Bibliography: Democracy (page 474 of 605)

This annotated bibliography is compiled and customized for the I'm with Jill website.  Some of the authors featured on this page include Todd Alloway, A, Seth S. Pollack, Lynn Staeheli, Daniel Hammett, William G. Thomas, Gregory Kelsey, Lisa Catherine Ehrich, Tuure Tammi, and Fenwick W. English.

Tammi, Tuure (2013). Democratic Deliberations in the Finnish Elementary Classroom: The Dilemmas of Deliberations and the Teacher's Role in an Action Research Project, Education, Citizenship and Social Justice. Finnish youth are found to be, despite their broad knowledge, uninterested in politics and in societal participation. As a remedy, international studies suggest enabling democratic experiences in schools. This article discusses an action research project aimed at developing deliberation-based democratic practice in an elementary classroom. Results suggest that the formal deliberative-democratic practice opens up a way for pupils to productively express themselves, challenge the prevailing structures, make sense of social reality and, thus, practise skills and motivations needed in democratic citizenship. However, the teacher is argued to be in constant struggle between deliberative-democratic stance and control orientation. This tension exists in the teacher's actions and thinking and in his reflections about the contrast between the classroom practice and the overall school ethos. Therefore, this article suggests using the understanding of this tension in scrutinizing projects aiming at pupil participation and involvement.   [More]  Descriptors: Action Research, Teaching Methods, Research Projects, International Studies

Jacobs, Joanne (2013). Counting on Character: National Heritage Academies and Civic Education. AEI Program on American Citizenship. Policy Brief 5, American Enterprise Institute for Public Policy Research. This policy brief is the second in a series of in-depth case studies exploring how top-performing charter schools have incorporated civic learning in their school curriculum and school culture. This brief focuses on National Heritage Academies, a for-profit charter management company that runs 74 schools in Michigan and eight other states. NHA schools focus intensely on building strong foundations in the four core subjects–English language arts, math, science, and social studies–while also teaching electives like art, music, physical education, and technology. They are traditional in their approach to teaching, but adopt some student-centered teaching ideas.   [More]  Descriptors: Charter Schools, Citizenship Education, Values Education, Ethical Instruction

Pollack, Seth S. (2013). Critical Civic Literacy: Knowledge at the Intersection of Career and Community, Journal of General Education. Traditional approaches to civic engagement have been marginalized and have had little impact on the core curriculum. "Critical civic literacy" is an alternative curricular approach to civic engagement that explicitly moves departments, disciplines, and degree programs to examine issues of social responsibility and social justice from the context of their particular field of study.   [More]  Descriptors: Citizen Participation, Core Curriculum, Social Responsibility, Social Justice

Tavares, Orlanda (2013). Routes towards Portuguese Higher Education: Students' Preferred or Feasible Choices?, Educational Research. Background: An equitable and democratised higher education system should, in principle, be permeable to the flow of populations with different social and/or cultural backgrounds, allowing access to any parts of the system. However, despite the democratisation efforts that took place in Portugal after the 1974 revolution, and although the student population is now much more diversified and heterogeneous than ever before, the particular routes to higher education still hinder the free access of students to some areas of the system. Purpose: In this study, those different routes to higher education and the way they might influence students' choices are analysed. Of particular interest was whether students tended to make choices based on feasibility rather than personal preference. Sample: Data were collected through individual semi-structured interviews with 60 first year students (32 female and 28 male), from universities and polytechnics, both public and private, and from three first cycle study programmes (Arts, Pharmacy and Computer Engineering) in the urban area of the city of Porto. Design and Methods: The analysis was a small scale qualitative investigation of Portuguese students' perceptions underlying their choices in higher education. The sample selection took into account the diversity of the student population and sought to include different student profiles to gather contrasting cases and potentially contrasting views. Data gathered through interviews (conducted in 2009/2010) were systematised by means of a content analysis technique and submitted to a codification process according to a grid of categories that emerged from the analysis of data. Results: Findings from this small scale exploration suggest that the majority of the students interviewed chose a study programme based on preference but based their choice of institution on feasibility. Conclusions: The study provides insights into factors that limit student access to all parts of the higher education system, namely to some selective and more prestigious institutions.   [More]  Descriptors: Higher Education, Profiles, Student Attitudes, Measures (Individuals)

Ellis, Lindsay (2013). Law and Order in the Classroom: Reconsidering "A Course on Citizenship," 1914, Journal of Peace Education. This article explores the tension between social control and democratic participation in the first American peace education curriculum, "A Course in Citizenship" (1914). Previously, this "Course" has been read as a case study of progressive era peace education, during which the call to teach democratically increased in volume. Building on this critical history, the "Course" can also offer historical perspective on the high value of discipline and obedience to law inscribed in some teachers' views of citizenship education. Read alongside archival transcripts from the American peace movement before World War I, the warrants for predicting future peace in the "Course in Citizenship" suggest that peace education requires innovative methods of constituting classroom authority on the basis of representation.   [More]  Descriptors: Teacher Student Relationship, War, Citizenship Education, Social Control

