Bibliography: Democracy (page 499 of 605)

This bibliography is independently curated for the I'm with Jill website.  Some of the authors featured on this page include Jorge Acevedo, Ricardo Barros, Jonathan Langdon, Sevan G. Terzian, Janet P. Stamatel, Natalia Realpe, Stuart R. Poyntz, Maria C. Powell, Benjamin Michael Superfine, and Rick Spradling.

Acevedo, Jorge; Barros, Ricardo; Ramirez, Catalina; Realpe, Natalia (2009). Engineers and Their Role in Public Policy: An Active Learning Experience for Enhancing the Understanding of the State, European Journal of Engineering Education. To achieve effective intervention of engineers in the public sector, engineers should develop skills to comprehend their ethical and professional responsibility, and they should gain the necessary education to understand the possible impact of engineering solutions in a global and social context. An active learning process has been conceived, which enables engineering students of Universidad de los Andes to comprehend the scope and limitations of public management, in general, with the objective of solving public problems. The method used to set the objective in motion comprises a workshop where students simulate a democratic republic with a parliamentary system. The simulation works as a pretext for students to compare their experience with some of the problems of Colombian public management. In this article, we will submit the evolution of the different processes that take place and that enable the optimization of resources in the republic, thus generating knowledge about public systems.   [More]  Descriptors: Active Learning, Engineering, Public Sector, Social Environment

Moller, Jorunn (2009). Approaches to School Leadership in Scandinavia, Journal of Educational Administration and History. In this article I examine approaches to school leadership in Scandinavia by applying a historical lens. I start by drawing attention to some aspects of the ideology and the history of the Scandinavian education systems in order to discuss how these aspects intersect with the globalised policy trends, and where there is likely to be tensions between the global trends and the cultural and historical imperatives of schooling and school leadership in Scandinavia. The devolution of greater responsibilities to schools has contributed to a number of demands upon them, in particular on school principals, but so far, the emerging age of accountability has had only small consequences on classroom practice. My main argument is that even though there is a growing homogenisation of approaches to school leadership due to global forces, local traditions ensure that they are played out differently in national contexts.   [More]  Descriptors: Foreign Countries, Instructional Leadership, Principals, Educational History

Stamatel, Janet P. (2009). Correlates of National-Level Homicide Variation in Post-Communist East-Central Europe, Social Forces. This article examines whether correlates of cross-national homicide variation tested with data from highly developed, predominantly Western nations could also explain homicide rates in East-Central Europe. Using pooled time-series analyses of data from nine countries from 1990 through 2003, this study found that homicide rates were negatively related to GDP/capita and positively related to ethnic diversity and population density. They were also negatively related to the percentage of young people and not significantly related to income inequality or divorce rates. This article also investigates whether conditions specific to the post-communist transformations contributed to homicide variation. Findings indicate that progressive reforms toward democratization and marketization decreased homicide rates. The discussion uses the socio-historical context of the nations to explain these results.   [More]  Descriptors: Divorce, Homicide, Foreign Countries, Correlation

