Bibliography: Democracy (page 429 of 605)

This annotated bibliography is reformatted and customized for the I'm with Jill website.  Some of the authors featured on this page include Sherry Walton, Roxanne Rhoades, Letitia Hochstrasser Fickel, Felisa Tibbitts, Richard W. Clark, Margaret Stimmann Branson, Penn Kemble, James B. Reed, Pam Coughlin, and Robert Ferguson.

Tibbitts, Felisa (1999). Prospects for Civics Education in Transitional Democracies: Results of an Impact Study in Romanian Classrooms. An impact study was conducted in the 1994-95 and 1995-96 school years with a single cohort of Romanian students (n=109) who used experimental civics texts in the seventh and the eighth forms. The texts emphasized critical thinking, dialogue, and participatory methods of instruction. In addition to these "treatment" classrooms, comparison classroom students (attending the same school but receiving civics instruction using the official Ministry textbooks) were administered a student questionnaire. Closed-ended questions asked students to rate the importance of a series of proposed characteristics of a good citizen, as well as the importance of individual human rights listed in the survey. The two-page questionnaire included an open-ended question about what the students considered to be characteristics of a good citizen. Data from nearly 900 surveys were collected over the course of the study. Findings appear to confirm other studies that have shown a clear link between instructional methodology and the development of participatory attitudes, or "civic behavior" of students. (Contains 9 tables and 12 references.)   [More]  Descriptors: Citizen Participation, Citizenship Education, Civics, Comparative Analysis

Clark, Richard W. (1999). Effective Professional Development Schools. Agenda for Education in a Democracy Series. Volume 3. This book presents a theoretical basis for Professional Development Schools (PDSs) as well as practical guidance for establishing, funding, and evaluating them. It offers a comprehensive view of the role that PDSs play in today's educational renewal efforts and insights about the potential that a quality PDS can bring to learning at many levels. It explores some of the key concepts that school- and university-based educators need to consider as they work together in PDS settings. The eight chapters are (1) "Introduction: Definition, Description, and Benefits of a Professional Development School (PDS)"; (2) "Cultivating the Fabric: Conditions in Creating a PDS"; (3) "Cutting the Cloth: Forging a Common Educational Mission"; (4) "The First Layer of Clothes: Processes in Creating a PDS"; (5) "Style, Not Fad: Essential Qualities of an Effective PDS"; (6) "Keeping the Britches Up: PDS Costs and Financing"; (7) "Ensuring that There Really are Clothes: Evaluating a PDS"; and (8) "Lead On: The Leadership Imperative." The book includes an essay by John Goodlad addressing the challenges of school-university partnerships. Descriptors: Change Strategies, College School Cooperation, Democracy, Educational Change

Vavrus, Michael; Walton, Sherry; Kido, Janice; Diffendal, Elizabeth; King, Pauletta (1999). Weaving the Web of Democracy: Confronting Conflicting Expectations for Teachers and Schools, Journal of Teacher Education. Shares Evergreen State College's attempts to create and provide a teacher-preparation program that examines what it means to teach in a democratic, pluralistic society, presenting six provocative declaratives about democratic education that the program uses for its internal program discussions and explaining how the program contends with each provocative declarative. Descriptors: Consciousness Raising, Cultural Pluralism, Democracy, Democratic Values

