Monthly Archives: October 2017

Bibliography: Democracy (page 508 of 605)

This annotated bibliography is reformatted and customized for the I'm with Jill website.  Some of the authors featured on this page include Perry M. Marker, Ja Oek Gu, Raphael Cohen-Almagor, Theresa Richardson, Kerry Krutilla, Gregory E. Hamot, Fred Barton, Rene W. Aubourg, Mohsen Shokoohi-Yekta, and Peggy Petrzelka.

Lo, William Yat Wai; Gu, Ja Oek (2008). Reforming School Governance in Taiwan and South Korea: Empowerment and Autonomization in School-Based Management, International Journal of Educational Management. Purpose: The article aims to use the globalization theory and the implications of democratization for social policy to analyze the school governance reforms in Taiwan and South Korea. Design/methodology/approach: The article describes the main features of decentralization policy in the school sectors in the two societies with a historical review of their democratic transition and educational reforms during the 1990s. It then classifies decentralization into two categories, namely managerial decentralization and societal decentralization, by conceptualizing their context, rationales and policy instruments. It closes by considering the implications of Taiwan's and South Korea's experiences for educational decentralization and education reforms. Findings: It is found that in Taiwan there is a comprehensive and institutionalized empowerment of teachers and parents but full institutionalization of involvement of the school community is still in progress in South Korea. Originality/value: This article reviews and compares the development and major changes of school governance in Taiwan and South Korea.   [More]  Descriptors: Educational History, School Based Management, Global Approach, Governance

Ross, E. Wayne; Marker, Perry M. (2005). Social Studies: Wrong, Right, or Left? A Critical Response to the Fordham Institute's where Did Social Studies Go Wrong?, Social Studies. The history of social studies in the twentieth century is the story of a field of study not yet coming of age. As is true in most emerging fields, the first one hundred years of social studies has been marked by confusion, competing visions, inconsistency, incoherence, and intolerance. Many have considered the social studies' first century as problematic–consisting of wars, factions, and contradictions. However, it might be argued that the coming of age of the social studies is part of a developmental process that marks social studies as a field that is alive; constantly changing and evolving. This process, so far, has resulted in debates that focus on the irreconcilable differences as to what the social studies is and what it ought to be. Descriptors: Social Studies, Educational History, Intellectual Disciplines, Democracy

Paniagua, Freddy A. (2005). Some Thoughts on the "Staircase to Terrorism", American Psychologist. Comments on F. M. Moghaddam's article (see record 2005-01817-002) which uses the metaphor of a narrowing staircase "to provide a more in-depth understanding of terrorism." In the article, "staircase to terrorism," a person will become a terrorist because he or she experiences "injustice and the feelings of frustration and shame" on "the ground floor." If this situation does not change on higher floors, particularly on the fourth and fifth floors, this person will realize that terrorism is the only way to have a "democratic participation in addressing perceived justices." Therefore, the prevention and end of terrorism will be achieved "only by reforming conditions on the ground floor." People who perceive injustices and unfairness in a given political system may, indeed, try to destroy that system with terrorism. But this is political terrorism, not the form of Islamic fundamentalist terrorism or messianic terrorism directed by Osama bin Laden and Abu Musad al-Zarqawi. The author concludes that the metaphor may explain the origin of political terrorism but not the origin of Islamic fundamentalist or messianic terrorism.   [More]  Descriptors: Terrorism, Political Attitudes, Figurative Language, Justice

Gunter, Helen (2005). Putting Education Back into Leadership, FORUM: for promoting 3-19 comprehensive education. Leadership must always be suspect in a radical tradition, not because it is unnecessary or unimportant, but because it too readily re-enforces the status quo, even when it tries hard not to. Helen Gunter argues that leadership needs to re-engage with learning, not merely focus on performance, and that we need to have the courage to exercise judgement. Educational leadership is not just the must of delivering efficient and effective organisations, but is also about challenging the power structures and cultures that are inherited and can act as barriers to democratic development. It is about the central importance of reengaging with the specifically "public" nature of what education and schooling should be in a democratic society.   [More]  Descriptors: School Administration, Administrator Role, Learning, Instructional Leadership

