Bibliography: Democracy (page 465 of 605)

This annotated bibliography is compiled and customized for the I'm with Jill website.  Some of the authors featured on this page include Jim Crawley, Johannes L. van der Walt, Daniel Tröhler, Eric M. Feldman, Ben Kirshner, Rachel Birds, Shelley Zion, Aaron Stoller, Carlos Hipolito-Delgado, and Laura Lane.

González, Cristina; Pedraja, Liliana (2015). Privatization and Access: The Chilean Higher Education Experiment and Its Discontents. Research and Occasional Paper Series: CSHE.11.15, Center for Studies in Higher Education. President Barack Obama recently announced a proposal to eliminate tuition charges at community colleges so that everyone can easily complete the first two years of a university education. At the same time, the administration is creating new regulations to curb the worst abuses of for-profit universities. This suggests that the country has reached a turning point regarding access to higher education. There is a practical limit to privatization, and the countries that have privatized their higher education systems most aggressively, such is the case of the United States, are now reaching it. One country where the increase in university tuition has reached the limit of what the public will tolerate is Chile, where the most deliberate and comprehensive university privatization experiment in the world was carried out and where the most intense student protests calling for greater access have occurred, bringing this issue to the forefront of the nation's political discourse. Indeed, President Michelle Bachelet has recently promised to make higher education free of charge. This essay examines the recent history of Chilean universities and current debates regarding tuition and inequality that reflect a similar discussion in the US regarding whether higher education is a public or private good, and who should pay for it. A bibliography is included.   [More]  Descriptors: Privatization, Access to Education, Tuition, Educational History

Feldman, Eric M. (2015). The Influence of Social Media on Adult Learners' Knowledge Construction and Democratic Participation, New Horizons in Adult Education & Human Resource Development. This paper provides a resource on the impact of social media on adult learners' construction of knowledge, particularly as it pertains to adult education's role in fostering a robust democratic society. There has been an increase in the literature in recent years that explores the various aspects of social media use, such as the incivility of online discussion, the homogenous nature of views learners are exposed to online, and the ability of individual and corporate actors to manipulate online content. This paper aims to provide a wide angle view of the situation while achieving two goals (a) development of categories which group implications of social media use (b) argument of low social media information literacy as a challenge facing adult educators.   [More]  Descriptors: Social Media, Adult Learning, Epistemology, Learning Processes

Kirshner, Ben; Hipolito-Delgado, Carlos; Zion, Shelley (2015). Sociopolitical Development in Educational Systems: From Margins to Center, Urban Review: Issues and Ideas in Public Education. This is a challenging moment for supporters of public education: the status quo is untenable but the options offered by "reformers" appear equally dangerous. In this context we need arguments for the democratic purposes of education that offer an alternative to existing inequities on one hand and technocratic or privatized solutions on the other. New formations of parents, teachers, and young people call for schools that raise young people who feel connected to their communities, can critically interpret their social and political worlds, and possess the academic skills and agency to empower their communities (Warren in "Transforming public education: the need for an education justice movement." "N Engl J Public Policy" 26(1), Article 11. , 2015). This special issue, which originated in a series of interdisciplinary seminars, proposes sociopolitical development (SPD) as a core feature of democratic education and human development. Making SPD central to education requires a compelling mix of theory, rigorous evidence, and practical strategy. In this article we provide a scholarly context for SPD in education and introduce the contents of the special issue.   [More]  Descriptors: Public Education, Democracy, Role of Education, Educational Change

Stoller, Aaron (2015). Taylorism and the Logic of Learning Outcomes, Journal of Curriculum Studies. This essay examines the shared philosophical foundations of Fredrick W. Taylor's scientific management principles and the contemporary learning outcomes movement (LOM). It analyses the shared philosophical ground between the focal point of Taylor's system–"the task"–and the conceptualization and deployment of "learning outcomes" in American post-secondary systems. It further critiques Taylor's principles and the logic of outcomes from the standpoint of John Dewey's educational philosophy. This essay will show how the contemporary LOM is not only an extension of Taylorism, but also yields the very real possibility of restricting the creative capacities and unique potentials of students.   [More]  Descriptors: Educational Philosophy, Outcomes of Education, Postsecondary Education, Educational Assessment

Maziere, Christelle (2015). Artistic Education in France: From the State to the Classrooms' Practices, International Journal of Education & the Arts. Since the beginning of the 5th Republic, social demands have influenced the demand to reform the place of culture in education as a way of developing better access to French culture for all students. In recent decades, the rising number of immigrants has created administrative districts characterized by geographic contrast, social inequalities, and diverse populations, increasing the need for artistic education. This article proposes to approach the political measures that allowed the development of arts teaching in primary schools in France to understand the cultural pedagogical practices provided in primary school. In doing so, I explore the ways that experimentation with local heritage provides the necessary social dimensions that support students in their understanding of French culture, diminish unequal access to art, and how schools might be used as a tool in the process of cultural democratization.   [More]  Descriptors: Art Education, Art, Social Differences, Foreign Countries