Kelso, Michelle (2013). "And Roma Were Victims, Too." The Romani Genocide and Holocaust Education in Romania, Intercultural Education. While Holocaust education has been mandatory in Romanian schools for over a decade, educators do not necessarily teach about it. Distortion and obfuscation of Romanian Holocaust crimes during the communist and transition periods means that teachers, like the majority of Romanians, know little about their country's perpetration of genocides. From 1941 to 1944, the Romanian regime transported part of its Jewish and Romani populations to death camps in Transnistria, where over 200,000 Jews and over 10,000 Roma were killed. Under communism, blame for genocides was placed solely on Nazi Germany, thereby absolving Romanian perpetrators. Post-communism, the official narrative has slowly come under scrutiny, allowing for a restructuring of World War II history to incorporate the deportations and deaths of the country's Jews and Roma. Ignorance about the Holocaust and prejudice about the minorities affected are at the root of non-compliance in teaching. This is especially the case for the Roma, who are the largest minority in Romania and face continued marginalization and discrimination. In this paper, I focus on cognitive barriers that many history and civics teachers have regarding teaching about the victimization of the Roma minority. These barriers are intrinsically tied to acceptance of new narratives of the Holocaust and reconfigurations of ethnic identities in post-socialist Romania where pressures from the European Union and the USA, among others, have pushed for critical examination of past atrocities in order to strengthen democratic processes.   [More]  Descriptors: Jews, Foreign Countries, War, Citizenship Education

Hammett, Daniel; Staeheli, Lynn (2013). Transition and the Education of the New South African Citizen, Comparative Education Review. South Africa's democratic transition was a time of optimism, with immense hopes pinned on the youth who would be educated to see themselves as equal citizens. It was also a time of pragmatic decision making, not least in the education sector, which would shape the future of the country. Negotiating the imperatives of redress, development, and equality set in train many contradictory pressures within the education sector, within which teachers were tasked with instilling ideals of equality and social justice amidst a context shaped by entrenched social and spatial inequalities. Policy debates surrounding the meaning of citizenship and equality are shown to be removed from the everyday classroom challenges in South Africa. In particular, realization of the values of citizen education is hindered by differential resourcing of schools and education, the underlying poverty experienced by many students, and the challenge of finding ways to talk about difference and inequality without recourse to racialized explanations. These constraints act to limit the possibility of education as a site in which the new South African nation is (re)produced.   [More]  Descriptors: Social Justice, Foreign Countries, Citizenship Education, Citizenship

Kelsey, Gregory

Powell, Kimberly; Serriere, Stephanie (2013). Image-Based Participatory Pedagogies: Reimagining Social Justice, International Journal of Education & the Arts. As educators and scholars in social studies and art education respectively, we describe two visual methods from our own research and teaching in pre-K to university settings that are embedded in visual practices. We underscore their transformative potential by using Maxine Greene's (1995) ideas of the education of perception as a critical means for opening up a social imagination as well as contemporary theories of visual culture in order to underscore the ways in which encounters with the arts may provoke and transform our and others' understanding of the world. Specifically, we describe our research and teaching with Image Theatre (Boal, 1985) and photo elicitation techniques and discuss the ways in which each of these methods enacts different aspects of the image and offers insights into pedagogical considerations and implications for social justice. We frame these approaches as image-based participatory pedagogies in which images are primary to renewed visions of possibility and imaginative action.   [More]  Descriptors: Visual Aids, Social Justice, Photography, Theater Arts

Ashley, Seth; Maksl, Adam; Craft, Stephanie (2013). Developing a News Media Literacy Scale, Journalism and Mass Communication Educator. Using a framework previously applied to other areas of media literacy, this study developed and assessed a measurement scale focused specifically on critical news media literacy. Our scale appears to successfully measure news media literacy as we have conceptualized it based on previous research, demonstrated through assessments of content, construct, and predictive validity. Among our college student sample, a separate media system knowledge index also was a significant predictor of knowledge about topics in the news, which suggests the need for a broader framework. Implications for future work in defining and assessing news media literacy are discussed.   [More]  Descriptors: News Media, Role, Democracy, Citizenship Education

Ehrich, Lisa Catherine; English, Fenwick W. (2013). Leadership as Dance: A Consideration of the Applicability of the "Mother" of All Arts as the Basis for Establishing Connoisseurship, International Journal of Leadership in Education. This article follows the lead of several researchers who claim there is an urgent need to utilize insights from the arts, aesthetics and the humanities to expand our understanding of leadership. It endeavours to do this by exploring the metaphor of dance. It begins by critiquing current policy metaphors used in the leadership literature that present a narrow and functional view of leadership. It presents and discusses a conceptual model of leadership as dance that incorporates key dimensions such as context, dance and music and includes Polyani's concept of "connoisseurship." This article identifies some of the tensions that are inherent in both notions of dance and leadership. The final part of the article discusses the implications the model raises for broadening our understanding of leadership and school leadership preparation programmes. Three core implications raised here are (i) making space for alternative metaphors in leadership preparation programmes; (ii) providing opportunities to students of leadership to understand through alternative learning approaches and (iii) providing opportunities for engagement in alternative research agendas.   [More]  Descriptors: Instructional Leadership, Educational Policy, Figurative Language, Dance

