Bibliography: Democracy (page 472 of 605)

This annotated bibliography is compiled and customized for the I'm with Jill website.  Some of the authors featured on this page include Tamas Vasarhelyi, Camille Anne Martina, Sarah Mohammed Alajlan, Maarika Pukk, David Hursh, Roberto Anaya Rodriguez, Leena Robertson, Massimiliano Landi, Jarmo Kinos, and Vaughn M. John.

John, Vaughn M. (2016). The Dangers of Educated Girls and Women, Education, Citizenship and Social Justice. Why do educated girls and women constitute a danger in some societies and for this face extreme danger in their educational endeavours? This article argues that historical and contemporary educational discrimination of girls and women is the hallmark of a violently patriarchal society, and this stubborn injustice is exacerbated under conditions of poverty and political power struggles. After considering two recent examples of violent exclusion, deeper exploration of historical exclusion of learners in South Africa helps to reveal a web of gender-based injustice and violence created at the intersections of patriarchy, poverty and political power struggles. Interventions require the acknowledgement of these underlying causes as well as their systemic and complex interactions.   [More]  Descriptors: Females, Womens Education, Educational Attainment, History

Vasarhelyi, Tamas (2012). The Hungarian Patient: Museum Education in Hungary and the Challenges of Democratic Transition, Journal of Museum Education. This article outlines the changes, developments, activities, and challenges faced by Hungarian museums over the last few decades. It shows that there was life behind the "Iron Curtain," with museums enjoying relative financial stability. While the political and economic changes associated with the transition from a communist to a democratically elected government and capitalist economy did bring more international connections, collaborations, and freedom in choosing exhibition topics, the changes also brought exposure to the harsh rules of the cultural market. This article reflects on these issues and presents some of the most recent museum approaches in terms of programming, education, and audience development.   [More]  Descriptors: Foreign Countries, Museums, Nonschool Educational Programs, Audience Awareness

Aubert, Adrianna; Villarejo, Bea; Cabré, Joan; Santos, Tatiana (2016). La Verneda-Sant Martí Adult School: A Reference for Neighborhood Popular Education, Teachers College Record. Background/Context: The Adult School of La Verneda Sant Martí, located in Barcelona, Spain, is a reference at the international level because of its trajectory and its contributions to the transformative movement in democratic education. The school was created in 1978 to address the demands of the working-class residents of the La Verneda neighborhood, who needed an adult school that could reverse the lack of academic education of neighborhood adults. This school builds on the precedents of popular education developed by the libertarian movement prior to the Franco dictatorship. Since its beginnings, the school has continuously taught people to read and write, helping adults obtain academic degrees that facilitated their labor insertion or promoted their access to university. The school's success is confirmed by the current data: It counts approximately 2,000 participants, 5 workers, and 150 volunteers. The key to its success is an effective democratic organization and functioning as well as broad development of activities and an accessible schedule–the school is open Monday through Sunday, from 9 a.m. until 10 p.m.–that meets the real needs of neighborhood residents. The adult participants, together with the teachers and the volunteers, determine and organize the activities that will be conducted in the school. Purpose: This article analyzes the democratic organization of this school and its relation to libertarian education in the early 20th century in Spain to investigate two research questions. First, what type of democratic organization and functioning is contributing to increasing the educational level and skills of nonacademic adults? Second, how does this organization contribute to the improvement of the quality of life achieved through the La Verneda neighborhood's movement? Research Design: The article reviews the literature on libertarian education in Spain and addresses the Adult School of La Verneda-Sant Martí and Schools as Learning Communities. Additionally, other documents related to the history, activities, and functioning of this school and different types of documents about the neighborhood in which it is located are analyzed. Interviews with participants (this is how adult learners refer to themselves) and communicative observations in classrooms, assemblies, and meetings during the school year 2012-2013 were conducted to contrast with the information found in the internal documents of the school. Findings/Results: Besides the documents found on the School foundation that made explicit the libertarian educational ideals, the study identified these principles in the whole evolution and success of the Adult School until the current time. Particularly, we identified three main results: (1) nonacademic adults take part in all of the decision-making processes, therefore, all activities reflect their interests and needs, increasing their educational level and skills; (2) the school is open to the community and has engaged many diverse people as volunteers who contribute to a broad and high-quality education; and (3) the democratic organization of libertarian origins has influence beyond the School walls: a neighborhood movement to improve the quality of life and the transformation of children's schools into Learning Communities. Conclusions/Recommendations: This article concludes that the principles present in libertarian education in the early 20th century in Spain have been included in the organization and in the education provided by the Adult School of La Verneda-Sant Martí. These principles are contributing to increasing the educational level and skills of nonacademic adults as well as improving the quality of life achieved through the La Verneda neighborhood's movement. Future research should focus on how this school model has been transferred to other schools and how it influenced the work of the teachers.   [More]  Descriptors: Foreign Countries, Democratic Values, Democracy, Educational History

