Bibliography: Democracy (page 450 of 605)

This annotated bibliography is curated specifically for the I'm with Jill website.  Some of the authors featured on this page include Richard A. Gibboney, Ian Bryant, Mika Yamashita, Douglas A. Dixon, Mary L. Radnofsky, Marcy Taitz, Margaret Cahalan, Theresa M. Richard, Guy Spielmann, and Richard D. Packard.

Richard, Theresa M., Ed. (1994). Foundations of Democracy: Authority, Privacy, Responsibility, and Justice. Law in a Free Society Series. Level V. Student Text. Revised Edition. This curriculum is organized around four concepts–authority, privacy, responsibility, and justice–which form part of the common core of civic values and concepts that are fundamental to the theory and practice of democratic citizenship in the United States. Rather than focusing on facts and dates, the curriculum challenges students to think for themselves, to develop reasoned positions, and to articulate and defend their views. By raising issues over the authority of police, teachers and principals, the volume calls on students to question the benefits, costs, and limits of authority and privacy. The textbook also raises questions about how competing responsibilities should be resolved and about the various forms of justice, including distributive, corrective, and procedural justice. Each chapter provides concrete conflicts covering such areas as sporting competitions, locker rooms, computers, and drunk driving, followed by critical thinking exercises requiring students to identify and debate the competing interests. To provide students with an analytical framework for debating the issues, the textbook explains the use of intellectual tools that help students think critically, such as, for example, indentifying the claims for privacy, the relevant considerations, and alternative solutions.   [More]  Descriptors: Citizenship Education, Constitutional History, Constitutional Law, Democracy

Gibboney, Richard A. (1994). The Stone Trumpet: A Story of Practical School Reform, 1960-1990. SUNY Series, Democracy and Education. The most radical and fundamental school reform of all was the creation of the free and universal system of public education in the United States, but there has been a plethora of reform efforts since. This book reviews the history of over 30 reforms since 1960, remarking on how ideas have influenced educational practice and commenting on how poor most of these reforms have, in fact, been. The intellectual and democratic perspective espoused by the tradition of John Dewey and the scientific and technological perspective provide the conceptual framework for the analysis of 30 years of school reform. New curricula, open classrooms, team teaching, mastery learning, and compensatory education are among the 34 reform efforts reviewed. If school practice and reform are to become more thoughtful, it is essential to ask not only how effective the reform is, but to ask first how educationally worthwhile it is. Three appendixes list 21 Deweyian criteria for reforms and provide general comments on some frequently advocated reform models. Photographs with associated commentary illustrate some aspects of the history of educational reform. (Contains 5 figures and 65 references.) Descriptors: Compensatory Education, Curriculum Development, Democracy, Educational Change

Fier, Harriet, Ed.; And Others (1994). How Our Laws Are Made. User Guide for Grades K-6. My America: Building a Democracy Series. This user guide is part of a multimedia unit using an interdisciplinary approach with hands-on learning to motivate children to participate actively in their schools and local communities, and to experience the democratic process. This unit focuses on the concept of laws helping people to live together and how people help make the laws. Unit parts include: (1) video preview; (2) suggestions for using the unit; (3) getting ready to view the video; (4) video modeling lesson; (5) follow-up activities for primary, intermediate, and upper grade children; and (6) a bibliography for children and teachers. Descriptors: Active Learning, American Studies, Citizenship, Civics

Fier, Harriet, Ed.; And Others (1994). A Pledge Is a Promise. User Guide for Grades K-6. My America: Building a Democracy Series. This user guide is part of a multimedia unit using an interdisciplinary approach with hands-on learning to motivate children to participate actively in their schools and local communities, and to experience the democratic process. This unit focuses on the meaning of the words in the Pledge of Allegiance. Unit parts include: (1) video preview; (2) suggestions for using the unit; (3) getting ready to view the video; (4) video modeling lesson; (5) follow-up activities for primary, intermediate, and upper grade children; and (6) a bibliography for children and teachers. Descriptors: Active Learning, American Studies, Citizenship, Civics