Aubourg, Rene W.; Good, David H.; Krutilla, Kerry (2008). Debt, Democratization, and Development in Latin America: How Policy Can Affect Global Warming, Journal of Policy Analysis and Management. The environmental Kuznets curve (EKC) hypothesis conjectures a nonlinear relationship between pollution and economic growth, such that pollution per capita initially increases as countries economically develop, but then reaches a maximum point before ultimately declining. Much of the EKC literature has focused on testing this basic hypothesis and, in studies that find evidence of an EKC, estimating the "turning point" level of development at which the per capita pollution-growth relationship changes sign. This approach has not emphasized the policy relevance of specification issues or the potential role of policy variables. This research explores a modified EKC specification which conditions the pollution-growth relationship on a country's level of debt and degree of democratization. These variables turn out to be significant, implying that different political and economic contexts can shift EKCs and their turning points. These findings suggest that policies to relieve debt burdens and institute political reform, in addition to their usual justifications, also could be used as a strategy to reduce carbon emissions from developing countries.   [More]  Descriptors: Economic Progress, Social Action, Debt (Financial), Foreign Countries

Hyslop-Margison, Emery J.; Richardson, Theresa (2005). Rethinking Progressivism and the Crisis of Liberal Humanism: Historical and Contemporary Perspectives on Education for Democratic Citizenship, International Journal of Progressive Education. In this paper, we examine the current siege on progressivism in light of these dual tendencies from both an historical and contemporary perspective. We defend the democratic objectives of progressive education from various contemporary attacks that view student-centered learning as academically inefficacious. With the assistance of Dewey's arguments, we argue that public schools should produce students prepared to assume their democratic citizenship responsibilities by pursuing the liberal humanistic strand of progressive education. We believe that progressive education approaches that emphasize student centered learning and conjoint decision-making afford an indispensable element to achieve that critically important objective.   [More]  Descriptors: Progressive Education, Humanism, Democracy, Citizenship Education

Cohen-Almagor, Raphael (2008). Hate in the Classroom: Free Expression, Holocaust Denial, and Liberal Education, American Journal of Education. This article is concerned with a specific type of hate speech: Holocaust denial.  It is concerned with the expression of this idea by educators. Should we allow Holocaust deniers to teach in schools? This article attempts to answer this question through a close look at the Canadian experience. First, I will establish that Holocaust denial is a form of hate speech. Next, I will lay down the main premises of the argument and make some constructive distinctions that will guide our treatment of teachers who are Holocaust deniers. Finally, I will probe three cases–James Keegstra, Malcolm Ross, and Paul Fromm–and argue that hatemongers cannot assume the role of educators.   [More]  Descriptors: Teacher Role, Ethnicity, Case Studies, Defense Mechanisms

Hamot, Gregory E.; Shokoohi-Yekta, Mohsen; Sasso, Gary M. (2005). Civic Competencies and Students with Disabilities, Journal of Social Studies Research. Increasing numbers of students with disabilities receive a majority of their formal education in general education settings where they must be taught the knowledge, skills, and attitudes necessary to lead fully equitable and participatory lives in a democratic society. Given the need for all students to acquire civic understanding, the purpose of this study was to explore and describe knowledge of selected civic competencies as found in students of inclusive social studies classes and how they acquired this knowledge. Quantitative methods were used to explore whether or not the level of understanding these competencies was significantly similar between students with disabilities and general education students in inclusive classrooms, thus supporting or questioning the philosophical underpinnings of inclusion in a democratic society. Additionally, qualitative methods were used to describe the sources responsible for student understanding of selected civic competencies with the goal of determining similarities and differences in these students' knowledge bases.   [More]  Descriptors: Disabilities, Democracy, Citizenship Education, Inclusive Schools

Stanley, William B. (2005). Social Studies and the Social Order: Transmission or Transformation?, Social Education. In this article, the author brings a historical perspective to the perennial question, "Should social studies teachers work to transmit the status quo or to transform it?" Should they transmit or transform the social order? When one looks at the question of education for social transformation in the context of American history, three prevailing perspectives emerge. First, a strong form of education for social transformation was developed by George Counts in the 1930s and remains part of more recent work by various proponents of "critical pedagogy" and counter-socialization. A second, and frequently misunderstood, perspective is found in John Dewey's curriculum theory, which rejected Counts's core argument. The influence of Dewey's pragmatic approach to education is also found in the work of more recent curriculum theorists such as Cleo Cherryholmes and Tony Whitson. A third view, opposed to education for social transformation, is found in the work of various conservative writers, most recently George Posner, and social studies educator James Leming. Posner's views have roots in the earlier work of Walter Lippmann, one of Dewey's intellectual colleagues in the 1920s and 30s. In this article, the author summarizes briefly each of the three perspectives and then concludes with his thoughts on how this issue remains relevant to social studies education. Descriptors: Social Studies, Teachers, Social Change, Social Structure