Whitty, Geoff; Wisby, Emma (2016). Education in England–A Testbed for Network Governance?, Oxford Review of Education. Since devolution in the late 1990s, education policy in England has diverged further from that in Scotland and also from policy in Wales and Northern Ireland. In this paper we review the roots and trajectory of the English education reforms over the past two decades. Our focus is the schools sector, though we also touch on adjoining reforms to early years and further and higher education. In so doing, we engage with various themes, including marketisation, institutional autonomy and accountability. Changes in governance arrangements for schools have been a defining feature of education reforms since devolution. This has been set against an evolution in national performance indicators that has put government priorities into ever sharper relief. In theorising the changes, we pay particular attention to the suggestion that the English education system now epitomises the concept of "network governance", which has also been applied to education in a global context. We question the extent to which policies have in practice moved beyond the well-established mechanisms of "steering at a distance" and undermined the very notion of an education system in England. We conclude by considering possible futures for education policy and how they may position England in relation to other parts of the UK and the wider world.   [More]  Descriptors: Foreign Countries, Educational Practices, Governance, Educational Policy

Hursh, David; Martina, Camille Anne (2016). The End of Public Schools? Or a New Beginning?, Educational Forum. Public education is becoming increasingly privatized as private philanthropic organizations, such as the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, and corporations, such as Pearson, dominate the policy-making process, and more students enroll in publicly funded but privately administered charter schools. The privatization of education results from the dominance of neoliberal ideals promoting market competition, individualism, and standardized testing. In response, we call for replacing neoliberalism with social democratic policies emphasizing community, trust, and democratic deliberation.   [More]  Descriptors: Public Schools, Educational Change, Educational Trends, Trend Analysis

Landi, Massimiliano; Colucci, Domenico (2008). Rational and Boundedly Rational Behavior in a Binary Choice Sender-Receiver Game, Journal of Conflict Resolution. The authors investigate the strategic rationale behind the message sent by Osama bin Laden on the eve of the 2004 U.S. Presidential elections. They model this situation as a signaling game in which a population of receivers takes a binary choice, the outcome is decided by majority rule, sender and receivers have conflicting interests, and there is uncertainty about both players' degree of rationality. They characterize the structure of the sequential equilibria of the game as a function of the parameters governing the uncertainty and find that in all pure strategy equilibria, the outcome most preferred by the rational sender is chosen. An explanation of the above-mentioned events relies crucially on the relative likelihood of rational and naive players: If a sufficient departure from full rationality of the electorate is posited, then our model suggests that bin Laden's pre-electoral message succeeded in tilting the race toward his preferred outcome.   [More]  Descriptors: Democracy, Elections, Political Campaigns, Terrorism

Moschou, Christiana; Anaya Rodriguez, Roberto (2016). The Formation of Citizenship through Community Theatre. A Study in Aguascalientes, Mexico, Journal of Social Science Education. Purpose: The aim of the research was to examine if adolescents can develop abilities of democratic interaction through Community Theatre. Design/methodology: Firstly, two instruments were applied, a questionnaire covering socio-moral problems, of the students and a Questionnaire, covering the Educational Ideologies of the professors. Then, a theatrical intervention was realized at middle-school students in Aguascalientes City, based on the objectives of the formation of Citizenship as stated at the National Curriculum. Findings: Students themselves stated a change in their attitude during the intervention, which was also observed and registered at the field diary and at the written evaluations. For this reason, we claim that Community theater could be used as a transdisciplinary method for teaching democratic skills, as it creates a public sphere where the students can develop democratic behavior. Research limitations: Further studies on the subject are required, especially concerning the time and the sample as the research had a two-month duration and was conducted at a limited population. Practical implications: The contribution of this project was the introduction of Community Theatre at the service of the Citizenship Education, promoting the artistic education as a means of the formal education in the search for personal and social democratic development and could be considered in an educational reform.   [More]  Descriptors: Foreign Countries, Citizenship Education, Theater Arts, Community Programs

