Bibliography: Democracy (page 502 of 605)

This bibliography is selected and organized by the I'm with Jill website.  Some of the authors featured on this page include Ottilia Chakera, Bob Stake, Debbie Epstein, Social Studies, National Service Learning Clearinghouse, Gert J. J. Biesta, Alan Sears, Bjarne Bruun Jensen, John Hergesheimer, and Jeffrey Ayala Milligan.

National Service Learning Clearinghouse (2004). Quick Guide: Democratic Classrooms. Democratic classrooms are those in which the curriculum actively engages students in collaborative inquiry, decision making is shared between students and staff, and students choose their daily activities. Compared with traditional classrooms, students in democratic classrooms take more ownership of and responsibility for their own learning. Helping students become active citizens and preparing them for participation in a democratic society are two purposes of service-learning.   [More]  Descriptors: Democracy, Service Learning, Classroom Techniques, Student Empowerment

Stake, Bob (2004). How Far Dare an Evaluator Go Toward Saving the World?, American Journal of Evaluation. This is a statement on advocacy, activism, confluence of interest, and uncertainty, perhaps with a surprise ending. No two professional evaluators are the same but many use similar methods. Still, each person will use a method in a somewhat idiosyncratic way. Especially in the interpretation of data, personality and experience have a play. Professional evaluators come from many backgrounds. They have greatly different aspirations. As a group they are considerate people. They are ethical. They follow disciplined procedures to find the merit and worth of a program or other object. Oh, there is a rogue here and there. He or she may go where the money is. But most evaluators are good people, most of the time. They are specialists at recognizing differences among greater and less quality. They hope that their work will contribute to the making of a better world. This commentary concludes: Evaluators should be encouraged to "have a life" and to "have a dream" so their interpretations are enriched by personal experience. Comprehensive, idiosyncratic interpretations are small steps toward saving the world.   [More]  Descriptors: Ethics, Standards, Democracy, Advocacy

Epstein, Debbie; Boden, Rebecca (2006). Democratising the Research Imagination: Globalising Knowledge about HIV/AIDS, Globalisation, Societies and Education. This paper problematises globalisation and the democratisation of the research imagination, highlighting the potentials for harm and good. We do so, first, by exploring two philosophical/epistemological issues: the definition of "knowledge" and the role of "research" in knowledge creation. The paper then considers some of possible consequences of the democratisation of knowledge by examining the case of HIV/AIDS in sub-Saharan Africa and using it to test a heuristic device we have developed as a way of distinguishing between "really useful" and "potentially harmful" knowledges.   [More]  Descriptors: Foreign Countries, Global Approach, Research, Heuristics

Hergesheimer, John (2004). Two Words in Need of Redemption, Social Education. It appears that the worst name a person can be called is "politician." And the worst thing a person can be accused of doing is "compromising." This article asserts that negative attack-ad campaigning, so prevalent in recent years, has made the vocation of politician appear less attractive to young citizens. It indicates that the difference between campaign promises and the real policy-making that follows an election, usually painfully obvious, has made the art of compromise seem less than respectable. The article concludes that teachers, need to be more aggressive in helping students to see politics as an honorable and necessary activity in a democratic society. They need to move just as vigorously to help students see that compromise is an essential skill and strategy in governing. Descriptors: Ethics, Democracy, Political Campaigns, Political Candidates

Chakera, Ottilia; Sears, Alan (2006). Civic Duty: Young People's Conceptions of Voting as a Means of Political Participation, Canadian Journal of Education. Many citizens have disengaged from participation in civic life with a resulting call for new initiatives in civic education. Many of these programs have had little research on citizens' prior conceptions of participation. In this article, we provide a map of the conceptions of civic participation, specifically voting, held by two groups: recent African immigrants to Canada and native-born Canadians. Youth understand voting as a key element of democratic governance, a hard won democratic right, and a duty of democratic citizenship yet most indicate they do not plan to vote because voting does not make a difference.   [More]   [More]  Descriptors: Foreign Countries, Youth, Voting, Governance

Cavanagh, Sean; Greifner, Laura (2006). Students Sound Off on Immigration, Education Week. Thousands of students nationwide marched in the streets or rallied in public parks, at state capitols, and in other locations in response to the legislation pending in Congress that would significantly tighten enforcement of immigration laws. Some of the largest demonstrations were in California and Texas, but students have also rallied in Arizona, Nebraska, Virginia, and elsewhere across the country. As waves of students staged walkouts and joined protests over proposed punitive changes to federal immigration law, school administrators sought a balance between allowing students to demonstrate peacefully and setting clear expectations that they should return to class soon. Some school leaders said the events were the largest and most quickly organized protests among precollegiate students they could remember. Several principals and superintendents admitted to being taken aback by what they described as an unusually forceful display of civic activism among their students.   [More]  Descriptors: Immigration, Immigrants, Civil Disobedience, Federal Legislation

