Bibliography: Democracy (page 505 of 605)

This bibliography is independently curated for the I'm with Jill website.  Some of the authors featured on this page include Daniel W. Stuckart, Martin L. Mitchell, Jeffrey Glanz, Chance W. Lewis, Stuart Beall Phipps, Larry K. Brendtro, Anissa Lokey Vega, Kurt Mosser, Alison George Dover, and Helena Pedersen.

Pedersen, Helena (2010). Education Policymaking for Social Change: A Post-Humanist Intervention, Policy Futures in Education. The humanist tradition in Western education systems is increasingly coming under critical scrutiny by posthumanist scholars, arguing that Enlightenment humanism accommodates a number of serious shortcomings such as being essentialist, exclusive, and unable to meet its own criteria of value pluralism, tolerance, and equity for all. This article formulates some challenges posed to formal education by posthumanist theory, addressing international education policymaking for social change. Based on an analysis of a number of education policy documents produced by UNESCO, the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, the World Bank, the European Commission, and the Nordic Council of Ministers, it elicits five pervasive ideas about the relationship between education and social change that are frequently appearing in contemporary rhetoric of education policymaking: "the knowledge society"; "the democratic society"; "the multicultural society"; "the globalized society" and "the sustainable society". Inspired by critical discourse analysis, the article identifies a number of research questions focused on each of these five ideas and explores possible responses, inflected by a range of recent cross-disciplinary posthumanist scholarship, that deconstruct conventional assumptions about the idea of education in general and of education policymaking in particular. It concludes with a discussion of what subject positions and repertoires are, or are not, allowed to emerge in education policymaking for social change.   [More]  Descriptors: Democracy, Discourse Analysis, Social Change, Educational Change

Vega, Anissa Lokey (2010). Investigation of Alignment between Goals of Schooling Relevant to Georgia and the Georgia Performance Standards, ProQuest LLC. Since the American Revolution free public education has been a discussion of political debate. The purpose that such an institution should play in society is a debate fervently argued when the founding fathers wanted to build a republic based on meritocracy. The problem this study addresses is the undefined relationship between the goals of schooling relevant to Georgia and the Georgia Performance Standards (GPS) which is a critical piece to creating a complete systemic view of public schooling in Georgia. The purpose of this study is to investigate the alignment between the GPS and schooling goals. The guiding question and sub-questions are: How well are the GPS, or the intended curriculum of Georgia schools, and each of the various stated goals of schooling aligned? How relevant are the eighth-grade GPS to the latent themes of each of the stated goals of schooling? How balanced are the latent themes of each of the stated goals of schooling in the eighth-grade GPS?   Through a historical investigation of the literature and current policy the author establishes the currently relevant goals of schooling which serve as the latent goals for which the method will seek to find evidence within the Georgia Performance Standards. The study employs a quantitative content analysis of a significant section of the Georgia Performance Standards (GPS) looking for themes associated with various stated goals of schooling as indicated by the literature review. The manifest themes, developed from the latent goals of schooling, are incorporated as the dependent variables in the study, while the GPS serve as the independent variable. Neuendorf's (2001) framework for content analysis is used to develop a new method for investigating the goal-curriculum alignment relationship through new measures of Curricular Balance, Curricular Relevance, and Manifest Theme Presence. This study presents a new visual model to compare a curriculum's alignment to multiple goals of schooling called the Goal-Curriculum Alignment Measures (G-CAM) model. This study finds that the GPS are strongly aligned to the goals of Americanization, high student test scores, post-secondary enrollment, and national gain, while poorly aligned to democratic participation and social justice. Evidence for these conclusions are discussed and related to the current socio-political literature.   [The dissertation citations contained here are published with the permission of ProQuest LLC. Further reproduction is prohibited without permission. Copies of dissertations may be obtained by Telephone (800) 1-800-521-0600. Web page: www.proquest.com/en-US/products/dissertations/individuals.shtml.%5D   [More]  Descriptors: Social Justice, Investigations, Academic Achievement, Predictor Variables

Stuckart, Daniel W.; Glanz, Jeffrey (2010). Revisiting Dewey: Best Practices for Educating the Whole Child Today, Rowman & Littlefield Education. Since the passage of the No Child Left Behind Act of 2001, high-stakes testing has become a ubiquitous feature of public school children's daily rituals. Reform advocates argue that testing leads to greater alignment of the curriculum with teaching and learning, teacher and student accountability, and in some cases, a preservation of our cultural heritage. Opponents contend that testing results in prolific cheating, higher drop-out rates, and a narrowing curriculum with emphases on teaching to the test. Moreover, some evidence suggests that a singular focus on passing the test at all costs leads to neglect in other areas including attending to students' spiritual and ethical needs as well as developing abilities to collaborate with others, communicate effectively, and innovatively solve problems. Nearly a century ago, Dewey proposed a philosophy of education addressing the needs of the whole student. He provided insights into the development of intelligence, the importance of socially useful skills, and the healthy growth of the individual. In the context of high-stakes testing and best practices, his insights may be more prescient than ever.   [More]  Descriptors: Federal Legislation, Educational Change, High Stakes Tests, Testing