Marquart-Pyatt, Sandra T.; Petrzelka, Peggy (2008). Trust, the Democratic Process, and Involvement in a Rural Community, Rural Sociology. A number of dimensions of the democratic political process are important for understanding civic communities and civic engagement. While many of these aspects have been examined at the federal level, less is known about how these dynamics operate at the local level, especially in rural communities, and that, moreover, involve a specific issue. In this study, we explore the relationships between trust in public officials, views of the decision-making process, and issue-related involvement in a rural community in Utah. In particular, we examine the factors underpinning citizens' expressed levels of general trust in public officials, support for the decision-making process in their community related to a specific issue, the factors influencing individuals to participate in the issue, and how citizens view various groups involved in defining the public good related to the specific issue. We find 1) that perceptions of the political process influence all three aspects of the democratic process, 2) that neither lack of trust nor dissatisfaction appears to be detrimental to the democratic process at the local level, and 3) that differences in opinion regarding definitions of the public good intersect with other aspects of the political process. This research sheds light on factors influencing rural community functioning and citizen responses to proposed changes. In discussing the results, we reflect in particular on their implications for rural communities.   [More]  Descriptors: Trust (Psychology), Democracy, Public Officials, Rural Areas

O'Gorman, Ned (2008). Eisenhower and the American Sublime, Quarterly Journal of Speech. This essay presents Dwight D. Eisenhower's presidential rhetoric as an iteration of an American synecdochal sublime. Eisenhower's rhetoric sought to re-aim civic sight beyond corporeal objects to the nation's transcendental essence. This rhetoric is intimately connected to prevailing political anxieties and exigencies, especially the problem of "the Bomb" and the related philosophy of deterrence. Over and against the material presence of the atomic bomb, which threatened to concentrate national energies, Eisenhower advanced an expansive vision of national "spiritual" being to which corporeal images could only gesture. Correlatively, he positioned himself as a kind of priestly mediator. Therefore, he not only justified a strong deterrent stance in the Cold War, but made moral sense of it.   [More]  Descriptors: United States History, Weapons, Rhetoric, War

Center for Civic Education (2005). Voting and Political Participation of We the People: The Citizen and the Constitution Alumni in the 2004 Election. Between November 2004, and March 2005, the Center for Civic Education conducted a survey of alumni from the We the People: The Citizen and the Constitution program. Altogether, 522 alumni responded, ranging in age from 18-34. The primary focus of the study was on voting and other forms of political engagement. Due to self-selection by respondents, these findings should be considered as suggestive rather than generalizable to all We the People alumni. We the People alumni were compared with a national probability study from the 2004 "National Election Studies" (NES) of other young Americans their age. In other questions, alumni were also compared with over 289,000 American college freshmen ("The American Freshman: National Norms for Fall 2004"). Among alumni eligible to vote in 2004, key findings are: (1) 92% of alumni reported voting in November 2000, in contrast to 78% of those surveyed in the NES study; (2) 85% of alumni said they had voted in all previous elections; (3) 63% reported being very interested in national politics and national affairs; (4) 60% of alumni discussed national politics and affairs every day or nearly every day; and (5) 58% of alumni felt becoming a community leader was essential or very important, in contrast to 31% of college freshmen. In summary, We the People alumni surveyed are better informed and more politically engaged than their peers.   [More]  Descriptors: Probability, Politics, College Freshmen, Voting

Barton, Fred (2005). Walking the Talk: Creating Engaged Citizens in English Class, English Journal. An English teacher describes his use of advocacy project for writing instruction and its ironies in the classroom. He asserts that such projects meet the instructor's educational aims while helping students recognize their place in a democratic society with the ability to influence institutional change.   [More]  Descriptors: Organizational Change, English Teachers, Democracy, Writing Instruction

Armstrong, Keith B. (2005). Autophotography in Adult Education: Building Creative Communities for Social Justice and Democratic Education, New Directions for Adult and Continuing Education. A composite technique blending photography and autobiography, known as autophotography, was used to unleash individual and group potential in a twelve-year participatory community.   [More]  Descriptors: Justice, Democracy, Autobiographies, Social Change

