of being amateurish, unscientific, and generally beside the point. Exacerbating matters are high-profile tussles between prominent researchers publicly disparaging one another's methods and interpretations. Researchers disagree; that is neither new nor a matter of concern. The portrayal of the debates in the public arena reinforces cynicism with regard to the independence and potential contribution of good scientific techniques. In this article, the author highlights five broad structural changes that are potentially changing the demand for research, the availability and type of data, and the way research enters the public realm as part of ongoing policy and political debates.   [More]  Descriptors: Research Design, Educational Research, Federal Legislation, Democracy

Chisholm, Lynne (2008). Re-Contextualising Learning in Second Modernity, Research in Post-Compulsory Education. Changing boundaries between categories of knowledge, together with changing relations with propositional and experiential knowledge, demand reconsideration of what counts as learning. Such re-contextualisation processes can be approached from three standpoints: deconstruction-decoding (learning as a differentiated set of related practices), refocusing-repositioning (situating learning sites in a life-course perspective) and reconstruction-recoding (specifying pedagogic discourse to embrace non-formal and informal learning). Learning in second modernity might hold emancipatory promise, but this requires fundamental re-structuring of teaching/learning contexts in all respects, not least in the re-positioning of all learners as adults, in the sense of being autonomous and responsible shapers of their potentially highly differentiated learning biographies–but it equally heralds an intensification of discipline of the self.   [More]  Descriptors: Informal Education, Educational Change, Social Change, Postmodernism

Nordstrom, Hanna Kaisa (2008). Environmental Education and Multicultural Education–Too Close to Be Separate?, International Research in Geographical and Environmental Education. Environmental education and multicultural education share many characteristics. In addition to having the same underlying core values of a democratic society, they both emphasise values education, empowerment and active citizenship. Environmental education and multicultural education also find common ground in treasuring diversity, respect and compassion. They both aim for societal reform by reorienting education and facilitating active personal and social change. They also have a strong global perspective. The relationship between these two educational trends should be seen in a wider context, as a starting point for more holistic teaching and learning. Environmental education and multicultural education can be considered as two parts of the same theme of how individuals and institutions can collaborate in building a better, sustainable world locally, nationally and globally. By engaging students in multicultural education, school can simultaneously better achieve the goals of environmental education, and vice versa.   [More]  Descriptors: Multicultural Education, Citizenship, Altruism, Environmental Education

Buras, Kristen L.; Apple, Michael W. (2008). Radical Disenchantments: Neoconservatives and the Disciplining of Desire in an Anti-Utopian Era, Comparative Education. This article traces part of the history of neoconservatism in the United States and analyses its impact on contemporary schooling. It examines the political evolution of a fraction of old leftists whose disenchantment with the possibilities of radical transformation led them to become new rightists. Whether attacking the countercultural left or the welfare state in the 1960s, or critical multiculturalism more recently, neoconservatives have embraced anti-utopianism as the only corrective for the assumed naivete of leftist cultural and economic desires. Concerns for the "restoration" of cultural and national order are evident in reforms endorsed by this segment, including educational standards and a core curriculum that mediate against the progressive monopoly presumed to exist in schools. Rather than allowing more radical desires to be disciplined by such reforms, it is imperative to reclaim the freedom dreams embedded in past democratic movements and to learn from the grassroots efforts of communities working to create real utopias in education.   [More]  Descriptors: Core Curriculum, Cultural Pluralism, Educational Change, Political Attitudes

Waghid, Yusef (2008). Democratic Citizenship, Education and Friendship Revisited: In Defence of Democratic Justice, Studies in Philosophy and Education. Literature about the significance of cultivating democratic citizenship education in universities abounds. However, very little has been said about the importance of friendship in sustaining democratic communities. In this article I argue for a complementary view of friendship based on mutuality and love–with reference to the seminal ideas of Sherman and Derrida. My view is that teaching and learning ought to be used as pedagogical spaces to nurture forms of friendship which not only encourage mutuality but also love in order to make possible the taking of risks on the part of students and teachers. And, if teachers and students act with mutuality and love they would be more favourably positioned in their society to take risks and to enact democratic justice.   [More]  Descriptors: Democracy, Community, Sustainability, Citizenship