Bryant, Ian, Ed. (1995). Vision, Invention, Intervention: Celebrating Adult Education. Conference Proceedings. Papers from the Annual Conference of the Standing Conference on University Teaching and Research in the Education of Adults (25th, Winchester, England, United Kingdom, July 11-13, 1995). The papers in these proceedings include a number of themes such as enduring and progressive social change, good practice and positive outcomes, and strategies of survival, resistance and subversion. They are: "Achievement, Personal Development, and Positive Outcomes" (Viv Anderson); "Raising Standards" (Paul Armstrong); "Multicultural Education for Adults" (Burjor Avari); " Four Congratulations and a Caveat" (Roseanne Benn); "Issues in the Supervision of Dissertation Research Conducted by Continuing Education and Training Professionals in South East Asia towards a Masters Degree of the University of Sheffield" (Geoff Chivers); "Continuing Education and the Public Understanding of Science" (Martin Counihan); "Silver Lining" (Eileen Daggett); "Conversing Internationally" (Chris Duke); "A Study of the Competence Levels of the Heads of Adult Education in Turkey" (Ahmet Duman); "Vision, Provision, and Television" (Darrel Dymock); "Women's Studies and Adult Education" (Jane Elliott); "Living with Competence" (Paul Garland); "Where Has Schon Led Us?" (Mary Gobbi); "Using a Self-Selected Support Group as a Strategy for Survival" (Christine Hibbert, Antoinette Middling, Frances Scourfield); "Journey through the Looking Glass" (Cheryl Hunt); "Multiplying Visions and Using Similitudes'" (Christine Jarvis); "Experimental Archaeology in Education" (David Johnston); "We're Still Here" (Rennie Johnston); "Holding Up the Mirror" (William Jones); "Participative Environmental Research and the Role of Continuing Education" (David Knight); "Making a Mark" (Carol Lee-Mak, Janice Malcolm); "The Creative Management of Biography" (Danny Mashengele); "From Distance Learning to Computer Supported Cooperative Learning" (David McConnell); "Autobiography in an Academic Context" (Margaret Millar et al.); "Exchanging Places, Trading Learning" (Nod Miller, Miriam Zukas); "Fiftysomething" (Penny Muter, Peter Watson); "Happiness Is a Thing Called Subversion" (Kirit Patel); "Vision, Policy, or Accident?" (Keith Percy); "Discourse and Culture" (Julia Preece); "Democracy and Personal Empowerment" (Ian Roffe, Carolyn Inglis); "German Adult Education in East Germany after Unification" (Marion Sporing); "Starting with Self" (Alistair Thomson); "Telling the Story of the Self/Deconstructing the Self of the Story" (Robin Usher); "Two Cheers for Special Needs Provision in Adult Education" (Peter Watson); "Re-Visioning the Self" (Linden West); "Using Vocational Competences To Develop an Alternative Framework for Modern Language Teaching" (John Wilson, A. Ibarz); "NVQs [National Vocational Qualifications] and Individuals" (Jonathan Winterton, Ruth Winterton); and "Coming of Age" (Alexandra Withnall).   [More]  Descriptors: Adult Basic Education, Adult Development, Adult Education, Adult Educators

Cahalan, Margaret; Perna, Laura; Yamashita, Mika; Ruiz, Roman; Franklin, Khadish (2016). Indicators of Higher Education Equity in the United States: 2016 Historical Trend Report, Pell Institute for the Study of Opportunity in Higher Education. The purposes of this publication are: (1) to report the status of higher education equity in the United States and to identify changes over time in measures of equity; and (2) to identify policies and practices that promote and hinder progress; and to illustrate the need for increased support of policies, programs and practices that not only improve overall attainment in higher education but also create greater equity in higher education opportunity and outcomes. In recognition of the need to address inequity based on demographic characteristics other than measures of family income, the 2016 edition of this report also includes selected tables that look at differences by race/ethnicity and family socioeconomic status (SES), an index comprised of income, education, and occupation developed by the National Center for Education Statistics (NCES) for use in the high school longitudinal studies. Additionally, for this 2016 edition, the authors have adjusted the Current Population Survey (CPS) data to reflect more current estimates from the high school longitudinal studies. They also describe trends in bachelor's degree attainment using data from the National Center for Education Statistics (NCES) Beginning Postsecondary Study (BPS) and the NCES high school longitudinal studies that have been conducted at irregular intervals approximately once per decade since the 1970s. Throughout this trend report, data is presented on the specific Indicators as far back as comparable data warrant beginning with 1970. In addition to providing longitudinal indicators of the status of equity, this report is written to advance productive conversation about the most effective policies and practices for improving equity in higher education opportunity and outcomes. To this end, the report includes three essays that connect the indicators to some current policy debates. These include discussions about how to reduce the stratification of college choice, higher education as a human right, and recommendations for the reauthorization of the Higher Education Act (HEA). Additional methodological notes and tables are appended.   [More]  Descriptors: Educational Indicators, Higher Education, Equal Education, Educational Trends