Fickel, Letitia Hochstrasser (1999). Democracy Is Messy: Exploring the Beliefs and Personal Theories of a High School Social Studies Teacher. A case study examined the beliefs and theories of a high school social studies teacher and the life experiences he used to explain how he came to hold those beliefs. Examining the teacher's beliefs and theories and also the experiential roots of these theories offers greater potential for illuminating the role of teacher biography in curriculum decisions and the implications of biographical issues for teacher education. Naturalistic inquiry methods of observation and semi-structured interviews were the predominant modes of data collection. The teacher-participant was selected by criterion-based sampling. From data analysis of classroom observation, fragments of his classroom dialogue that appeared to represent a theory or belief were selected and used as talking points during the interviews. The teacher's classroom instruction was consistently reflective of how he portrayed it in the stories and conversations he shared outside the classroom. He talked explicitly about his philosophical stance and the beliefs that formed the framework for his classroom actions. A focus on social issues and problem-centered critical inquiry are key features of social education theory and hallmarks of his practice. He seemed to have a set of strong schema about education, knowledge, learning, and teaching from which to make conscious and principled decisions. It is clear that his personal theories developed from a set of life experiences and were formed in interaction with formally derived theoretical constructs. Contains 34 references.   [More]  Descriptors: Classroom Communication, Classroom Techniques, High Schools, Interviews

Reed, James B., Ed.; Zelio, Judy A., Ed. (1995). States and Tribes: Building New Traditions. A Broad Examination of the Condition of State-Tribal Relations and Opportunities for Mutually Beneficial Cooperation as the 21st Century Approaches, from a State Legislative Policy Perspective. This report summarizes efforts of the Task Force on State-Tribal Relations of the National Conference of State Legislatures to bring together state legislators, Native American leaders, and other parties interested in seeking new approaches to state-tribal relations. The report incorporates the results of a national survey of state-tribal relations, 12 meetings held around the country, and published papers on a wide range of topics concerning state-tribal affairs. The first chapter addresses issues related to the changing interactions between states and Indian tribes, including the significance of treaties, tribal sovereignty, and state-tribal jurisdiction. The second chapter reports on a survey of state legislators, tribal leaders and associations, and state attorneys-general.  Survey results indicate that misunderstandings about tribal sovereignty are at the core of many state-tribal conflicts, and that communication between states and tribes needs improvement. Respondents also described several successful state-tribal agreements. The third chapter discusses strategies for states and tribes in resolving differences, including negotiated settlements, mediated agreements, litigation, and intergovernmental agreements. The next six chapters address state roles in Indian health, education, and child welfare; state-tribal economic development partnerships; states and the Indian Gaming Regulatory Act; seeking agreement on taxes; natural resource allocation and management; and environmental regulation. The last chapter includes recommendations for improving state-tribal relations and concludes that negotiated approaches to state-tribal disputes are the best strategy for strengthening democracy. Appendix includes a list of members of the Task Force on State-Tribal Relations and information on task force meetings. Contains references in each chapter and an index. Descriptors: American Indian Education, American Indian Reservations, American Indians, Child Welfare

Kemble, Penn (1993). Resisting the Isolationist Temptation. Public and congressional opinion of U.S. involvement in world affairs has begun shifting from support to opposition. Recent public opinion polls and congressional decisions such as the one to re-direct $100 million of the United States Information Agency's (USIA) budget to Midwest flood relief indicate waning advocacy for internationalism and a growing tendency toward isolationism. Lack of a clear understanding about the impact of international affairs programs has led to ebbing enthusiasm for such projects. The United States must maintain the international relations cultivated during and following the Cold War; the nation cannot separate its domestic economy and foreign policy by decreasing world involvement because it depends too much on foreign trade and resources. The notion that to rebuild the domestic economy the United States must direct its attention away from the outside world is challenged by several facts, including: (1) 1991 imports and exports comprised nearly one quarter of the Gross National Product; (2) 50 percent of overall growth since the mid-70s has been in exports; (3) one of every six manufacturing jobs in this country depends on exports; and (4) of all articles published recently in research and scientific journals worldwide, half were co-authored by people from countries other than the United States. Engagement with other countries is vital not only economically, but also because of the threat of other countries' ballistic missile, bacterial, and chemical weapons capabilities; migrations of large groups of people; and environmental threats such as global warming and acid rain. The mission of USIA and similar organizations is largely educational–specifically, to promote and spread democracy–and because a world of democratic nations is a more harmonious and thus safer one, continued support of internationalism by the United States is critical.   [More]  Descriptors: Foreign Policy, Global Approach, Global Education, Higher Education