Yu, Tianlong (2008). The Revival of Confucianism in Chinese Schools: A Historical-Political Review, Asia Pacific Journal of Education. This article examines the "back to tradition" movement in Chinese schools and its political nature. It focuses on the launch of the "education in Chinese traditional virtues" project in the 1980s and various new developments at the present time, which continue a revival of Confucianism in Chinese society and education. The paper looks into the domestic and international background of the movement, the political nature of the Confucian tradition, and the government's support for the movement. The essay explores a resurgence of Confucianism in Chinese schools through moral education and the larger political purpose it serves. The article reveals how a popular grass roots education movement reflects particular social and political needs during changing times and how pedagogical functions of an education initiative become entangled with, and even overshadowed by, political demands within a politically centralised system.   [More]  Descriptors: Ethical Instruction, Democracy, Confucianism, Foreign Countries

Slattery, Patrick (2008). Academic Freedom: The Ethical Imperative, Childhood Education. In this article, the author takes his cue for discussions of academic freedom from Simone de Beauvoir as found in her classic text, "The Ethics of Ambiguity." Like other existentialists, de Beauvoir emphasizes that freedom and responsibility are intimately linked. Academic freedom is an ethical responsibility that compels the author to teach and write about dangerous, difficult, and disturbing issues in his field of study. The academic freedom he enjoys means that he has a responsibility to uncover layers of sedimented assumptions and deconstruct privileged knowledge for the purpose of advancing justice, compassion, and ecological sustainability in his field and in the broader global community. It is his responsibility to research, lecture, and edit from a position of freedom and justice. This is the heart and soul of a democratic education that defines academic freedom as an ethical imperative. The author contends that controversy surrounding ideas and issues in their disciplines can too often paralyze academics and students. The problem is not too much academic freedom, but rather the lack of commitment to democratic freedom and social justice in education, which causes most professors to seek the lowest common denominator and inert trivia and avoid controversy at all cost.   [More]  Descriptors: Social Justice, Academic Freedom, Altruism, Democracy

Trigg, Roger (2008). Private Faith and Public Education, Journal of Beliefs & Values. Must faith be privatized? Taken at face value, this could seem a curious question, since no one is in a position to "sell off" any religion to private interests, in the way that, for example, British Rail was dismembered. Yet the question is an important one in a contemporary society, characterized as it is by a significant divergence of views about religion. In the face of a growing diversity of belief, and a recognition that religious freedom is one of the most precious and most basic rights, the temptation must be for a state to stand back from all religion, and to refuse to favour, or even to give any public recognition to, one religion in distinction from the rest. In a free society people should be able to meet together to pursue their interests, but it is no business of the state to give recognition, encouragement and endorsement to one group over another. In this article, the author talks about private faith and public education, contending that the impact that religious belief has had on the understanding of humans and their place in the world is so marked that no basic question about how children can be educated should be faced without allowing rational debate about religion and its influence. While a free society cannot, and should not, enforce any religious belief, the author advocates that it should not go to the other extreme, and pretend that religion is of no account from a public perspective.   [More]  Descriptors: Democracy, Religion, Interests, Public Education

Schweitzer, Lisa; Stephenson, Max (2008). Charting the Challenges and Paradoxes of Constructivism: A View from Professional Education, Teaching in Higher Education. This article examines the implications of constructivist theory for university-level professional education. Constructivist approaches to instructional design promise desirable outcomes for pre-professional education: professionals who think independently, who can frame and define problems and who can evaluate their own choices. However, the trend to constructivism, when coupled with a parallel cultural trend toward the commodification of higher education may, if left unaddressed, lead to pedagogical paradoxes that undermine professional preparedness. We discuss three such paradoxes and conclude by suggesting how constructivist approaches might be reframed to promote a more authentic student-centeredness in higher education professional programs.   [More]  Descriptors: Constructivism (Learning), Higher Education, Professional Education, Instructional Design

Chelimsky, Eleanor (2008). A Clash of Cultures: Improving the "Fit" between Evaluative Independence and the Political Requirements of a Democratic Society, American Journal of Evaluation. This article presents a plenary address wherein the author talks about cultural clashes, about what happens when evaluation meets politics. In her address, the author talks about the kinds of clashes that occur on a regular basis between evaluative independence and the political culture it challenges, along with possible ways to predict, parry, or even avoid some of these clashes. She draws on her own experience in conducting both executive branch and legislative branch evaluations, part of which comes to her from running the Program Evaluation and Methodology Division (PEMD) within the Government Accountability Office (GAO) over 14 years. She examines how the problems have arisen and evolved and describes how they tried to resolve some of these problems. She tries to pinpoint where the major clashes of culture have tended to occur and looks a little more closely at how governmental structure affects evaluation.   [More]  Descriptors: Program Evaluation, Democracy, Governmental Structure, Cultural Differences