Winton, Sue (2008). The Appeal(s) of Character Education in Threatening Times: Caring and Critical Democratic Responses, Comparative Education. This article examines the resurgence in popularity of character education in the USA and Canada. It links this renewed interest to insecurities about academic achievement, economic competitiveness, civic engagement, personal safety, moral decline, and the loss of a common culture. Conceptualising policy as rhetoric, the article shows how character education policies in both countries use similar strategies to appeal to diverse audiences. The policies respond to desires for predictability and stability by claiming that traditional character education prepares students for the workforce, improves academic achievement, fosters active citizenship, creates safer schools, and teaches students universal values. The article concludes by proposing commitments to caring relationships and critical democratic education as socially just alternatives to traditional character education.   [More]  Descriptors: Citizenship, School Safety, Democracy, Academic Achievement

Bibliography: Democracy (page 507 of 605)

This bibliography is independently curated for the I'm with Jill website.  Some of the authors featured on this page include Nancy F. Burroughs, Glenda Moss, Lillian Benavente-McEnery, Marja-Liisa Hassi, Sung-Sang Yoo, Roger Stahl, Richard N. Engstrom, C. P. Gause, Thomas Muhr, and Laia Salo i Nevado.

Wagner, Paul A.; Benavente-McEnery, Lillian (2008). The Autistic Society and Its Classrooms, Educational Forum. Autistic means a subject has limited affect or may be without affect altogether. Though traditionally individuals are described as autistic, the authors find it increasingly apparent that American society is becoming autistic as a whole, as citizens are desensitized to needs of neighbors near and far, losing the commensurate loyalty of being in community. This essay suggests that classrooms must be on the front line of challenging the effects of an increasingly autistic society.   [More]  Descriptors: Social Influences, Social Attitudes, Interpersonal Relationship, Social Values

Moss, Glenda (2008). Diversity Study Circles in Teacher Education Practice: An Experiential Learning Project, Teaching and Teacher Education: An International Journal of Research and Studies. This paper addresses the dilemma of trying to prepare primarily white preservice teachers for educational arenas in which they will interface with students of colour and many who are socially disadvantaged. This paper describes how diversity study circles can be integrated as integral to education that is multicultural in the development of preservice teachers' critical self-reflection as a bridge to developing a critical lens for classroom practice and a democratic society.   [More]  Descriptors: Preservice Teacher Education, Preservice Teachers, Democracy, Disadvantaged

Smith, David Geoffrey (2008). From Leo Strauss to Collapse Theory: Considering the Neoconservative Attack on Modernity and the Work of Education, Critical Studies in Education. This paper locates the work of Leo Strauss within the broader conservative assault on modernity and especially its roots in liberalism. Four themes from Strauss's work are identified, then hermeneutically engaged for their relevance to educational practice in global times. The four themes are: (1) the liberal/modern concept of an open society is essentially nihilistic and cannot protect "particularities" from assimilation and encroachment; (2) the cosmopolitanism of modernity is inherently totalitarian, leading to a culture of management; (3) philosophy as the practice of persuasion has its limits, beyond which the practical necessities of life require the use of force; and (4) the reasons most vigorously offered in public for certain actions need not be the actual reasons.   [More]  Descriptors: Social Influences, Philosophy, Political Attitudes, History

Fennell, Jon M.; Simpson, Timothy L. (2008). Leo Strauss: Education and the Body Politic, Critical Studies in Education. Leo Strauss is commonly cited as a seminal influence for the neoconservatism that, in the minds of many commentators, dominates the administration of George W. Bush. What intersection, if any, exists between Strauss's views and neoconservatism? This paper investigates that question by studying Strauss's writings on liberal education and assessing whether, and on what grounds, liberal education as conceived by Strauss is capable of the vital role which he assigns to it. In addressing this question the paper examines the work of Joseph Tussman, a contemporary of Strauss, as a means of elucidating the depth and distinctiveness of the Straussian project. The essay concludes that while Strauss may have much in common with the themes of neoconservatism, his priorities extend beyond the neoconservative agenda and, in some cases, run counter to it.   [More]  Descriptors: Liberal Arts, General Education, Educational Philosophy, Politics of Education

Nimmo, John (2008). Young Children's Access to "Real Life": An Examination of the Growing Boundaries between Children in Child Care and Adults in the Community, Contemporary Issues in Early Childhood. Young children in industrialized societies are increasingly separated from the everyday lives of adults in their community. This article explores the historical and cultural dynamics (and contradictions) of a growing boundary between children, particularly those in child care, and adults without primary care-giving roles. The article proposes that young children's participation in and contributions to a democratic society are rooted in access to this "real life". The active role of children in the formation of social capital should be recognized by educators and policy makers as significant in the development of identity. A framework and strategies for developing meaningful child-adult relations in the context of child care are proposed as the basis for further research and practice.   [More]  Descriptors: Democracy, Young Children, Social Capital, Child Care