Haynes Writer, Jeanette (2010). Broadening the Meaning of Citizenship Education: Native Americans and Tribal Nationhood, Action in Teacher Education. The reality of tribal nationhood and the dual citizenship that Native Americans carry in their tribal nations and the United States significantly expands the definition and parameters of citizen education. Citizenship education means including and understanding the historical and political contexts of all U.S. citizens–especially, those indigenous to this land. Schools and teachers have the responsibility for students' exposure to and understanding of the complexity of the United States' politically situated past and present relationship with and obligations to tribal nations and their citizens. I contend that if the historical and contemporary context of Native American citizenship is not addressed in schools' citizenship education, then that is evidence of ongoing colonization and practice of cultural imperialism.   [More]  Descriptors: Citizenship Education, American Indians, Tribes, Citizenship

Einarsdottir, Johanna (2010). Icelandic Parents' Views on the National Policy on Early Childhood Education, Early Years: An International Journal of Research and Development. Considerable change has taken place in Icelandic early childhood education during the past few decades. Preschool, from being geared primarily towards children with evident social needs, has become all but universal. The aim of this study was to shed light on Icelandic parents' views on their children's preschool education and to examine how their views harmonize with the nation's preschool policy. The participants in this study, 43 parents of five- and six-year-old children in three preschools in Reykjavik, participated in focus-group interviews concerning the preschool curriculum. The results indicate that the parents' main expectation of the preschools was that they should support the children's social development; the way in which the preschool day was organized, and the content of the curriculum seemed to be less important to them. Parents wanted their children to have the opportunity not only to enjoy themselves as individuals, but to learn self-reliance and respect for other people. Care-giving and attentiveness of the staff were more important than the teaching of knowledge and skills. These views are compatible with the social pedagogical tradition, the Icelandic Preschool Act, and the National Curriculum Guidelines for Preschools.   [More]  Descriptors: Preschool Curriculum, National Curriculum, Preschool Education, Preschool Children

Wylie, Scott; Marri, Anand R. (2010). Teledeliberative Democratic Discourse: A Case Study of High School Students' Use of Web 2.0, Campus-Wide Information Systems. Purpose: The paper aims to examine high school students' use of social networking to participate in teledeliberative democratic dialogue and explicates the implications of this dialogue for democratic education that is inclusive of all students. Design/methodology/approach: The case study analyzes the comments of 111 high school students over ten days following what they perceived to be an injustice committed by the administration against one of their fellow classmates. Findings: Analysis of student commentary led to the development of three categories of teledeliberative citizenship: the demagogue, the proselyte, and the egalitarian. Together, these categories serve as a spectrum of sophistication along which democratic discourse can be classified. Research limitations/implications: The primary limitation of this research is a product of the online medium in which it occurs. Though "observing" students' interactions on Web 2.0 application was beneficial for cataloguing conversations, social cues like body language and tone of voice had to be inferred. Practical implications: Web 2.0 provides students with an opportunity to build a community of shared belief that crosses gender, racial, religious, and cultural divisions. Originality/value: Teachers could use Web 2.0 as a forum for teledeliberative democratic dialogue in a multicultural democratic educational framework to engage students and encourage a sophisticated, active citizenship.   [More]  Descriptors: Cues, Nonverbal Communication, Citizenship, Democracy