Del Razo, Jaime L.; Saunders, Marisa; Renée, Michelle; López, Ruth M.; Ullucci, Kerri (2014). Leveraging Time for School Equity: Indicators to Measure More and Better Learning Time, Annenberg Institute for School Reform at Brown University. Using standardized test scores as the main measure of educational achievement is not enough to capture the complexity of a student's or school's needs, challenges, and successes. "Leveraging Time for School Equity: Indicators to Measure More and Better Learning Time" presents a new set of comprehensive, rich, and meaningful measures of what matters to students, schools, and systems. The framework of twenty-four indicators emerged via extensive research and collaboration with school designers, community organizers, researchers, local funders, and other partners of the Ford Foundation's More and Better Learning Time (MBLT) initiative. The project aims to use learning time as a lever for improving educational opportunities for students in the nation's most underserved school systems. "Leveraging Time for Equity" is grounded in the work of the MBLT field, extensive research on education reform and indicators, and a commitment to social and educational equity for all. The report begins with an introduction to the goals and design of the MBLT initiative in the section "About the More and Better Learning Time Initiative." The section "Building a Shared Theory of Action" discusses what factors guided the development of the indicator framework. In particular, the authors share an approach that highlights the collaborative efforts of multiple actors that need to engage in the work to reach scale. This section includes a review of existing research supporting the use of multiple educational measurements and evaluations in place of the traditional single assessments. The "MBLT Indicators Framework" section introduces the indicators. The section outlines the process for producing a parsimonious list of useful MBLT indicators and discusses why indicators are needed at three levels–student, school, and system. The section continues with the heart of this report: a description of indicators that align with MBLT principles and goals. This report will be accompanied by a website, due to launch in fall 2014, that will offer additional information, tools, and resources.   [More]  Descriptors: Equal Education, Measures (Individuals), Educational Change, Blended Learning

Fier, Harriet, Ed.; And Others (1994). The Story of the National Anthem. User Guide for Grades K-6. My America: Building a Democracy Series. This user guide is part of a multimedia unit using an interdisciplinary approach with hands-on learning to motivate children to participate actively in their schools and local communities, and to experience the democratic process. This unit focuses on the story of the "Star Spangled Banner" and understanding how music celebrates special feelings. Unit parts include: (1) video preview; (2) suggestions for using the unit; (3) getting ready to view the video; (4) video modeling lesson; (5) follow-up activities for primary, intermediate, and upper grade children; and (6) a bibliography for children and teachers. Descriptors: Active Learning, American Studies, Citizen Participation, Citizen Role

Taitz, Marcy (1996). Discipline, Democracy and Developmentally Appropriate Curriculum: or What Constitutes Effective Classroom Management in the Early Primary Grades. Classroom management has become, in recent years, more frustrating and difficult for teachers as the social problems of the outside world find their way into schools. This study surveyed primary teachers from two Bronx schools to identify types of classroom management currently being used. Findings indicated that, consistent with a more democratic management philosophy, about 90 percent of the classrooms either had no teacher desk or had the desk at the side or back of the classroom, and almost all arranged student desks in clusters, with about half adding tables in learning centers. Also reflecting a move away from a teacher-dominated classroom, teaching methodologies included whole class instruction, small group instruction, cooperative learning, individualized instruction, and learning centers. Specifically related to teacher attitudes toward classroom management and discipline, most teachers considered their students to be average in manageability and shared responsibility for classroom rule-making with them. In their management philosophy, about half emphasized classroom structure and routines and allowing student input into rule-making. Almost 30 percent focused on material selection, conflict resolution, role playing, and teacher-student discussion. About 30 percent emphasized clear expectations, consistent rules, assertive teacher management, and tangible rewards and punishment. Most teachers asserted that discipline should be balanced evenly between prevention and correction of behavior problems. In summary, commonly used classroom management techniques reflected increased student input and a more positive approach to discipline. However, teachers still relied mostly on behavioristic management strategies with discipline at the core of classroom management. (Contains 11 references.)   [More]  Descriptors: Classroom Design, Classroom Environment, Classroom Furniture, Classroom Techniques

Packard, Richard D. (1990). Building In Accountability Mechanisms for Democracies & Bureaucracies: From Governmental & Educational Special Interest Operations to High-Quality Performance Systems. An Added Perspective to "What Price Democracy? Politics, Markets and America's Schools" by Dr. Terry Moe and Dr. John Chubb. To assure accountability to educational policy developed by elected and appointed leaders, agencies and organizations must adopt high quality evaluation designs tailored to meet three basic tenets: (1) different processes for policy formation and demonstration of accountability; (2) clear accountability expectations built into policies; (3) responsibility for accountability focused at level of application. There is a need to swing from a political to a knowledge base in decisions to carry out policy directives. School operations are often based on tenacity, authority, or intuition instead of information. Accomplishments must be based on astuteness rather than opinion backed by power. Success in demonstrating accountability requires reliable and valid knowledge and technology. Two figures are included.   [More]  Descriptors: Accountability, Elementary Secondary Education, Formative Evaluation, Organizational Development