Ortloff, Debora Hinderliter (2006). Becoming European: A Framing Analysis of Three Countries' Civics Education Curricula, European Education. This study investigates how the European dimension emerges in the various European member states' civics education curricula. Does an image of the European citizen appear alongside that of the national citizen or are the two still highly interwoven? Is the curricular goal primarily knowledge-based, that is, to know about Europe, or normative-based, that is, to be a European? To explore these questions empirically, Austria, Denmark, and Germany were chosen as initial case studies because their education systems, in particular upper secondary schools, are highly comparable and draw generally on the same principles of an elite education. Their civics education curricula for upper secondary schools will be examined using framing theory. This study hypothesizes that an analysis of civics education curricula may reveal important differences in how countries balance European identity and national identity through education.   [More]  Descriptors: Foreign Countries, War, Nationalism, Civics

Sklar, Kathryn Kish (2006). The New Political History and Women's History: Comments on "The Democratic Experiment", History Teacher. The new directions in American political history have been ably described by the editors of "The Democratic Experiment." These are now freshly out of the gate, but it is clear that they will continue to unfold in the years ahead. The author read the book with distinct pleasure–so much so that she wondered–more than once–whether it was not just a bit sinful. Why is this book so much fun when women rarely appear in its pages? Gradually she came to understand why. Its pages provide a fine context for evaluating the relationship between United States women's history and United States political history. The articles in the book brought to mind four paradigms of that relationship. This article presents the author's comment on these paradigms with the goal of understanding how scholars in the fields of women's history and political history are cooperating now and how they might cooperate even better in the future.   [More]  Descriptors: Females, United States History, Politics, Democracy

Jensen, Bjarne Bruun; Schnack, Karsten (2006). The Action Competence Approach in Environmental Education, Environmental Education Research. In this article, the concept of action competence is presented and an attempt is made to locate it within the concept of general educational theory. The concept of action competence, it is argued, should occupy a central position in the theory of environmental education as many of the crucial educational problems concerning a political liberal education are united in this concept. The preoccupation with action competence as an educational concept is based on scepticism about the educational paradigm in environmental education which manifests itself partly in a marked tendency to individualisation and partly in a tendency to regard the educational task as a question of behaviour modification. At the same time, action competence should be seen as a necessary alternative to the traditional, science-oriented approach to environmental education. Examples from developmental work in Danish schools are used to clarify and demarcate the concept of "action" from "activity" and "behaviour change". Different kinds of actions are discussed, environmental actions are identified and a distinction is drawn between "direct" and "indirect" environmental actions. Finally, four problem areas are identified which require future research. (Contains 1 figure.) [This article was reprinted from "Environmental Education Research" (1997) 3(2), pp. 163-178 (see EJ546571).]   [More]  Descriptors: Environmental Education, Competence, Educational Theories, General Education

Social Studies (2004). Center for Media Literacy Unveils the CML Medialit Kit[TM]: A Free Educational Framework that Helps Students Challenge and Understand Media. Five key questions form the basis of the new CML MediaLit Kit, an educational framework and curriculum guide developed by the Center for Media Literacy. Adaptable to all grades, the key questions help children and young people evaluate the thousands of media messages that bombard them daily. More than two years in development and available for free downloading at the center's Web site www.medialit.org, the CML MediaLit Kit provides an overview of the core elements in the burgeoning field of media literacy education and contains practical implementation tools for classrooms from kindergarten to college. Descriptors: Democracy, Media Literacy, Mass Media Effects, Critical Viewing