Hill-Jackson, Valerie, Ed.; Lewis, Chance W., Ed. (2010). Transforming Teacher Education: What Went Wrong with Teacher Training, and How We Can Fix It, Stylus Publishing, LLC. In this book, 12 distinguished scholars provide a hard-hitting, thoroughly researched, historical and theoretical critique of our schools of education, and offer clear recommendations on what must be done to ensure all children can achieve their potential, and contribute to a vibrant, democratic society. This book contains a Foreword by Peter McLaren and four parts. Part I, "History & Philosophy in Teacher Education", contains: (1) (Re)enVISIONing Teacher Education: A Critical Exploration of Missed Historical Moments and Promising Possibilities (Jennifer Milam); and (2) Liberal Progressivism at the Crossroads: Towards a Critical Philosophy of Teacher Education (Nathalia Jaramillo). Part II, "Implementing Value-Added Teacher Training & Development", contains: (3) Dispositions Matter! Advancing Habits of the Mind for Social Justice (Valerie Hill-Jackson and Chance W. Lewis); and (4) Teacher Candidate Selection, Recruitment, and Induction: A Critical Analysis with Implications for Transformation (F. Blake Tenore, Alfred C. Dunn, Judson C. Laughter, and H. Richard Milner). Part III, "Accountability & Evaluation", contains: (5) A Modest Proposal for Making Teacher Education Accountable (Martin Haberman); (6) High Stakes Accountability and Teacher Quality: Coping with Contradictions (Jennifer Rice); and (7) Meeting the Challenge of High-Stakes Testing: Toward a Culturally-Relevant Assessment Literacy (Kris Sloan). Part IV, "Transforming Teacher Education", contains: (8) When Policies Meet Practice: Leaving No Teacher Behind (Jeanita Richardson); and (9) Constructing 21st Century Teacher Education (Linda Darling-Hammond). "This is Our Moment: Contemplating the Urgency of Now for the Future of Teacher Education" by Chance W. Lewis and Valerie Hill-Jackson is included in the epilogue.   [More]  Descriptors: Social Justice, Preservice Teacher Education, Schools of Education, Teacher Effectiveness

Thornton, Stephen (2010). From "Scuba Diving" to "Jet Skiing"? Information Behavior, Political Science, and the Google Generation, Journal of Political Science Education. It is often suggested that the swift arrival of a world shaped by information superabundance–symbolized by the astonishing growth in popularity of the digital search engine Google–has changed the manner in which many learn. A particular concern of some is the perception that younger people have turned away from books and long articles and have taken to regarding the Internet uncritically as the fount of all knowledge. This anxiety has been reflected with recent growth in literature about the so-called "Google generation," in which it assumed that changes in the manner in which young people access information will necessitate major reforms to the higher education system. This article will examine these claims and will present findings–from the United Kingdom and United States–that suggest a more nuanced picture of this particular cohort of students than has sometimes been presented. This will be followed by recommendations that have been made to address some remaining issues, particularly those pertinent to students of political science.   [More]  Descriptors: Foreign Countries, Internet, Access to Information, Corporations

Dover, Alison George (2010). Teaching for Social Justice with Standards-Based Secondary English Language Arts Curriculum, ProQuest LLC. Teaching for social justice is the attempt by classroom teachers to use their position in the classroom to promote social and educational reform within and despite current educational conditions and mandates. However, while a growing number of K-12 teachers have published anecdotal reports of their attempts to teach for social justice in secondary classrooms (e.g., Bender-Slack, 2007; Christensen, 2000; Singer, 2005), there is great variability among these accounts, and scant evaluation of their impact on specific academic, behavioral/motivational, and attitudinal outcomes (see Grant & Agosto, 2008; Kelly & Brandes, 2008; Poplin & Rivera, 2005).   This qualitative study addresses this research gap by offering a concrete framework for teaching for social justice that is informed by multiple education reform traditions (including democratic education, critical (Freirian) pedagogy, multicultural education, culturally responsive education, and social justice education) and associated with positive academic, behavioral/motivational, and attitudinal outcomes. Next, I present the results of a constructivist grounded theory analysis examining how twenty-four English Language Arts teachers conceptualize teaching for social justice, as well as a content (lesson plan) analysis detailing how they operationalize the practice through the use of standards-based curriculum.   Findings indicate that secondary ELA teachers define teaching for social justice as having three primary dimensions: curriculum, pedagogy, and social action. These priorities are reflected in their curriculum, which addressed all four strands of the Massachusetts ELA Curricular Frameworks (Language, Reading and Literature, Writing, and Media) and a range of social justice topics. Additional study findings examine challenges associated with teaching for social justice, the impact of teachers' identities and school contexts on their social justice practice, and variance in how teachers conceptualize and implement teaching for social justice according to their sociopolitical emphases.   This study has several implications for policy and practice. Specifically, this study challenges critics' attempts to portray social justice education as poorly aligned with academically rigorous content-area instruction (e.g., Will, 2006), offers curricular guidance to pre- and in-service teachers interested in transforming their own practice, and lays the foundation for future empirical research related to how teaching for social justice affects student outcomes.   [The dissertation citations contained here are published with the permission of ProQuest LLC. Further reproduction is prohibited without permission. Copies of dissertations may be obtained by Telephone (800) 1-800-521-0600. Web page: www.proquest.com/en-US/products/dissertations/individuals.shtml.%5D   [More]  Descriptors: Social Justice, Grounded Theory, Constructivism (Learning), Multicultural Education