Spigelman, Candace (1999). Trying for Democracy: Group Decision-Making in the Portfolio Classroom, Composition Studies. Looks at the notion of the democratic public sphere as a useful construct for collaborative practices in portfolio classrooms. Describes the author's efforts to foster democratic participation by situating portfolio talk and assessment within the public space of one developmental writing classroom. Describes conflicts unseen until the end of the course and poses some suggestions for their potential resolution. Descriptors: Cooperative Learning, Decision Making, Democratic Values, Group Discussion

Dawson, Edgar (1922). Preparation of Teachers of the Social Studies for the Secondary Schools. Bulletin, 1922, No. 3, Bureau of Education, Department of the Interior. Education is the process of handing down to the rising generation the wisdom and experience of the generations that have gone before. Now, as mankind is hesitatingly turning into new paths here and there it is all the more necessary that the most careful attention be given to the points of departure and the reason for departing from the old ones. If the new generations are to think about industry, government, and society in general in terms of the new democracy, it is of the utmost importance that the definitions of this new democracy be explained to the growing youth with all the care, and thoroughness of which we are capable. However new the principles to be taught, the need of teaching the bases of the society in which one lives is certainly not new. It has been recognized by every seeing man since history began. Aristotle says: "But of all things which I have mentioned that which most contributes to the permanence of constitutions is the adaptation of education to the form of government." In our day this principle is universally neglected. The best laws, though sanctioned by every citizen of the state will be of no avail unless the young are trained by habit and education in the spirit of the constitution. One might very well think it is the voice of a twentieth century leader. From the earliest writers to the most recent the demand has been reiterated that the youth be trained in order that the state may be safe: and from the earliest times to the most recent, the demand has been ignored. This was true before the enormous difficulties which democracy brings became so pressing. How much more urgent is civic education now! Education in citizenship is so universally demanded now that the reader will ask why this effort to prove the obvious. Everyone is saying that the youth must be educated in the duties and responsibilities of democratic citizenship. Like those of old who cried "Peace, Peace," when there was no peace, our contemporaries cry for education in citizenship when there is but little of it to be found. This may seem an unwarrantedly pessimistic statement but the reader is asked to be patient in forming his judgment as to its truth. If it is true that there can be no education where there are no teachers; and if it is true that teachers are persons who are trained for their tasks; then the statement is not as pessimistic as it sounds. The argument of this paper is simple and elementary. It accepts the course of study which is already backed by the support of the leading students of the problems involved in the making of curricula. The tasks of these students are already difficult enough, made so in part by the fact that specialists fail to recognize that all the various academic interests can not make separate courses of study and impose them upon the schools. All that the paper hopes to do is to play the part of the sunglass and to collect such rays of knowledge as we have and direct them with some concentrated force on one small spot. This spot is the question: "Why are the universities not training teachers of the social studies for the secondary schools?" First addressed is the question, "What are the social Studies?" So long as it is assumed that history is all of the social studies the elements of the others will be neglected as they are now. After an effort at the definition of these studies as it is formulated in educational practice, the present neglect to present the subject matter of these studies to prospective teachers is reviewed. Then follows an examination of training in the methods of teaching. Finally, some space is given to one grave defect in the practice of the school administrators–the granting of what are called blanket certificates which certify to little or nothing. Some conclusions are appended and a brief statement is offered as a concrete illustration of a well developed system of teacher training. Contents include: (1) Introduction; (2) What Are the Social Studies: (3) Failure to Prepare Teachers in Secondary Schools; (4) Training in Methods of Teaching; (5) The Blanket Certificate; and (6) Conclusion. "A Hopeful Example of Teacher Training" is appended. [Best copy available was provided.]   [More]  Descriptors: Teacher Certification, Teaching Methods, Secondary Schools, Social Studies