Kawano, Marika Suziki (2009). The Development of Japanese Identity among Middle School Students in Japan: From the Perspectives of the State and Students, ProQuest LLC. This dissertation explores the issues related to the development of national identity amongst middle school students in Japan, from both macro and micro perspectives of the state's educational policy and the students' conception. While it is impossible to understand a national education without placing it in the larger context, the concept of "national" remains as relevant as ever, despite the fact that we live in this age of global interconnectedness. The development of a child's national identity has been raised as one of the top priorities in recent educational reforms in Japan. I conducted my document analysis on the historic revision of the Fundamental Law of Education of 2006, the proposed revision of the national curriculum of 2008, and the moral education workbook published by the state in 2002, which showed that the state continues to cling to the development of Japanese identity based on the myth of homogeneity around such concepts as "tradition" and "culture." It demonstrated a troubling trend that is slowly bringing the country back to its pre-war ways of nationalism. To find out how the micro actors of middle school students in Japan conceptualize "Japan" and "Japanese people," I conducted a case study using questionnaires and focus groups in two private schools in Kanagawa prefecture. The results not only showed that the students more or less hold a similar kind of national sentiment that is being promoted by the state, but they also showed a tendency to be more open and flexible towards the boundary making of "Japan" and "Japanese." I argue the need for the development of a more inclusive national self-understanding through education, reflecting the reality of cultural and ethnic diversity and heterogeneity that exist in Japan in order to construct a more democratic society.   [The dissertation citations contained here are published with the permission of ProQuest LLC. Further reproduction is prohibited without permission. Copies of dissertations may be obtained by Telephone (800) 1-800-521-0600. Web page: www.proquest.com/en-US/products/dissertations/individuals.shtml.%5D   [More]  Descriptors: Middle School Students, Foreign Countries, National Curriculum, Private Schools

Annette, John (2009). "Active Learning for Active Citizenship": Democratic Citizenship and Lifelong Learning, Education, Citizenship and Social Justice. This article explores to what extent citizenship education for lifelong learning should be based on a more "political" or civic republican conception of citizenship as compared to a liberal individualist conception, which emphasizes individual rights, or a communitarian conception, which emphasizes moral and social responsibilities. It also considers how people are finding new ways to engage in civic participation which can provide the basis for certificated or accredited lifelong learning for democratic citizenship. It examines, in particular, the "Active Learning for Active Citizenship" programme, which was funded by what was previously the Civic Renewal Unit of the Home Office and the possibility of a learning democratic citizenship based on the theory and practice of deliberative democratic engagement.   [More]  Descriptors: Citizenship, Democracy, Citizenship Education, Lifelong Learning

George, Shanti (2009). Too Young for Respect? Realising Respect for Young Children in Their Everyday Environments: A Cross-Cultural Analysis. Working Papers in Early Childhood Development, No. 54, Bernard van Leer Foundation (NJ1). This paper explores the conceptual underpinnings of the routine disrespect shown to young children in everyday life in cultures around the world. General Comment 7 of the Committee on the Rights of the Child urges that the youngest children should be respected as persons in their own right, within an environment of reliable and affectionate relationships based on respect and understanding. This paper examines two case studies, from Germany and Israel, to show what such environments look like on the ground. A bibliography is included.   [More]  Descriptors: Childrens Rights, Young Children, Foreign Countries, Cross Cultural Studies

Gounari, Panayota (2009). Rethinking Critical Literacy in the New Information Age, Critical Inquiry in Language Studies. This article looks at new information and communication technologies (ICTs) as sites of public pedagogy in that they produce particular forms of knowledge and literacies and reproduce representations that are always mediated through specific social relations. Public pedagogy as a process that constitutes a broader category beyond classroom practices, official curricula, and educational canons, extends to all sectors of human life, including virtual spaces. No longer restricted to traditional sites of learning such as educational or religious sites, public pedagogy produces new forms of knowledge and apprenticeship and new narratives for agency and for naming the world. Virtual spaces as sites of public pedagogy create, in turn, forms of literacy that go against traditional understandings of what constitutes a text. The article also attempts to discuss yet unrealized alternative directions in these virtual spaces, where critical literacy becomes emancipatory and an essential and powerful tool in the project for a radical pedagogy.   [More]  Descriptors: Critical Thinking, Educational Technology, Teaching Methods, Educational Methods