Mosser, Kurt (2010). Teaching the Bill of Rights in China, History Teacher. In this article, the author shares his experience in teaching a course called "American Political Theory" at Nanjing University in Nanjing, People's Republic of China. The course the author designed was intended to explore the philosophical background of what drove the North American colonists to declare their independence; what ideas informed the writing of the Declaration of Independence, the Constitution, and the Bill of Rights; and what models competed in determining the state envisaged. Although his professional training is in philosophy, the author was teaching the course under the auspices of the History Department at Nanjing University. The course presented two sets of challenges. One set might be considered "technical" challenges in actually delivering the course content. The second set resides in the traditions, history, and culture of China, and the radically distinct conception of the state they presuppose. Here, the author deals with the technical challenges, before taking up the more difficult issues of those presuppositions.    [More]  Descriptors: Course Content, Foreign Countries, Civil Rights, College Faculty

Liao, Sze-wei (2010). Identity, Ideology, and Language Variation: A Sociolinguistic Study of Mandarin in Central Taiwan, ProQuest LLC. Since the lifting of martial law in 1987, the rapid liberalization and democratization of Taiwan has led to the transformation of its political structure from a single-party system to a full-fledged two-party system. Along with this political opposition are the two contrastive concepts, the North and the South. Located in this background, this dissertation focuses on two groups of Taichung people ("Taizhong" "central Taiwan") in two different sociopolitical contexts. One group resides in Taichung, their home region, and the other group migrates to Taipei, the capital located in northern Taiwan. Taichung is chosen because it serves as the main city on the north-to-south corridor and its speakers are known for their distinctive variety of Mandarin.   This dissertation examines linguistic behavior and ideologies of speakers who stay in their home region versus speakers who migrate from one dialect area to another. Employing the methodology of sociolinguistic variation studies, coupled with qualitative analyses, this study specifically examines two salient dialectal features of Taichung Mandarin: (1) the realization of T4, the high-falling tone, as T1, the level tone, and (2) the substitution of lateral [l] for retroflex approximant [r\'].   Qualitative analyses of speakers' social identities, attitudes, ideologies and language practices complement quantitative analyses of patterns of phonological variation. The study finds that the migrant group does make changes in their linguistic production upon constant exposure to a new dialect. Furthermore, the result suggests that speakers' linguistic behavior is significantly linked with their social networks, identities, language attitudes and ideologies, and the broader sociopolitical context of contemporary Taiwan.   An interesting finding emerges after the examination of how linguistic behavior is conditioned by internal linguistic constraints and external factors such as gender, age, political affiliation, and occupation. The analysis of the data suggests that external factors play a more important role in the substitution of [l] for [r], whereas internal constraints precede external factors in the realization of T4 as T1. I argue that different status and social meanings of the two linguistic variables explain how they pattern in each residence group and how they trigger or fail to trigger accommodation by speakers migrating to Taipei.   Issues examined in this dissertation add to our understanding of voice (identities, attitudes and ideologies) in the border that is generally unheard and unresearched when the contesting ideologies between the north and the south are so dramatic. Additionally, this dissertation provides a detailed understanding of how different linguistic resources (varieties of Mandarin, Taiwanese, and codeswitching to Taiwanese or English from Mandarin) are associated with different social meanings and how speakers use the resources to construct their identities. Finally, combining quantitative rigor and qualitative methods, this dissertation contributes to a broader understanding of identity and language use since the complexity of language use cannot be understood within one single analysis.   [The dissertation citations contained here are published with the permission of ProQuest LLC. Further reproduction is prohibited without permission. Copies of dissertations may be obtained by Telephone (800) 1-800-521-0600. Web page: www.proquest.com/en-US/products/dissertations/individuals.shtml.%5D   [More]  Descriptors: Political Affiliation, Dialects, Sociolinguistics, Language Attitudes