Milligan, Jeffrey Ayala (2004). Democratization or Neocolonialism? The Education of Muslims under US Military Occupation, 1903-20, History of Education. Recent events in Afghanistan and Iraq appear to mark the beginning of a new and challenging relationship between the United States and the Muslim world. As the US embarks upon its self-appointed task of helping to bring about the development of peaceful, democratic civil societies in Islamic nations wracked by decades of war, ethnic strife and political oppression, it may prove instructive to reflect on earlier US efforts to foster democratic social development through education of Muslim communities under US military and civilian occupation. This essay proposes to examine the use and consequences of educational policy to foster development and democratic self-governance of Muslims under US rule in the southern Philippines between 1903 and 1920. This case, which occurred precisely one century ago, offers important insights into the ways in which culturally and historically constructed discursive lenses shape both the construction and interpretation of development policies and thus profoundly complicate efforts to introduce Western conceptions of modern democratic society in Muslim communities. It shows how such discursive lenses distorted publicly avowed aims of democratization into a neocolonial relationship between the US and an independent Philippines and an internal colonial relationship between the Philippine government and its Muslim minority characterized, in both cases, by continuing 'economic and social relations of dependency and control' by the former colonial power. The experience, offers a cautionary tale for contemporary US social agendas in the Muslim world.   [More]  Descriptors: Foreign Countries, Social Development, Educational Policy, Democracy

Hughes, Andrew S.; Sears, Alan (2006). Citizenship Education: Canada Dabbles while the World Plays On, Education Canada. The summer of 2006 saw the eyes of the world, including those of Canadians, transfixed on Germany as 32 teams from across the globe competed for the World Cup of football–but due to the lack of capacity to support the development of world class Canadian players and teams, Canada perennially cannot mount a team able to qualify for World Cup competition. The authors' work comparing policy and practice in citizenship education in Canada with that in several international jurisdictions (Australia, England, the European Community, and the U.S.) reveals an analogous situation. While Canada has joined the rest of the world in proclaiming the fostering of democratic citizenship as a key–in fact, "the" key–goal for education, it has failed to keep pace in terms of building the capacity to meet this objective. The authors see a clear connection between the World Cup and the findings outlined in this article. In the field of citizenship education Canadian teachers and schools operate under very similar mandates to their counterparts in other jurisdictions. Other nations that face similar challenges to those they find in Canada have moved forward to build capacity to support quality teaching and learning related to democratic citizenship; Canada has not. As with the World Cup, while the world plays on Canada dabbles on the sidelines.   [More]  Descriptors: Foreign Countries, Democracy, Citizenship, Citizenship Education

le Grange, L. (2006). Quality Assurance in South Africa: A Reply to John Mammen, South African Journal of Higher Education. In this article I point out that prominence given to higher education quality assurance by contemporary states might be viewed in the context of the ascendance of neoliberalism over the past few decades and a concomitant culture of performativity. However, I argue for a shift in the angle of vision on performativity and quality assurance through a poststructural reading of these constructs. My key argument is that all constructs/concepts are territories that have the potential to become deterritorialised and reterritorrialised, and that terms such as performativity and quality assurance should not be abandoned but rather viewed as carriers of new constellations of universes. In short, perfomativity and quality assurance should not be viewed simply as negative processes, but also as sites for creative change.   [More]  Descriptors: Higher Education, Quality Control, Foreign Countries, Educational Quality

Rubenson, Kjell (2006). The Nordic Model of Lifelong Learning, Compare: A Journal of Comparative Education. This article explores how the so called Nordic welfare state, with its specific institutional make up, handles Lifelong Learning in a time characterised by the challenges of economic globalisation and the hegemonic impact of the neo-liberal agenda. The analysis reveals a high participation in the Nordic countries in Lifelong Learning and, in comparison to other countries, low inequalities. This can be directly linked to a state that sets a very demanding equity standard and has developed an institutional framework to support this ambition. This model explicitly recognises market failures in contributing to a system of Lifelong Learning for "all". The findings support the growing awareness in the literature that those forecasting the end of the welfare state had misunderstood and/or undervalued the important impact of the specific institutions that constitute the welfare state itself.   [More]  Descriptors: Foreign Countries, Lifelong Learning, Comparative Education, Equal Education

Biesta, Gert J. J. (2004). Education, Accountability, and the Ethical Demand: Can the Democratic Potential of Accountability Be Regained?, Educational Theory. This paper analyzes the impact of the idea of accountability on education. It considers the kind of relationships that are promoted or produced by the culture of accountability, both in order to understand what kind of relationships are made possible and to understand what kind of relationships are made difficult, or even impossible, as a result of the accountability regime. The paper explores how the managerial uses of the idea of accountability have become pervasive in contemporary education and how this has changed relationships among students, parents, teachers, and the state. Ultimately, accountability erodes relationships of responsibility. Zygmunt Bauman's postmodern ethics is used to gain a detailed understanding of why it has become so much more difficult to develop relationships of responsibility under the accountability regime. Bauman's proposal that we should take responsibility for our responsibility also suggests a starting point from which the democratic potential of accountability might be regained.   [More]  Descriptors: Educational Responsibility, Ethics, Accountability, Postmodernism

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