Ford, Elizabeth; Coughlin, Pam (1999). The Step by Step Program: Linking Democracy and Early Childhood Education, Young Children. Discusses the Step by Step Program, funded by the Open Society Institute (OSI) and operated in Eastern and Central Europe, former Soviet states, Haiti, and South Africa. Discusses OSI's belief that educating the youngest members of society in a way that encourages individualism, choice, initiative, and appreciation of differences can lead to a new generation of democratic citizens. Descriptors: Child Caregivers, Citizenship Education, Democracy, Democratic Values

Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development, Paris (France). (1995). Schools under Scrutiny. The performance of national education systems is a growing concern in many Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) countries. This book focuses on the assessment of school performance in seven countries: England, France, Germany, New Zealand, Spain, Sweden, and the United States. The research questions include: Why are schools being judged? By what criteria? and How are they held accountable for their performance? Part I is comprised of five chapters which examine these issues, drawing on evidence from member countries. Chapter 1 looks at the pressures that have precipitated such changes and identifies some reasons for the current increased interest in the performance of schools as separate units. Chapter 2 examines the purposes of school evaluation, which are broadly categorized under accountability and school improvement. The main methods used for evaluating schools are examined in chapter 3. Followup steps taken after evaluation are described in the fourth chapter. The fifth chapter compares national approaches in terms of the reasons for evaluation and the use of different methods. Four key messages emerge: (1) objective, external assessment and "friendly" advice from those acquainted with the school are equally important; (2) performance indicators should be related to the quality of a school's education; (3) simply making schools accountable is insufficient to improve performance, but desirable in terms of transparency and democracy in education; and (4) build on the expertise and professionalism of teachers to develop an unthreatening but demanding climate of self-review in schools. Part 2 summarizes the school-evaluation process and its relationship to the education system as a whole in each of the participating countries. Each country summary includes case studies of schools that have recently been involved in evaluation procedures. (Contains 19 references.) Descriptors: Accountability, Comparative Education, Decentralization, Educational Assessment

Branson, Margaret Stimmann (1996). The Human Rights Challenge. World reaction to the 1995 release from house arrest of Aung San Suu Kyi, leader and founder of the major opposition party in Burma (now Myanmar), indicates significant change in international relations, specifically in the international political system. The total sovereign states today (249) have increased, as have system "rules" relating to human rights. The concept of human rights was introduced in the 17th century; until World War II, citizens' liberties were considered the bailiwick only of their respective nations; no nation was to interfere with another's administration of rights. The United Nations (UN), created in 1945, was the first manifestation of the idea that a nation's treatment of its citizens should concern the rest of the world. The original member states agreed that "human rights and fundamental freedoms" should be a high priority. The UN, regional human rights regimes, and nongovernmental organizations primarily have been responsible for monitoring and administering human rights in the international community. Many critics have expressed disappointment with the UN's attempts to establish and enforce human rights. Regional rights organizations in Western Europe, however, have enjoyed several successes in this realm; African, Asian, and Middle Eastern regimes have seen limited success. It is generally agreed that nongovernmental organizations have achieved the most. Despite accomplishments in human rights, no proclamation, international court, or commission can guarantee that human rights will be upheld. This prompts the question: do bills or declarations of rights really matter? The question should be at the core of civic education for democracy and liberty. Contains 34 references.   [More]  Descriptors: Civil Law, Civil Liberties, Civil Rights Legislation, Freedom