Garcia-Huidobro, Juan Eduardo; Corvalan, Javier (2009). Barriers that Prevent the Achievement of Inclusive Democratic Education, Prospects: Quarterly Review of Comparative Education. Inclusive education inherently involves the inclusion of all citizens in a democratic society. Based on this view, questions emerge with respect to equality and integration in educational systems. Although inclusion should be viewed as a requirement in a democratic society, along with the integration in schools of students from different social groups, the concept rarely becomes reality, despite its frequent acceptance in discourse. This article analyzes mechanisms that inhibit agreement on how equality and inclusion can be put into practice in education, taking as an example the case of Chile. One inhibitor is a lack of in-depth discussions about the major tendencies prevailing in contemporary educational systems. In addition, three types of segregation are linked to children's exclusion from schools: charges for educational services, schools' selection processes and the use of economic incentives. Finally, the article presents possible consequences of two pedagogical orientations: towards autonomous schools and flexible curriculum.   [More]  Descriptors: Inclusive Schools, Democracy, Foreign Countries, Educational Change

Powell, Maria C.; Colin, Mathilde (2009). Participatory Paradoxes: Facilitating Citizen Engagement in Science and Technology from the Top-Down?, Bulletin of Science, Technology & Society. Mechanisms to engage lay citizens in science and technology are currently in vogue worldwide. While some engagement exercises aim to influence policy making, research suggests that they have had little discernable impacts in this regard. We explore the potentials and challenges of facilitating citizen engagement in nanotechnology from the "top-down," addressing the following questions: Can academics and others within institutions "initiate" meaningful engagement with unorganized lay citizens from the top-down? Can they facilitate effective engagement among citizens, scientists, and policy makers while building citizen engagement capacities? Is it possible to create "independent" bottom-up citizen engagement in scientific and technological issues from the top-down, and what are the challenges in doing so? Our experiences show that although academics can build citizens' individual, collective, and political capacities to engage with each other, scientists, and policy makers, this work is enormously time and energy intensive, and institutional support is needed to sustain it.   [More]  Descriptors: Citizen Participation, Science and Society, Democracy, Molecular Structure

Teaching Tolerance (2009). Our Challenges as a People. Barack Obama's ascension to the highest elected office in America's land is surely a milestone in the American narrative. The events of Nov. 4, 2008, and Jan. 20, 2009, are marks of America's collective progress. In the course of the long campaign season, however, there is another date that also should be etched into American textbooks: March 18, 2008. On that day, in Philadelphia, then-Senator Obama delivered a landmark speech on race. Titled "A More Perfect Union," the speech was, as one commentator put it, "refreshing" in that a political candidate ushered in "a serious conversation about America's challenges as a people. One important role of a leader is to serve as an educator, clarifying how Americans have arrived where they are and what their choices are as they look toward the future." An excerpt of "A More Perfect Union" is presented.   [More]  Descriptors: Political Candidates, United States History, Racial Relations, Racial Discrimination

Superfine, Benjamin Michael (2009). The Evolving Role of the Courts in Educational Policy: The Tension between Judicial, Scientific, and Democratic Decision Making in "Kitzmiller v. Dover", American Educational Research Journal. In "Kitzmiller v. Dover" (2005), a court defined science to decide the legitimacy of teaching intelligent design to high school biology students. This study analyzes "Kitzmiller" in light of the complex and interrelated tensions between judicial, scientific, and democratic decision making that lie at the heart of modern educational governance. This study particularly explores how these tensions become more acute where the meaning of science itself is contested and examines how these tensions can be structured and balanced in a nuanced way in the institutional setting of the courts. Based on this examination, this study highlights major issues that bear upon an analysis of when it is appropriate for governmental entities to define science for educational policy purposes.   [More]  Descriptors: Courts, Educational Policy, Decision Making, Sciences

