Bibliography: Democracy (page 503 of 605)

This bibliography is selected and organized by the I'm with Jill website.  Some of the authors featured on this page include Simeon Maile, Chi-Ming Lee, Panagiotis Kanellopoulos, Klarita Gerxhani, Graeme Chalmers, Michael Eckert, Dipti Desai, Pearl Amelia McHaney, Gordon M. Pradi, and Kenneth J. Saltman.

Pradi, Gordon M. (2004). Nancy Martin and James Britton: The Language Work of Democratic Learning, Language Arts. Nancy Martin and James Britton are two retired teachers whose collaborative research on the use of language in learning is profiled. Their language education project promotes personal and democratic uses of literacy.   [More]  Descriptors: Language Usage, Democratic Values, Literacy Education, Language Arts

Lee, Chi-Ming (2004). Changes and Challenges for Moral Education in Taiwan, Journal of Moral Education. Taiwan has gradually transformed from an authoritarian to a democratic society. The education system is moving from uniformity to diversity, from authoritarian centralization to deregulation and pluralism. Moral education is a reflection of, and influenced by, educational reform and social change, as this paper shows in describing the history of moral education in Taiwan. From 1949 to the 1980s, Taiwan's moral education consisted of ideological, nationalistic, political education and the teaching of a strict code of conduct. Since the late 1980s moral education has changed rapidly due to educational reforms. Political ideologies and traditional culture in moral education have gradually been phased out. Since August 2004, diversified and generalized moral education has replaced the special subject of moral education offered in school. Moral education in Taiwan faces great changes and new challenges. The paper concludes by suggesting some strategies, such as facilitating critical thinking, civic values and multiple teaching approaches, for the development of a new moral education suitable to modern democratic society in Taiwan.   [More]  Descriptors: Democracy, Educational Change, Moral Development, Ethical Instruction

Witenberg, R. T. (2007). The Moral Dimension of Children's and Adolescents' Conceptualisation of Tolerance to Human Diversity, Journal of Moral Education. This study examined the kinds of justifications children and adolescents used to support tolerant and intolerant judgements about human diversity. For the tolerant responses, three main belief categories emerged, based on the beliefs that others should be treated fairly (fairness), empathetically (empathy) and that reason/logic ought to govern judgements (reasonableness). Fairness emerged as the most used belief to support tolerant judgements and the most commonly used combination of beliefs was found to be fairness/empathy, linking tolerance to moral reasoning, rules and values. Specifically noticeable was that 6-7-year-olds appealed to fairness more often in comparison to the 11-12 and 15-16-year-olds. Older students used a larger repertoire of beliefs to support tolerance, indicating developing cognitive maturity. There was also a tendency for females to appeal to fairness/empathy more often than males. The major constraint to positive tolerance was not prejudice toward the target groups but the adolescents' beliefs in freedom of speech as a democratic right, pointing to a conflict in values between tolerance and other human rights.   [More]  Descriptors: Civil Rights, Freedom of Speech, Adolescents, Empathy

Brookfield, Stephen (2007). Diversifying Curriculum as the Practice of Repressive Tolerance, Teaching in Higher Education. Diversifying curriculum is often assumed to be an unequivocal good in higher education–a way of opening up an educational conversation to include the widest possible diversity of perspectives and intellectual traditions. This democratic attempt to be open and inclusive springs from a humanistic concern to have all student voices heard, all experiences analyzed, and all viewpoints honored. Herbert Marcuse's concept of repressive tolerance stands directly against these sentiments. Marcuse argues that an alternative idea, concept or text can be inserted into a curriculum of familiar, mainstream materials in such a way that serves only to underscore the normality of the center while positioning the alternatives as exotic others. As a result, the attempt to diversify actually undercuts the serious consideration of diverse perspectives. This paper explores how this process occurs and suggests how it might be countered.   [More]  Descriptors: Higher Education, Curriculum Development, Cultural Pluralism, Democracy

Desai, Dipti; Chalmers, Graeme (2007). Notes for a Dialogue on Art Education in Critical Times, Art Education. Schools have always been subject to an overwhelming variety of socio-political demands, which shift in response to the political climate–impacting art education in different ways. The current debate on social and political issues in art education is not new. Beginning with McFee (1966), and particularly since the 1970s, there has been a growing body of literature relating art education to social issues. However, its resurgence at this particular historical moment requires the authors to revisit the question: "What should the relationship be between art education in schools and society at large?" This question is not simply academic but also has real consequences in such perilous times for the future of art education in schools. The war on terrorism, the curtailing of civil liberties under the Patriot Act, the censorship of civil society, and the increased militarization of life have created a state of uncertainty. Adding more layers to these unsettling times are the forces of globalization that contribute to a world that is simultaneously connected, yet extremely fragmented; racism, often state sanctioned, has been implemented in different ways around the globe; and the world's economy, dominated by transnational corporations, has increased the gap between the rich and poor. In order to keep the possible roles of art in a democratic society alive in teaching, the authors focus on two beliefs that shape understanding of social justice art education and also explore contemporary art practices that may assist and inspire students in engaging critically with a variety of pressing issues.   [More]  Descriptors: Global Approach, Political Issues, Corporations, Justice