Henderson, Steven M. (2002). Hungary and Poland: "Hungary" Stable Partner in Democracy. Building Partnership for Europe: Poland after a Decade System of Transformation. Fulbright-Hayes Summer Seminars Abroad Program, 2002 (Hungary and Poland). This curriculum project provides insight into the transformation processes in which the nations of Hungary and Poland have been participating, from approximately 1979-2002. A major focus of the project is to organize a set of information that teachers and students can analyze and understand the Hungarian and Polish quality of life during the Soviet era and after each nation gained its independence. This curriculum compilation includes four sections: (1) ideas about how educators might use excerpts from the project with students as primary source material; (2) answers to a set of questions asked by the Fulbright seminar participant (the author) about politics, economics, and society in Poland and Hungary; (3) detailed lecture notes from each day of the seminar; and (4) a bibliography of materials for reader insights into useful topic resources related to Hungary and Poland. Three themes were employed to anchor the central questions used to interview lecturers and other participants in the project: (1) methods of political, social, and economic control used by the Soviet Union to govern in Hungary and Poland; (2) freedom efforts, employed by citizens in Hungary and Poland, which were aimed at securing political, social, and economic control over their own fate; and (3) how well Hungary and Poland have fared socially, economically, and politically since each nation gained its independence from Soviet influence.   [More]  Descriptors: Curriculum Development, Democracy, Economic Factors, Foreign Countries

Rhoades, Roxanne (1995). Destination: Paraguay. Study Guide. This guide offers a closer look at Paraguay as a landlocked republic in the heart of South America. The activities emphasize the interaction between the people and their land and pertain to three academic levels. Activities for grades 3-5 include: (1) "Packing for Paraguay"; (2) "Where in the World Are We Going and How in the World Will We Get There?"; (3) "Now Boarding for Departure"; (4) "Getting There is Half the Fun"; (5) "Sights Along the Way: A Field Guide to Wildlife in Paraguay"; (6) "A Day in the Life"; and (7) "Aleluya!" Activities for grades 6-9 include: (1) "Destination: Paraguay"; (2) "Testing the Waters"; (3) "Paraguay's Blending of Cultures"; (4) "Agriculture in Paraguay"; (5) "School Life in Paraguay"; and (6) "Source of Power." Activities for grades 10-12 include: (1) "Land of the Rivers"; (2) "Viewing the Video"; (3) "Nueva Minneapolis?"; (4) "Deforestation in Paraguay"; (5) "Compulsory Democracy?"; and (6) "Tales of the Chaco." The six basic themes of geography serve as the essential organizing structure of the units. Each activity is coded by number to the geography standards to which it best relates and is presented in five sections: (1) focus; (2) resources; (3) background; (4) activities; and (5) extension. Activities can be adapted for the needs and interests of different students.   [More]  Descriptors: Area Studies, Cross Cultural Studies, Elementary Secondary Education, Environmental Education

Ferguson, Robert (1999). The Mass Media and the Education of Students in a Democracy: Some Issues To Consider, Social Studies. Addresses the major issues in relation to media education in the United Kingdom focusing on the various approaches that have be used historically. Outlines what media education is not and what it could be and discusses why media education is important to democratic societies. Highlights some key terms in media education. Descriptors: Audiences, Democracy, Educational Philosophy, Foreign Countries

National Register of Historic Places, Washington, DC. Interagency Resources Div. (1999). Albert Gallatin: Champion of American Democracy. Friendship Hill National Historic Site Educational Guide. This teacher's guide is designed to prepare teachers and their students for a rewarding experience when visiting the Friendship Hill National Historic Site, the home of Albert Gallatin (1761-1849). Gallatin was a financier, entrepreneur, politician, diplomat, scholar, and colleague of Thomas Jefferson, James Madison, and James Monroe. The guide provides a brief biography of Gallatin for the educator, pre-visit lessons for the students, an outline of the on-site programs, and suggested reading and post-visit activities. The contents of this guide are: (1) "Educators' Study Guide" (to Friendship Hill National Historic Site); (2) "Suggested Pre-Visit Activities" (written for elementary students utilizing area districts curriculum themes); (3) "Park Visit Online"; (4) "On-Site Program List" (with information about the programs offered at the park including their themes and objectives); (5) "Suggested Reading"; and (6) "Post-Visit Activities." (Contains 11 resources.)   [More]  Descriptors: Elementary Secondary Education, Field Trips, Heritage Education, Historic Sites

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