Belousa, Inga (2008). Rediscovery of Silenced Inner Wisdom of Spirituality: Teachers' Voice in the Contemporary Post-Soviet Era, International Journal of Children's Spirituality. The former Soviet Union countries share a unique educational perspective, based on numerous issues to be rediscovered. The current reality in former Soviet countries occurs in the context of increased interest in the role of spirituality in democratic society, and the gradually emerging discussions and methodological solutions of spirituality within public education. Teacher education in this context has a crucial role to observe this interest as a part of educational reality. This article focuses on a study that explored teachers' understanding of spirituality as a dimension of education in one of the former Soviet Union countries, Latvia. The article also seeks to highlight that the issue of spirituality within education in post-Soviet-era countries needs to be addressed consciously and should be approached from below, considering spirituality as the essence and the inner way of sustainable human life.   [More]  Descriptors: Democracy, Unions, Foreign Countries, Religious Factors

Satz, Debra (2008). Equality, Adequacy, and Educational Policy, Education Finance and Policy. In this article I argue that the distinction between an adequate education and an equal education has been overdrawn. In my view, a certain type of equality–civic equality–is internal to the idea of educational adequacy. An education system that completely separates the children of the poor and minorities from those of the wealthy and middle class cannot be adequate for a democratic society. Educational adequacy should be tied to the requirements of equal citizenship. I also argue that my conception of adequacy in education has advantages over competing frameworks. I contrast its implications for a recent policy proposal that argues for weighted student funding (WSF) with the assessment of this proposal from an equality framework. While weighting in favor of the least advantaged students is important, the critical issue is whether or not such weighting is sufficient for bringing all students up to adequacy's high bar. This means that to be adequate, WSF must be placed in a larger policy context.   [More]  Descriptors: Equal Education, Educational Quality, Democracy, Educational Finance

Clark, J. Spencer; Vontz, Thomas S.; Barikmo, Kristoffer (2008). Teaching about Civil Disobedience: Clarifying a Recurring Theme in the Secondary Social Studies, Social Studies. In this article, the authors offer social studies educators a way to deepen students' understanding of civil disobedience as a democratic and nonviolent means of instigating social change. The authors explore the concept of civil disobedience from a historical perspective and examine the justifications and ramifications of each historical example. In addition, they provide several examples of events that are often mistakenly categorized as civil disobedience. Through these examples, the authors develop a sound definition of the concept, while explaining its application to contemporary society. In actualizing the significance of civil disobedience in the secondary social studies classroom, the authors use five components: the historical importance of civil disobedience, the concept of civil disobedience, the argument for civil disobedience, the argument against civil disobedience, and teaching about civil disobedience. They also incorporate civil disobedience into a lesson plan.   [More]  Descriptors: Civil Disobedience, Social Studies, Secondary Education, World History

Bilaniuk, Laada; Melnyk, Svitlana (2008). Tense and Shifting Balance: Bilingualism and Education in Ukraine, International Journal of Bilingual Education and Bilingualism. Language policy is a divisive issue in Ukraine, where the Ukrainian and Russian languages coexist in a tenuous balance. Many people see the choice between Russian and Ukrainian as symbolic of two polar political and cultural allegiances: with Russia, or with Europe and the West. Promotion of Ukrainian is meant to counteract its historical subjugation to Russian. At the same time, there is state support for minority languages and cultures, including Russian, to help develop a Ukrainian civic identity not restricted to Ukrainian ethnicity. Legislation designates Ukrainian as the sole state language while also supporting education in Russian and other languages, including Romanian, Hungarian, and Crimean Tatar. The previously low status of Ukrainian has risen greatly since the disintegration of the USSR, and this language is much more widely used than before in education, government, and public life in general. However, Russian continues to dominate in many spheres as it did during the Soviet era. Many people feel that the survival of Ukrainian is still threatened by Russian, and that the recent gains of Ukrainian in status and spheres of use are tenuous. In 2008, struggles over language policies persist and the implementation of existing policies continues to be uneven.   [More]  Descriptors: Language Usage, Language Planning, Democracy, State Aid

Deetz, Stanley (2008). Engagement as Co-Generative Theorizing, Journal of Applied Communication Research. To meet current and ever shifting problems people continually need new and better ways to attend to, talk about, and respond in the world. All communities can have an impoverished language for talking about human interaction and making decisions in times of fundamental and rapid change. Three current impoverishments are discussed. Engaged scholarship using co-generative theorizing can initiate productive conversations enriching the languages of both scholarly and everyday life communities.   [More]  Descriptors: Interaction, Interpersonal Relationship, Scholarship, Meetings

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