Stahl, Roger (2008). A Clockwork War: Rhetorics of Time in a Time of Terror, Quarterly Journal of Speech. Expressions of time have increasingly infused the rhetorical experience of post-industrial war, especially since 9/11. This essay demonstrates how these "signs of time" operate as one of three tropes: deadline/countdown, infinite/infinitesimal war, and the ticking clock. The persistence of such signs of time in public discourse can be seen as an expression of what Paul Virilio has called the "chronopolis," a political universe textured by real-time communication technologies. The chronopolitical will exhibits certain autocratic traits at odds with democratic ideals, primarily the refashioning of citizen identity into that of the "contemporary." The analysis here charts the autocratic rhetoric of the chronopolis as a critical democratic project.   [More]  Descriptors: War, Terrorism, Time, Democracy

Hassi, Marja-Liisa; Hannula, Aino; Salo i Nevado, Laia (2008). Adults' Numeracy in Finland: What Do We Know about It?, Adult Learning. Adult education has become a significant aspect of Finnish educational and developmental policy as well as of Finnish labor and social policies. Such factors as the need for occupational proficiency, employment, and economic growth have strongly influenced adult education in Finland. Besides the development of personality and support for the life of communities, principles such as the development and support of a democratic society, an increase in social cohesion, and the creation of opportunities for citizens' welfare have been expressed as current principles of Finnish adult education. The education settings that offer adults opportunities to improve their basic skills in mathematics are tightly connected to the overall Finnish education system and education tradition. In this article, the authors discuss the challenges for Finnish adult education and contrast Finland's first place ranking on the international assessment of mathematics skills, the Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA), with the country's challenges of a future labor shortage and a need to educate large numbers of older adults with low numeracy levels.   [More]  Descriptors: Economic Progress, Democracy, Numeracy, Adult Education

Burroughs, Nancy F. (2008). Raising the Question #10 Non-Native Speakers of English: What More Can We Do?, Communication Education. The author believes that communication courses, especially those that require mastery of skills and behaviors, should be embedded with a sensitivity to culture and communication apprehension. Her reflections here are designed to support the critical need to develop curriculum options that address students' anxieties and speaking English as a second language. In this article, she states that communication-trained professionals need to exert their expertise to assist college students and to reach out to high school populations to manage apprehension and to improve overall oral communication competence. As their borders become more permeable and fluid with both migration and globalization, the democratization of education means the time is ripe to address the needs of all their learners, not just the privileged few–the white, the wealthy, and the native-born speaker.   [More]  Descriptors: Curriculum Development, Global Approach, Democracy, English (Second Language)

Puaca, Brian M. (2008). Navigating the Waves of Change: Political Education and Democratic School Reform in Postwar West Berlin, History of Education Quarterly. This article concentrates on two pieces of legislation promulgated in the early 1960s in order to investigate the broader ideas and concerns surrounding political education in the postwar Federal Republic of Germany. These pieces of educational policy highlight the consensus for continued reform while recognizing the value of curricular and pedagogical innovations introduced after 1945. These documents signal the beginning of a "second wave" of reform that would result in more visible, dramatic changes in the curricula and pedagogy of the postwar schools. More importantly, they reflect a renewed commitment at the highest levels to political education that built upon previous initiatives–the "first wave" of reform–and promoted further innovation.   [More]  Descriptors: Educational Change, Educational Policy, Citizenship Education, Educational History

Engstrom, Richard N. (2008). Introductory American Government in Comparison: An Experiment, Journal of Political Science Education. Introduction to American Government classes can benefit from the addition of examples from comparative politics. Presenting students with examples of other democratic systems encourages them to confront the costs and benefits of choices made in the American context. Dealing with these "cognitive conflict" tasks facilitates higher level learning on the part of students. Examples of topics that can be presented comparatively are outlined, and experimental evidence is presented demonstrating that a comparative approach to teaching American Government can lead to improved student learning.   [More]  Descriptors: United States Government (Course), Introductory Courses, Teaching Methods, Comparative Analysis