Waghid, Y. (2007). Educating for Democratic Citizenship and Cosmopolitanism, South African Journal of Higher Education. Over the past century our world has witnessed much uncertainty and ambivalence as a consequence of inhumane acts perpetrated against humanity such as murder, extermination, enslavement, deportation, persecution on political, racial or religious grounds, war crimes (mistreatment of civilians and non-combatants as well as one's enemy in combat), and genocide (through ethnic cleansing, mass executions, rape and cruel punishment of the enemy). These "crimes against humanity" once again require the emergence of norms which ought to govern relations among individuals in a global civil society (Benhabib 2006, 20). Drawing on the seminal ideas of Amy Gutmann (1996) and Seyla Benhabib (2006), I want to offer some ways democratic citizenship and cosmopolitanism can enhance the educational project of ensuring universal justice for all individuals and not just members of our own societies. Firstly, I shall argue that educating for cosmopolitanism is conditional upon the cultivation of democratic citizenship, in particular showing how democratic citizenship can help us to recognise and respect every individual's claim to justice. Secondly, I shall show how cosmopolitanism can bring about the recognition of the rights claims of human beings everywhere.   [More]  Descriptors: Citizenship, Democracy, Citizenship Education, Democratic Values

Maile, Simeon (2004). School Choice in South Africa, Education and Urban Society. In this article, the author investigates the basic elements of choice and markets theory. In recent years, children were moving from rural and township schools to suburban White schools. This trend emerged in the late 1980s and simmered after the demise of apartheid. At face value, school choice appears to be happening merely for the reason of accessing resources in the former Model C[1] schools. The author argues that school choice is not simply driven by a lack of resources in local schools or by the motivation to gain access to educational opportunities. It happens because of several factors, which the author analyzes through selected theories. In the conclusion, the author argues that school choice is a complex phenomenon with many ambiguities and dilemmas.   [More]  Descriptors: Foreign Countries, Racial Segregation, Educational Opportunities, School Choice

Young, Morris (2004). Native Claims: Cultural Citizenship, Ethnic Expressions, and the Rhetorics of "Hawaiianness", College English. The rhetorics of Hawaii were once generated around expressions of cultural identities and resistance, which has now shifted to organizing around a belief in self-determination as a fundamental human right. This rhetorical shift is illustrated with the help of the site of Hawaii.   [More]  Descriptors: Democracy, Civil Rights, Rhetoric, Self Determination

Saltman, Kenneth J. (2007). Capitalizing on Disaster: Taking and Breaking Public Schools, Paradigm Publishers. Breaking new ground in studies of business involvement in schooling, this book dissects the most powerful educational reforms and highlights their relationship to the rise of powerful think tanks and business groups. Over the past several decades, there has been a strong movement to privatize public schooling through business ventures. At the beginning of the millennium, this privatization project looked moribund as both the Edison Schools and Knowledge Universe foundered. Nonetheless, privatization is back. The new face of educational privatization replaces public schooling with EMOs, vouchers, and charter schools at an alarming rate. In both disaster and nondisaster areas, officials designate schools as failed in order to justify replacement with new, unproven models. Saltman examines how privatization policies such as No Child Left Behind are designed to deregulate schools, favoring business while undermining public oversight. Examining current policies in New Orleans, Chicago, and Iraq, this book shows how the struggle for public schooling is essential to the struggle for a truly democratic society.   [More]  Descriptors: School Business Relationship, Politics of Education, Federal Legislation, Public Education

Reio, Thomas G., Jr. (2007). Exploring the Links between Adult Education and Human Resource Development: Learning, Risk-Taking, and Democratic Discourse, New Horizons in Adult Education & Human Resource Development. Learning is indeed an integral component of adapting successfully to an everchanging world, one full of intriguing possibilities and insidious barriers. Democratic societies establish educative systems where learning and development is promoted to advance a citizenry of skillful problem solvers, knowledgeable decision makers, incisive risk takers, and proactive participants in the democratic process. Learning and its unequivocal support are thus vital for an evolving democratic society where its citizens are mindful of and committed to the social good. The fields of adult education (AE) and human resource development (HRD) play particularly significant roles in providing quality learning and development opportunities for adults, yet both are underrated in terms of their contributions to society as a whole. In this paper, I explore AE and HRD as closely related, but underestimated parts of a greater educative system. Both fields' perceived marginal role as educative system participants may be a function of unnecessarily fractious debates among scholars and practitioners in their respective fields. Unfortunately, differences and not similarities are promoted too often at the expense of useful cooperation and one unified voice.   [More]  Descriptors: Adult Education, Labor Force Development, Learning, Risk