Crawley, Jim (2015). Growing Connections–The Connected Professional, Research in Post-Compulsory Education. This article reviews research relating to the concept of "the professional" then considers "the teaching professional" and in particular the "post-compulsory education (PCE) teaching professional" in more depth. Recent positive models of the teaching professional are analysed, including the expansive professional and the democratic professional, and a new model from the author's research is proposed entitled the "connected professional". This draws together a number of key positive components from other models, but also includes a strategy for enacting the model called "growing connections". This is argued to offer a potentially more realisable goal for the future of PCE teaching professionals. The article concludes by offering a set of key characteristics of the PCE teaching professional and calls for adoption of the models offered.   [More]  Descriptors: Foreign Countries, Teaching (Occupation), Professionalism, Models

Feinstein, Noah Weeth; Kirchgasler, Kathryn L. (2015). Sustainability in Science Education? How the Next Generation Science Standards Approach Sustainability, and Why It Matters, Science Education. In this essay, we explore how sustainability is embodied in the Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS), analyzing how the NGSS explicitly define and implicitly characterize sustainability. We identify three themes (universalism, scientism, and technocentrism) that are common in scientific discourse around sustainability and show how they appear in the NGSS. Taken together, these themes evoke a technology-centered perspective called ecological modernization that defines sustainability as a set of global problems affecting all humans equally and solvable through the application of science and technology. We argue that students who are taught to think about sustainability from this perspective will be less able to see its ethical and political dimensions and less prepared for the political realities of a pluralist, democratic society that must balance the needs of multiple groups and integrate science with other sources of knowledge to develop contextualized responses to sustainability challenges. One compelling alternative is a systematic collaboration between science educators and social studies educators, in which the complementary pedagogical strengths of both fields are combined to provide realistic and powerful preparation for future sustainability challenges.   [More]  Descriptors: Sustainability, Science Education, Academic Standards, Information Technology

Swalwell, Katy (2015). Mind the Civic Empowerment Gap: Economically Elite Students and Critical Civic Education, Curriculum Inquiry. Calls to close the civic empowerment gap have traditionally focused on improving and expanding civic education for students in high-poverty urban schools. While important, this recommendation implies that closing the gap is in and of itself a sufficient end and that the civic education of affluent youth is unproblematic. This paper calls for (1) an explicit aim for the gap to close in a way that moves US society towards radical democratic egalitarianism, and (2) a response to the gap that includes consideration of the civic education of affluent students. It suggests that an "activist ally" approach rooted in emancipatory social science, political compassion, affective motivations, and empathic listening may be a useful framework for a critical civic education curriculum with economically elite youth. It concludes with an example from an affluent private school to highlight the affordances and limitations of this framework.   [More]  Descriptors: Citizenship Education, Empowerment, Advantaged, Private Schools

Kupchik, Aaron; Catlaw, Thomas J. (2015). Discipline and Participation: The Long-Term Effects of Suspension and School Security on the Political and Civic Engagement of Youth, Youth & Society. This study uses the National Longitudinal Survey of Adolescent Health data set to evaluate the long-term influence of school discipline and security on political and civic participation. We find that young adults with a history of school suspension are less likely than others to vote and volunteer in civic activities years later, suggesting that suspension negatively impacts the likelihood that youth engage in future political and civic activities. These findings are consistent with prior theory and research highlighting the long-term negative implications of punitive disciplinary policies and the role schools play in preparing youth to participate in a democratic polity. We conclude that suspension undermines the development of the individual skills and capacities necessary for a democratic society by substituting collaborative problem solving for the exclusion and physical removal of students. The research lends empirical grounds for recommending the reform of school governance and the implementation of more constructive models of discipline.   [More]  Descriptors: Suspension, School Security, Citizen Participation, Young Adults

Bazzul, Jesse (2015). Towards a Politicized Notion of Citizenship for Science Education: Engaging the Social through Dissensus, Canadian Journal of Science, Mathematics and Technology Education. This theoretical article draws from the political thought of Jacques Rancière to trouble some taken-for-granted conceptions of citizenship education. Rancière's notion of politics and dissensus (as opposed to consensus) can lay the groundwork for a version of citizenship that challenges what is deemed sensible, visible, who is counted in communities and on what grounds. This version of citizenship, based on politics and dissensus, disrupts the taken-for-granted social order and seeks to establish equality for those who are what Rancière calls "the part of no part." In science, math, and technology education this means rethinking how we approach social and political issues and civic identities, where consensus seeking and nonactivist choices for students prevail. I conclude the article by outlining examples of science education research that work to "redraw the lines" of the social (the social being the stakes of the political); in particular, the Idle No More movement, which is at the forefront of both scientific and political activism in the geographic space known as Canada.   [More]  Descriptors: Science Education, Self Concept, Citizenship Education, Politics