Kinos, Jarmo; Robertson, Leena; Barbour, Nancy; Pukk, Maarika (2016). Child-Initiated Pedagogies: Moving toward Democratically Appropriate Practices in Finland, England, Estonia, and the United States, Childhood Education. The Convention on the Rights of the Child calls for children to be treated as human beings with a distinct set of rights, instead of as passive objects of care. They can and should be agents in their own lives. Child-initiated pedagogy recognizes this by respecting children's individual and collective views, interests, and motivations. Instructional practices that support child-initiated activities promote children's self-determination and their cognitive and social development. By allowing young children to choose their own pursuits and learning explorations, take ownership of planned activities to adapt them to their own purposes, and incorporate their own experiences into learning opportunities, educators are moving toward implementation of democratically appropriate practices. The authors of this article examine how child-initiated pedagogy manifests in the different contexts of Finland, England, Estonia, and the United States.   [More]  Descriptors: Foreign Countries, Comparative Education, Developmentally Appropriate Practices, Childrens Rights

Lewis, John (2008). Reflections on a Dream Deferred, Teaching Tolerance. Americans have come a great distance since the assassination of Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. The African-American middle class has grown. African Americans, women, and other minorities are in positions of leadership today that they could never have aspired to 40 years ago. In the 2008 election season, an African-American man is a serious contender for the Democratic nomination for president; so is a woman. In 1968, just these ideas would have been seen as highly unlikely, even dangerous. In this article, the author takes a look at the legacy of Dr. King's ideals. He states that 40 years later, the dream of Dr. King still has not been realized. Americans still have not reached the Promised Land that Dr. King described the night before he was killed in Memphis, Tennessee. The author believes that Americans are closer to building the Beloved Community and a society based on simple justice that values the dignity and the worth of every human being, but they still have a great distance they must travel before they build a Beloved Community, a nation and a world society at peace with itself.   [More]  Descriptors: African Americans, Social Change, Democracy, Racial Discrimination

Muñoz, José; Harrington, James R.; Curs, Bradley R.; Ehlert, Mark (2016). Democratization and Diversion: The Effect of Missouri's A+ Schools Program on Postsecondary Enrollment, Journal of Higher Education. Recent federal and state education policy has targeted community colleges as an affordable venue to increase postsecondary attainment. We examined a state program aimed at increasing community college enrollment, the Missouri A+ Schools Program, which provided eligible graduates from participating high schools the opportunity to earn a scholarship at a Missouri public two-year college. The Missouri A+ Schools Program aims to increase the democratization of education by providing greater access to attend postsecondary institutions but may simultaneously create a diversion away from four-year colleges. The staggered adoption of the Missouri A+ Schools Program across high schools allowed a quasi-experimental estimation of the effect of the program on postsecondary enrollment. The Missouri A+ Schools Program increased the overall college-going rate by 1.5 percentage points for graduates from A+ designated high schools. Furthermore, the A+ Schools Program increased two-year college-going rates by 5.3 percentage points, and decreased four-year college-going rates by 3.8 percentage points. Overall, the A+ Schools Program provided a democratizing effect by increasing overall postsecondary enrollment, while simultaneously creating a diversionary effect through increased two-year enrollment and a decline in four-year enrollment.   [More]  Descriptors: Community Colleges, Two Year College Students, Enrollment, High School Graduates

Gysling, Jacqueline (2016). The Historical Development of Educational Assessment in Chile: 1810-2014, Assessment in Education: Principles, Policy & Practice. This article examines the historical development of the state's actions in educational assessment in Chile from the nineteenth century to the present day, based on the analysis of governmental decrees and regulations related to assessment, and their variability over time. The research identifies six distinctive periods, each of which expresses a different definition of assessment. In these six periods, the state consistently used assessment as a policy tool, hence this phenomenon is not a new or modern one. That much said, the use by the state of assessment has changed its mode of action and purpose. What is distinctive about the present is not only the way in which the state controls education through assessment by demanding the attainment of standards, but also its underlying educational programme which supports the systemic socialisation and economic integration of subjects, rather than their social socialisation and development as citizens.   [More]  Descriptors: Foreign Countries, Educational Assessment, Educational History, Educational Legislation

MelanÃßon, JérÃ¥me; Goebel, Nancy (2016). Personal Librarian for Aboriginal Students: A Programmatic Assessment, College & Research Libraries. The Personal Librarian for Aboriginal Students (PLAS) program at the University of Alberta (UofA) is a creative outgrowth of the growing Personal Librarian programs in academic libraries, in which a student is partnered with an individual librarian for the academic year. In the case of the UofA's PLAS program, first-year undergraduate students who self-identified as Aboriginal during the registration process were selected as participants. The first year of the program saw many successes. This paper provides background on the initiative and the associated action research indicating a creative approach to engaging Aboriginal students.   [More]  Descriptors: Indigenous Populations, Cultural Relevance, Librarians, College Freshmen