Thompson, Jane (2007). All over Bar the Shouting?, Adults Learning. The author expresses surprise and concern about what she perceives as an absence of feminist analysis in current discussions of adult education issues and discusses why talking about social class or women's oppression is no longer popular. Looking at examples of current gender inequalities in the workforce, the writer contends that women's inequality remains a problem.   [More]  Descriptors: Feminism, Social Class, Females, Lifelong Learning

Gerxhani, Klarita (2007). "Did You Pay Your Taxes?" How (Not) to Conduct Tax Evasion Surveys in Transition Countries, Social Indicators Research. Gathering large-scale data on tax evasion is an undisputable challenge in and of itself. Doing so in a country in transition from a communist to a democratic system is even more difficult. This paper discusses the challenges and presents a case study to show how they can be dealt with effectively. One important implication of the paper is that such a sample survey can be successful if it combines a careful sample design, research method and questionnaire design, and explicitly takes country-specific institutional and cultural features into account.   [More]  Descriptors: Research Methodology, Taxes, Data Collection, Democracy

McHaney, Pearl Amelia (2004). Let Every Voice Be Heard: Focus Essays Create Democratic Classrooms, English Journal. Pearl Amelia McHaney provides focus essays for students to develop their thoughts and contribute to meaningful class discussions. Teofilo Ruiz provides three principles to educate his students as per them.   [More]  Descriptors: Essays, Discussion (Teaching Technique), Student Development, Democracy

Kanellopoulos, Panagiotis (2007). Musical Improvisation as Action: An Arendtian Perspective, Action, Criticism, and Theory for Music Education. A basic premise of this essay is that music education practice is a form of–a broadly conceived notion of–political practice insofar as it creates situations where specific meanings are produced, attitudes built, identities shaped, and hierarchies of musical and social values constructed. Every music education practice expresses, and at the same time constructs, particular conceptions of the meaning of music, of concrete musical practices and their interrelationships. It also plays a significant role in the construction of particular relationships between music and wider cultural practices. Music education teaches children how to "order" sound by "ordering" the body. It creates a wide range of hierarchical relationships among participants in the educational processes; among different modes of musical experience; among various forms of musical knowledge; and among different musical practices. But music education "transforms social hierarchies into academic hierarchies" not only through its various institutional configurations, but also through the minute actions that constitute learning, creating, and performing music. Adopting this perspective as a starting point, the author addresses the political character and the political role of improvisation as a vehicle for constructing particular modes of human agency, of human relationship, and of relationships among children, music, and knowledge. This essay seeks to construct a view of improvisational practice as a kind of political or communicative "action," in the sense given to these terms by Hannah Arendt (1906-1975). Drawing parallels between improvisation and Arendt's "revelatory and aesthetic concept of action"–describing, in other words, the experience of improvisation as a practice that is based on principles that parallel those of Arendtian action–might help construct a theoretical perspective on the role improvisation might play within music education practices actively concerned with the advancement of the democratic imperative: practices committed to the pursuit of freedom, equity, and plurality.   [More]  Descriptors: Music Education, Music, Creative Activities, Learning Processes

Eckert, Michael (2007). "A Peace That Lasts": Notes Towards a Pedagogy of Peace, CEA Forum. As a teacher, Michael Eckert writes that he believes the classroom is the place where he can be most effective in promoting global peace and justice while he teaches students how to write essays and read literature. In part, Eckert's interest in this approach is a response to a challenge issued by Ihab Hassan, and recalled by Mary Rose O'Reilly in "The Peaceable Classroom" and paraphrased as "Is it possible to teach so that people stop killing one another?" This meditation encompasses a period of seven years of reading, thinking, and experimenting. Summarizing the highlights, Eckert says that Mary Rose O'Reilley's" The Peaceable Classroom" got him wondering how to make teaching a more peaceful encounter. Michael True's speech led him to look at teaching and learning in a more global context, and Parker Palmer encouraged him to see those principles as a personal and professional commitment. Finally, Eckert credits Stephen Brookfield and Stephen Preskill for offering several concrete methods for promoting the ideal of peaceful teaching.   [More]  Descriptors: Empathy, Ethics, Ethical Instruction, Peace

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