Phipps, Stuart Beall (2010). High School Social Studies Teachers' Beliefs and Education for Democratic Citizenship, ProQuest LLC. This study explores secondary social studies teachers' beliefs about the concept of citizenship. The development of citizenship in young people is an often-stated goal for schooling in the USA. The most prominent social studies professional organization, the National Council for the Social Studies, describes education for citizenship as the ultimate aim for social studies in the schools. Researchers in both political science and social studies education have linked certain aspects of classroom climate to positive political socialization outcomes. Classroom climate is related to teachers' instructional decision-making. Teachers' instructional decision-making, in turn, is related to teachers' beliefs, conceptualizations, and thinking.   This study used multiple data sources to explore and describe teachers' beliefs about citizenship and education for citizenship. Four teachers in a college preparatory urban public secondary school participated. Data sources included a survey instrument, a series of teacher interviews, a series of classroom observations, and examination of documents. Data analysis was an ongoing and recursive process. All data were analyzed using hand coding.   The research supported nine findings consistent with related research relevant to perceptions about social studies and its goals, conceptions of citizenship, ideas about education for citizenship and influences on teacher decision-making. A tenth finding emerged from this study: teachers' levels of personal political engagement seemed consistent with their conceptions of citizenship, the relative openness of the climate in their classroom, and the degree to which their students would discuss controversial issues in the classroom.   [The dissertation citations contained here are published with the permission of ProQuest LLC. Further reproduction is prohibited without permission. Copies of dissertations may be obtained by Telephone (800) 1-800-521-0600. Web page: www.proquest.com/en-US/products/dissertations/individuals.shtml.%5D   [More]  Descriptors: Political Socialization, Political Science, Citizenship, Democracy

Brown, Kathleen M. (2010). Preparing School Leaders to Serve as Agents for Social Transformation, Scholar-Practitioner Quarterly. The major priorities that should guide leadership education in preparing leaders for their work of leading schools in a democratic society are: (1) Teaching leaders to understand the inequities of society; (2) Teaching leaders to serve as agents for social transformation; and (3) Teaching leaders to help each and every student learn and succeed. In the context of preparing such leaders, efforts by preparation programs to involve students in consciousness-raising activities and democratic-defining strategies can lead to reflective analysis and activist intervention. It is important for such programs to bridge theory and practice, to make connections between course material and the broader social context, to explain to pre-service leaders how they might take an active part in bringing about social change, and to validate and incorporate adult learners' personal knowledge and experience. People rarely change through a rational process of analyze-think-change. They are much more likely to change in a see-feel-change sequence. As such, the exploration of new understandings, the synthesis of new information, and the integration of these insights throughout personal and professional spheres can lead future educational leaders to a broader, more inclusive approach in addressing issues of student learning and equity. Respect for diversity and culturally inclusive education entails advocacy, solidarity, an awareness of societal structures of oppression, and critical social consciousness. Preparing educational leaders to accept this challenge necessitates both a close examination of personal beliefs coupled with a critical analysis of professional behavior. Through critical reflection, rational discourse, and policy praxis, preparation programs must implement ways for future leaders to grow in awareness, acknowledgement, and action! According to Giroux (1992), "If students are going to learn how to take risks, to develop healthy skepticism towards all master narratives, to recognize the power relations that offer them the opportunity to speak in particular ways, and be willing to critically confront their role as critical citizens who can animate a democratic culture, they need to see such behavior demonstrated in the social practices and subject positions that teachers live out and not merely propose."   [More]   [More]  Descriptors: Inclusion, Democracy, Equal Education, Leadership Training

Lopez, Gretchen E.; Zuniga, Ximena (2010). Intergroup Dialogue and Democratic Practice in Higher Education, New Directions for Higher Education. Academic communities must learn to address many of the social divisions, misunderstandings, and inequities of society as a whole. Although challenging, this offers tremendous opportunities for educators to develop, study, and learn from innovative programs that respond effectively to these social issues on college and university campuses. This knowledge may then be shared with wider communities. This chapter introduces one such initiative, intergroup dialogue. Intergroup dialogue is "a face-to-face facilitated learning experience that brings together students from different social identity groups over a sustained period of time to understand their commonalities and differences, examine the nature and impact of societal inequalities, and explore ways of working together toward greater equality and justice." As examples, intergroup dialogues may bring together students (or faculty, staff) across race, gender, sexual orientation, social class, and religion- or faith-based divisions. Intergroup dialogue presents an important opportunity for students and others to practice the skills needed to cultivate diverse democratic culture in higher education and broader society.   [More]  Descriptors: Higher Education, Social Class, Sexual Orientation, Student Diversity

Brendtro, Larry K.; Mitchell, Martin L. (2010). The Profound Power of Groups, Reclaiming Children and Youth. Decades of studies show that children's behavior is shaped by relationships in the "social ecology" of family, peers, school, and community. But in recent decades the prevailing scientific dogma was that genes determine destiny. Now it is clear that experience changes genes. For better or worse, environmental experiences including nutrition, stress, emotions, and learning can modify the genes. The knowledge that experience shapes genes can also provide new hope for healing and building resilient brain pathways.   [More]  Descriptors: Child Behavior, Genetics, Environmental Influences, Nutrition

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