Spielmann, Guy; Radnofsky, Mary L. (1997). Power Structures, Change, and the Illusion of Democracy: A Semiotic Study of Leadership and Policy-Making. There is ample evidence that the success or failure of school reform lies not only in the soundness and appropriateness of the reform model chosen, but primarily in its perception, acceptance, and endorsement by teachers. This essay expresses the concept of power as it applies to school reform that focuses on teacher empowerment and professionalization. The paper is based on a grounded theory developed from a qualitative case study that assessed the impact of a newly implemented, districtwide staff-development program. The data are analyzed using an ethnosemiotic approach to explain how a fundamental ambivalence in the concepts of "power" and "professionalism" may prevent the reform from succeeding, even in the absence of overt crisis or resistance. Data were gathered through interviews with and observations of 80 teachers and administrators over 7 months. The paper defines power qualitatively in four different modalities–power ("being-able-to-do"), independence ("being-able-not-to-do"), powerlessness ("not-being-able-to-do"), and submission ("not-being-able-not-to-do"). The study found that the reform framers had proceeded upon a series of false assumptions: neglecting to distinguish between having power over someone and having the power to act; treating power quantitatively as a one-dimensional commodity; and equating empowerment with professionalism without establishing a correlation between power and responsibility. Reforms must concentrate on changing the prevalent teacher culture, which is unfavorable to the professional ethic and to the establishment of truly democratic structures. Five figures are included. (Contains 23 references.)   [More]  Descriptors: Elementary Secondary Education, Leadership, Policy Formation, Power Structure

Ericson, David P.; Marlow, Stacey E. (1996). Democracy, Power, and Authority: The Development of a Conceptual Basis for Shared Professionalism between Teachers and Administrators, Journal of School Leadership. Examines empowerment issues involved in pursuing shared administrator/teacher professionalism. Arguing that all educators have role expectations grounded in moral ideals and commitments external to their current and historic roles, substantiates the call for greater teacher autonomy and empowerment, while establishing the need for and authority of school administrators. (27 references) Descriptors: Administrator Education, Administrator Role, Democracy, Elementary Secondary Education

Marja, Talvi (1993). The Role of Voluntary Organizations and Non-Formal Adult Education in the Struggle for Freedom and Democracy, Convergence. The transition of Estonia from totalitarian to democratic society poses challenges for adult education. Changes already taking place include voluntary training, use of private sector schools, opportunities for study abroad, reestablishment of folk high schools, and formation of the Adult Education Association of Estonia. Descriptors: Adult Education, Democracy, Educational Change, Foreign Countries

Dixon, Douglas A. (1996). Teaching Democracy as a "Practical" Science: Reorganizing the Curriculum at Institutions of Higher Education for Active Citizenship. This paper identifies project-based curriculum elements to increase postsecondary students' sense of political efficacy and their political interest, knowledge, and participation. It evaluates factors correlated with low levels of voting and the implementation of registration activities as remedies; it then introduces curriculum elements based on research to increase the quality and quantity of political participation among the State of Georgia's postsecondary students, including interest group organization and electoral strategies as well as problem identification and analysis. Data and analysis of recent Georgia elections are presented which demonstrate the potential influence that young voters may wield if they unify around common objectives and coordinate their registration and voting activities to influence specific primary and general elections. It is suggested that current voter registration efforts are inadequate and may be improved among students by in-class activities in political science classes. Students also need to learn how to analyze and evaluate public problems, proposed remedies, and their potential consequences and underlying values. Teaching political education using federalism as a central organizing concept is also recommended, and postsecondary institutions are recommended as especially fruitful sources for instilling political responsibility in young voters. Inclusion of a project-based curricular strategy in postsecondary political science classes may result in more effective and higher quality political participation among these young citizens. A theoretical, basic outline for such a project is suggested. (Contains 45 references.)   [More]  Descriptors: Citizenship Responsibility, Civics, Curriculum Development, Democracy

Goldschmidt, Dietrich (1976). Participatory Democracy in Schools and Higher Education: Emerging Problems in the Federal Republic of Germany and Sweden, Higher Education. An interpretive discussion of a cooperative enquiry by commissions set up by the Federal Republic of Germany and by Sweden to investigate the problem of democratization and participation in the educational and research systems of the two countries. Purposes, comparisons, findings, and recommendations are summarized with discussion of problems involved in such cross-cultural studies. Descriptors: Comparative Education, Democracy, Educational Policy, Elementary Secondary Education

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