Poyntz, Stuart R. (2009). "On Behalf of a Shared World": Arendtian Politics in a Culture of Youth Media Participation, Review of Education, Pedagogy & Cultural Studies. More than 30 years since Hannah Arendt's death in 1975 at the age of 69, her novel theory of the public realm continues to attract attention and debate. In this article, the author contributes to this discussion by drawing on Arendt's theory of public life to investigate the space of youth media production in relation to questions of democratic habituation. Arendt is not typically thought of in relation to youth or media, but her concern for the nature of public acts, and for the way such acts expand people's lives by producing worldliness, offers a powerful framework for thinking about teenagers' media production work. The author introduces Arendt's thinking on the public realm and then uses her framework to examine the complex experiences of youth video production mentors involved in a summer digital media program located in Vancouver, Canada. The author situates a review of the youths' experiences in Summer Stories in relation to the development of what Henry Jenkins (2006a, 2006b) calls a culture of participation in contemporary Western societies. The author notes that while such a culture would appear to offer youth more opportunities than ever to produce their own cultural expressions, this does not mean such expressions are free of disciplinary practices that regulate and limit youth conduct. The author provides examples to support this argument and then turns to the experiences of youth mentors in Summer Stories. Through these experiences, the author indicates how and when production work nurtures democratic habits by fostering what Arendt contends is central to public life, that is, a form of thinking that is responsive to others, to the fact that people are all part of a shared world.   [More]  Descriptors: Foreign Countries, Politics, Theories, Democracy

Langdon, Jonathan (2009). Learning to Sleep without Perching: Reflections by Activist-Educators on Learning in Social Action in Ghanaian Social Movements, McGill Journal of Education. This article conveys results from a participatory action research (PAR) engagement with activist/educators working in Ghanaian social movements. First, this PAR group has articulated two typologies from which to understand Ghanaian social movements based on their processes of organization, communication and learning rather than merely the issues, resources or populations that occupy their focus. Second, expanding on Griff Foley's (1999) notion of learning in struggle, the PAR group provides three lenses from which to view learning in social movements in Ghana. Both of these contributions help to present a much needed African inflection to ongoing discussions of learning in social movements, especially as these contributions attempt to maintain a complex view of learning based on the shifting characteristics of power and capital.   [More]  Descriptors: Action Research, Social Action, Foreign Countries, Participatory Research

Terzian, Sevan G. (2009). The 1939-1940 New York World's Fair and the Transformation of the American Science Extracurriculum, Science Education. At the 1939-1940 New York World's Fair, several thousand boys and girls, all members of a growing national network of high school science and engineering clubs, displayed their science fair projects and conducted live experiments to more than 10 million visitors. Housed in the building sponsored by the Westinghouse Electric and Manufacturing Company, their exhibits depicted a wide range of scientific phenomena. They also represented the conflicting values of science educators and industrialists about the societal worth of science education. In some instances, students' projects and laboratory activities prized hands-on learning and aimed to abet widespread rational thinking for democratic citizenship, which reflected the civic priorities of Progressive science educators. In other cases, science was presented as a magical spectacle with consumer applications intended to entertain and inspire the public's confidence in American industry and scientific experts. Ultimately, the corporate sponsorship of the high school science extracurriculum at the World's Fair marked a turning point when the Progressive purposes of science education began to give way to "manpower" and "professionalist" ends that aligned with the nation's economic and military imperatives. This historical episode also anticipated recent proposals to reform science education in the United States and ideas about scientific learning in museum settings.   [More]  Descriptors: Science Education, Science Fairs, Science Activities, Science and Society

Spradling, Rick (2009). Sleeping Peacefully?, Schools: Studies in Education. American public school education was founded, in large measure, on the ideals of Horace Mann's leadership of Massachusetts schools in the 1800s. Later in that same century, private schools began to emerge and serve those disaffected with Mann's "common schools," and tension between publicly funded and privately paid education arose. This perhaps inevitable friction continued throughout the 1900s and remains pronounced today. The author of this essay is director (superintendent) of an American/International school in Holland; he revisited this public versus private education debate as part of a Klingenstein Fellowship at Teachers College, Columbia University, January-February 2009. Through on-site visits to alternatives to traditional public schools–including charter schools, parochial schools, and schools-within-schools–the author considers whether these alternatives are threats to Mann's ideal and concludes with an examination of whether American/International schools such as his own support or undermine the goals of universal public education in a democratic society.   [More]  Descriptors: Educational History, Public Education, Private Education, Inservice Teacher Education

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