Wilson, Kimberley; Alloway, Todd (2013). Expecting the Unexpected: Engaging Diverse Young People in Conversations around Science, Australian Educational Researcher. The issue of limited engagement with science for young people from Indigenous, minority and lower socio-economic groups in Australia appears to have been sidelined from the mainstream debate around falling rates of engagement with science at the secondary schooling level. The "closing the gap" mantra of education policy in Australia has seen an extraordinary focus on improving literacy and numeracy outcomes for Indigenous students, which, while valuable, has subsumed the importance of other key learning areas including science. Teachers are soon to be expected to incorporate Indigenous Perspectives within the science subjects of the new Australian National Curriculum yet appear to be under-resourced to meet this challenge to traditional approaches to science teaching. The purpose of this paper is to explore the pedagogy of a teacher working at an alternative secondary schooling site in North Queensland Australia who volunteered to modify his teaching of science to explicitly incorporate Indigenous Perspectives. The qualitative data collected through classroom observation and teacher interviews demonstrates the complex and multi-faceted nature of the science education experience when traditional pedagogical boundaries are dismantled to allow for a drawing upon of the lived experiences of diverse young people. The teacher's ability to embrace this broader vision of science is linked to the inclusive culture of the alternative school environment that is brought into being through a "common ground" philosophy of mutual respect and democratic relations.   [More]  Descriptors: Educational Environment, Nontraditional Education, Foreign Countries, Observation

Thomas, William G.; Jones, Patrick D. (2013). The History Harvest: An Experiment in Democratizing the Past through Experiential Learning, International Association for Development of the Information Society. The History Harvest project ( is an open, digital archive of historical artifacts gathered from communities across the United States. Each year, The University of Nebraska-Lincoln Department of History partners with local institutions and community members within a highlighted area to collect, preserve, and share their rich, but often hidden, histories. Advanced undergraduates, working as a team and with the guidance of faculty members and graduate students, "harvest," digitize, and curate the artifacts and stories they collect. The History Harvest project is rooted in the belief that our collective history is more diverse and multi-faceted than most people give credit for and that most of this history is not found in archives, historical societies, museums or libraries, but rather in the stories that ordinary people have to tell from their own experience and in the things–the objects and artifacts–that they keep and collect to tell the story of their lives. The History Harvest, then, affirms the importance of local people, local communities and everyday experience in the broader narrative of American history by providing an innovative opportunity for ordinary people to share their historical artifacts, and their stories, for inclusion in a unique digital archive of what we are calling the "people's history." This new public resource is then available for educators, students and anyone else interested in engaging U.S. history from this more democratic, or grassroots, perspective. This short paper on our work-in-progress examines the experiential learning basis for The History Harvest project and its rationale for democratizing history in a digital age. [For the full proceedings, see ED562127.]   [More]  Descriptors: History Instruction, Experiential Learning, Undergraduate Students, Data Collection

Wegner, Kathryn L. (2013). Progressive Reformers and the Democratic Origins of Citizenship Education in the United States during the First World War, History of Education. The birth of formal citizenship education in the United States emerged in the context of mass immigration, the Progressive Movement, and the First World War. Wartime citizenship education has been chastised for its emphasis on patriotism and loyalty, and while this is a trend, historians have minimised the ways in which the democratic goals of the Progressive Movement at large also shaped citizenship education in its infancy. The paper situates citizenship education within the larger and broader aims of the Progressive Movement, and then looks at two federal agencies, the Bureau of Education and the Bureau of Naturalization, which produced and distributed the first citizenship curricula to the nation's teachers. Ultimately, analysis of their citizenship textbook and teachers' manual show that, even during war, it was assumed that through education any person, regardless of nationality or gender, could access citizenship, this being a very democratic mission in a paranoid moment.   [More]  Descriptors: Citizenship Education, Patriotism, Immigration, Educational Trends

Brinbaum, Yael; Guegnard, Christine (2013). Choices and Enrollments in French Secondary and Higher Education: Repercussions for Second-Generation Immigrants, Comparative Education Review. In France, the proportion of second-generation immigrants enrolling in tertiary education has increased as education has undergone a process of "democratization." This article analyzes their postsecondary choices, access to tertiary programs, dropout, and transition to the labor market, compared to those of students of French origin. Youths of Portuguese origin are more likely to enter vocational higher programs concordant with their preferences and have better chances of completing a tertiary degree and finding a job. Despite their preference for selective vocational higher programs, some students of North African origin are diverted toward academic university courses, leading to higher dropout rates. This unequal access to higher education affects both degree completion and entry into the French labor market.   [More]  Descriptors: Foreign Countries, Immigrants, College Attendance, Democracy

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