Tröhler, Daniel (2015). The Medicalization of Current Educational Research and Its Effects on Education Policy and School Reforms, Discourse: Studies in the Cultural Politics of Education. This paper starts from the assumption of the emergence of an educationalized culture over the last 200 years according to which perceived social problems are translated into educational challenges. As a result, both educational institutions and educational research grew, and educational policy resulted from negotiations between professionals, researchers, and policy makers. The paper argues that specific experiences in the Second World War triggered a fundamental shift in the social and cultural role of academia, leading up to a technocratic culture characterized by confidence in experts rather than in practicing professionals (i.e., teachers and administrators). In this technocratic shift, first a technological system of reasoning emerged, and it was then replaced by a medical "paradigm." The new paradigm led to a medicalization of social research, in which a particular organistic understanding of the social reality is taken for granted and research is conducted under the mostly undiscussed premises of this particular understanding. The result is that despite the increased importance of research in general, this expertocratic and medical shift of social research led to a massive reduction in reform opportunities by depriving the reform stakeholders of a broad range of education research, professional experience, common sense, and political deliberation.   [More]  Descriptors: Educational Research, Educational Policy, Educational Change, Social Science Research

van der Walt, Johannes L. (2013). Perspectives on Tolerance in Education Flowing from a Comparison of Religion Education in Estonia and South Africa, Bulgarian Comparative Education Society. The question that prompted this investigation into religion education (RE) in Estonia and in South Africa was whether two countries from such totally different parts of the world, with such vastly different populations and cultures though with somewhat parallel histories, had tackled the same or similar problems regarding the provision of RE in their schools, particularly with respect to the matter of tolerance in diverse societies, and in which ways the solutions they came up with agree with or differ from each other. The question was premised by the assumption that people are the same the world over, and that their problems regarding the provision of RE in schools and the quest for (inter)religious tolerance might be roughly the same, of course depending on the prevailing local and historical circumstances. While the upshot of the comparison itself will be available for discussion during the conference presentation, the purpose of this paper will be to present and discuss some of the parallels, resemblances and differences with respect to RE and the issue of (inter)religious tolerance, and to tentatively advance reasons for what has been observed and concluded. At least five (5) themes pertaining to (inter)religious tolerance that emerged from the comparison will be tabled for discussion: intolerance and state domination–societies in transition; diversity an asset, tolerance and nation. [For complete volume, see ED567118.]   [More]  Descriptors: Foreign Countries, Religious Education, Comparative Analysis, Cross Cultural Studies

Bindewald, Benjamin J. (2015). Evangelical Released Time for Religious Education in South Carolina: A Normative Case Study, Theory and Research in Education. Released time is an arrangement through which students are excused from public schools during regular hours to participate in devotional lessons. South Carolina has become the center of operations for a movement of evangelical Christians to expand proselytizing released time programs throughout the United States. As a result of the movement's lobbying efforts, in 2006 South Carolina became the first state to enact legislation allowing public schools to award graduation credits for participation in released time courses. Ohio recently adopted legislation modeled after South Carolina's, and other states are presently considering similar bills. In response to these developments, this normative case study evaluates the appropriateness of granting public school credits for released time courses in a pluralist, democratic society.   [More]  Descriptors: Case Studies, Religious Education, State Legislation, Scheduling

Lane, Laura; Birds, Rachel (2013). Contextual Admissions and Affirmative Action: Developments in Higher Education Policy in England, Perspectives: Policy and Practice in Higher Education. This paper explores the value of explaining contextual admissions policy directives through the conceptual lenses of meritocracy and social reproduction. It is suggested that examining these concepts can assist in highlighting some of the ideological and practical complexities associated with contextual admissions whilst providing opportunities to engage with wider debates concerning affirmative action in higher education policy.   [More]  Descriptors: Affirmative Action, Educational Policy, Higher Education, Foreign Countries

Valiente, Orfilio Ernesto (2015). The University as Agent of Social Transformation: The Case of the University of Central America in El Salvador, Journal of Catholic Higher Education. In 1965, the Jesuit-run Central American University (UCA) was launched in El Salvador as the wealthy family's educational alternative to the increasingly leftist National University. But within a decade, the UCA would shift its focus to the inequalities and injustice experienced by the country's popular majorities and to its own role as society's conscience. This article examines the evolution of the UCA's institutional identity during the civil war and how it negotiated its public role as the nation transitioned from a time of war to an uneasy process of democratization. It proposes that the evolution of the UCA's public role from the university's founding to the present day unfolded over three rough stages of development, and that these stages illustrate the transformation of the UCA into a Christian social project that embraces the preferential option for the poor in its institutional and public life. The article concludes by assessing the significance of the UCA's transformation for Catholic higher education today.   [More]  Descriptors: Foreign Countries, Catholics, Church Related Colleges, Universities

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