Miedema, Siebren; Bertram-Troost, Gerdien (2008). Democratic Citizenship and Religious Education: Challenges and Perspectives for Schools in the Netherlands, British Journal of Religious Education. This article deals with the question what pedagogical and religious educational contributions have to offer to the debate on citizenship. Some historical background and theoretical conceptualisations of nowadays political focus on citizenship are described particularly focusing on the Dutch case. Explicit attention is given to the role of religion in the public domain. It is stressed that religion is more and more perceived as a source of power which could be positively used within the public domain. This development raises questions in relation to religious education at school, as schools are located in the intermediate domain between the public and the private domain. It is stated that both state schools and religious-affiliated schools have to take the impact of the process of globalisation seriously by preparing students for their encounter with cultural and religious "others." From a societal as well as pedagogical point of view, it is argued that all schools should be obliged to foster a religious dimension to citizenship.   [More]  Descriptors: Democracy, Educational Objectives, Religion, Foreign Countries

Yates, James R. (2008). Demographic Imperatives for Educational Reform for Culturally and Linguistically Diverse Students, Multiple Voices for Ethnically Diverse Exceptional Learners. Rapid demographic changes in culture, race/ethnicity, and language in the United States have exerted a powerful influence on public schools, raising significant concerns or issues relative to the ability of the educational system to successfully educate all of its children as future citizens of a democratic society. Educational outcome data for students from nondominant sociocultural and linguistic backgrounds highlight the failure of public schools to successfully educate all students. This lack of success is reflected in higher rates of retention, attrition, and placement in special education; lower rates of high school graduation and college entrance; and fewer degrees awarded. Implications for the future of society and policy priorities are suggested.   [More]  Descriptors: Public Schools, Democracy, Educational Objectives, Outcomes of Education

Yoo, Sung-Sang (2008). Democratization during the Transformative Times and the Role of Popular Education in the Philippines and Korea, Asia Pacific Education Review. Comparing popular education in the Philippines and South Korea, it is clear that a number of similarities and differences exist regarding the characteristics, methods, and main fields in which popular education has operated. "Church-related practices," "uniting with CO movements," "an elite-led tendency," and "a disregard for the Left" have all occurred in similar ways in both countries. While introducing the socio-political situation during 1970s and 1980s of these two countries, this paper discusses the theories and practices of popular education. Our findings indicate how popular education in both countries has played a significant role in raising the levels consciousness in the powerless and transforming societies and enabled them to establish a better community. Moreover, each country developed different concepts, initiatives and methods in relation to popular education. In addition, popular educators have been asked to play different roles in each popular education field while most methods were in fact heavily dependent upon elite-led practices.   [More]   [More]  Descriptors: Popular Education, Foreign Countries, Comparative Education, Educational Practices

Gause, C. P. (2008). Old School Meets New School: Unsettling Times at Freedom Junior-Senior High, Journal of Cases in Educational Leadership. This article is a case study designed to challenge the beliefs, values, and ideology of graduate students in educational leadership preparation programs regarding social justice and democratic education. This case is designed to assist students in developing the knowledge, skills, and dispositions to navigate the micropolitical environments that exist in learning communities. This case navigates the multiple sociocultural and political issues a superintendent might experience regarding demographic and cultural change. The case is multilayered and can be used in courses for the principalship and/or superintendency, as well as courses in the foundations of education and leadership.   [More]  Descriptors: Case Studies, Instructional Leadership, Leadership Training, Graduate Students

Muhr, Thomas (2008). Nicaragua Re-Visited: From Neo-Liberal "Ungovernability" to the Bolivarian Alternative for the Peoples of Our America (ALBA), Globalisation, Societies and Education. In this paper I conduct a historical analysis of the emergence of ALBA in Nicaragua prior to Daniel Ortega's return to the presidency and the country's official membership in the initiative from January 2007 on. I argue that ALBA is a rival structure that evolved from the contradictions inherent in hegemonic globalisation. Within the framework of a material analysis of poverty and exclusion under globalised neo-liberalism, I draw particular attention to the World Bank-led education "decentralisation" in Nicaragua. The failure of the finance-driven strategy, especially with respect to access to education and literacy, provided the grounds for the first ALBA project in Nicaragua to evolve within an "environment of ungovernability" from 2004 on. The response and challenge provided by ALBA builds on the regionalisation of Venezuela's endogenous development paradigm guided by the principles of solidarity, cooperation and complementarity. In contrast to other contemporary regionalisms, in ALBA the social dimension assumes a leading role from the outset, together with energy integration. The Nicaraguan case exemplifies ALBA's counter-hegemonic transnational operational mode, as well as its construction from the bottom up. This is illustrated in the fields of education, health care and energy supply.   [More]  Descriptors: Foreign Countries, Access to Education, Political Issues, Political Affiliation