Alajlan, Sarah Mohammed (2016). Saudi Female Students' Perceptions of Their Democratic Empowerment in the Classroom at King Saud University, ProQuest LLC. The purpose of this quantitative study is to describe female graduate students' perceptions about their democratic empowerment in the classroom at King Saud University in Saudi Arabia. Their perceptions are compared based on female students' tracks. It also investigates the obstacles for democratic empowerment that female students face in the classroom. The theoretical framework depends on Dewey, Freire, and Shor's perspective on critical pedagogy and Islamic teachings that help to create a democratic (Shura) classroom. Both approaches require freedom, dialogue, collaborative learning, equality, and critique concepts. These five concepts seek to create a critical thinking classroom that also encourages students to be empowered and active learners. However, classrooms that use traditional teaching methods that do not exercise the elements of democratic (Shura) empowerment lead to disempowered students by practicing silence, marginalization, and dependence. The data is collected through a questionnaire survey method, and the participants are female graduate students who study at the College of Education in the Department of Educational Policies. The statistical analysis that is used to answer the research questions are descriptive analysis including means, and standard deviation, one-way ANOVA, and Scheffe Post-Hoc Comparisons. The main results of this study are that Graduate female students practiced and showed the importance of the five elements of democratic empowerment in their classrooms. Also, the results show that there was no statistically significant differences at (a = 0.05) among female students' perceptions about their practices in dialogue, collaborative learning, and equality, in a classroom based on their study tracks. However, there was statistically significant differences at (a = 0.05) among female students' perceptions about their practices in freedom, critique, and the total of practices in a classroom based on their study tracks. The direction of the differences was a benefit for Adult Education track. About the obstacles for democratic empowerment that female students face in the classroom, two themes emerged: pedagogical methods of teaching and obstacle courses. One of the key recommendations is that the critical Islamic pedagogy that is theorized in this study should be applied in the university classrooms in Saudi Arabia, especially for graduate students. [The dissertation citations contained here are published with the permission of ProQuest LLC. Further reproduction is prohibited without permission. Copies of dissertations may be obtained by Telephone (800) 1-800-521-0600. Web page: www.proquest.com/en-US/products/disserta…   [More]  Descriptors: Foreign Countries, Graduate Students, Females, Student Attitudes

Gross, Jeffrey (2016). Black Lives Matter: Teaching African American Literature and the Struggle, CEA Forum. In theorizing how we should pedagogically approach African American literature, especially in courses for undergraduates, I argue that we have to move away from questions of what was or even what is African American literature and, instead, find ways to teach African American literature in both its historical contexts–artistic and political–and its contemporary resonances. We can embrace the ways the field and each piece of literature simultaneously was and is. Importantly, we can think about what both African American literature and the course on this literature need to be in ways that focus on past, present, and future. For students, African American literature can be a living voice in a broader trajectory of civil and social death, de jure and de facto discrimination, and the struggle for social justice. Our current moment demands it, and the persistence of the Black Lives Matter movement–from its origins in the wake of Trayvon Martin and Michael Brown's deaths into the early stages of the 2016 U.S. presidential campaigns' warrants, or perhaps even necessitates, a pedagogy that positions African American literature courses as spaces on campuses where the vulnerabilities of and violent acts against black lives can be discussed. In this paper, I am particularly interested in examining both the praxis of teaching African American literature as part of a cultural and civic literacy program for our students and then in examining the larger stakes of our moment, both for racism in the United States and the role of literature courses of programs.   [More]  Descriptors: African American Literature, African Americans, Social Justice, Racial Bias

National Academies Press (2016). Effective Chemistry Communication in Informal Environments. Chemistry plays a critical role in daily life, impacting areas such as medicine and health, consumer products, energy production, the ecosystem, and many other areas. Communicating about chemistry in informal environments has the potential to raise public interest and understanding of chemistry around the world. However, the chemistry community lacks a cohesive, evidence-based guide for designing effective communication activities. This report is organized into two sections. Part A: The Evidence Base for Enhanced Communication summarizes evidence from communications, informal learning, and chemistry education on effective practices to communicate with and engage publics outside of the classroom; presents a framework for the design of chemistry communication activities; and identifies key areas for future research. Part B: Communicating Chemistry: A Framework for Sharing Science is a practical guide intended for any chemists to use in the design, implementation, and evaluation of their public communication efforts. The following are appended: (1) Data Collection Instruments; and (2) Committee Member Biographies.   [More]  Descriptors: Chemistry, Communication Strategies, School Community Relationship, Information Dissemination

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