Bibliography: Democracy (page 496 of 605)

This annotated bibliography is curated specifically for the I'm with Jill website.  Some of the authors featured on this page include T. van Louw, Thom Brooks, Solveig Ostrem, Margit McGuire, Josef Jarab, Joseph Kahne, Martin Haigh, Jean-Louis Derouet, Ryan Wells, and John Waldman.

van Louw, T.; Waghid, Y. (2008). A Deliberative Democratic View of Mentorship, South African Journal of Higher Education. The article critically reflects on the positive portrayal of mentorship as a professional development strategy for educators. We argue that the conceptualisation of classical mentorship has been informed mainly by functionalist thinking. We contend that the supposedly beneficial nature of the mentorship relationship has been given such prominence that the possibility of learning from two highly problematic assumptions occupying a central position within a functionalist conceptualisation of mentorship, that is, the conceptualisation of learning as a unidirectional transmission process and, secondly, the strong authoritarian tendency deriving from a highly hierarchal mentor-mentee relationship where an experienced older person is the mentor and an inexperienced, younger person the mentee, is largely negated. Functionalist perspectives informed the highly authoritarian education system that was essential to maintain the oppressive political dispensation in South Africa. We argue therefore that, owing to the underlying assumption of an uncritical transmission of knowledge and management skills in a strong hierarchal relationship between mentor and mentee, mentorship conceptualised within the framework of functionalism is inherently conservative and poses a potential threat to the new education system in South Africa. The conceptualisation of mentorship within a radical humanistic perspective is pursued, especially because social justice, the learner as critical co-learner, and the critical analysis of power relations occupy a central position within this perspective.   [More]  Descriptors: Social Justice, Mentors, Foreign Countries, Democratic Values

Brooks, Thom (2008). Bringing the "Republic" to Life: Teaching Plato's "Republic" to First-Year Students, Education, Citizenship and Social Justice. I have taught Plato's "Republic" for several years although seminars on this text can be difficult and pose certain challenges, most especially with first year students new to university: the ancient Greeks seem a long way from the technocratic society we live in today. More importantly, the complexity of our relationship to each other as citizens and to the state has grown increasingly since the ancient world as well. Students find this revered book full of unfamiliar names, arguments, and styles of presentation and immediately become a bit frustrated. In this article, I provide a thorough, concrete example of how I have attempted to overcome this problem in my work using the seminar format. I have learned some useful tips for tackling this text and hope this article might be useful to others grappling with the teaching of abstract concepts and texts, opening the door for students to engage with a new civic awareness.   [More]  Descriptors: College Freshmen, Classical Literature, Seminars, College Instruction

Gough, Jim (2008). The Critical Evaluation of Bibliographic Web Sources, College Quarterly. With the rapid increase in information freely and easily accessible on the web to those who have access to a computer and the internet, there seems to be a corresponding decrease in critical evaluation of the sources of this information. All sources are taken to be sources of information and seem to be uncritically considered to contain reliable, credible, and authoritative information, which is relevant to any topic. However, many sources contain disputed and disputable information slanted to support one ideological belief over another. People use sources in their research bibliographies that are concurrently used to support claims in their research papers that are not in fact plausible. Students, as citizens, need to be critically informed to make good decisions in a democratic society that depends on their reliable, credible and authoritative sources of information used in decision making. In this article, the author offers a set of testing conditions to determine how to critically separate the acceptable sources from the implausible ones.   [More]  Descriptors: Research Papers (Students), Democracy, Criticism, Internet

Bali, Valentina A. (2008). The Passage of Education Citizen Initiatives: Evidence from California, Educational Policy. In recent years, many critical education policy reforms across the American states have been attempted through citizen ballots. This study examines citizens' voting behavior on three salient education initiatives proposed in California. Analyses of exit poll data indicate that voting on education initiatives is greatly influenced by ideological predispositions, self-interest, and racially based incentives. Local school districts' conditions become more influential once we examine voting separately across racial groups. These voting strategies suggest that the path of education reform through citizen initiatives will be much susceptible to ideological and demographic currents.   [More]  Descriptors: Voting, Educational Policy, School Districts, Bilingual Education

Haigh, Martin (2008). Internationalisation, Planetary Citizenship and Higher Education Inc, Compare: A Journal of Comparative Education. The internationalisation of higher education aims to produce "citizens that feel at home in the world" but the process is driven by both economic and educational motivations. Today, the international community aspires to promote Education for Sustainable Development (ESD) and Education for Democratic Citizenship (EDC), together planetary citizenship, and with them emphases on personal and ethical responsibilities to the environment and future that contrast with current competitive individualism. Driven by rising numbers of international students, curricula are already shifting toward more global assessments of society and environment. However, progress is being impeded by management systems that take commerce as their model. While instructors strive to ensure that learners consider their responsibilities through ESD and EDC, their message is being contradicted by their context. Since learners learn from their total environment, not just in classrooms, changes are required. Granting greater attention to sustainability issues and the empowerment of learners and teachers would allow a better constructive alignment between educational and economic imperatives.   [More]  Descriptors: Higher Education, Management Systems, Citizenship, Democracy

Haas, Claus (2008). Citizenship Education in Denmark: Reinventing the Nation and/or Conducting Multiculturalism(s)?, London Review of Education. In 2007 the concept of citizenship was officially incorporated into teacher education in Denmark, as part of a compulsory subject called "Christianity studies, life enlightenment, and citizenship". Thus, at least to some extent, the notion of citizenship is expected to find its way into the educational and political vocabulary of future teachers and pupils/students of the Danish educational system, and probably into the public discussions about the meaning of democratic education in general. The subject itself is only described in very general terms within the legal framework. In order to understand the meaning and purpose of the new subject it is necessary to position it within a broader discourse of citizenship education, as it has been launched by the Danish nation state since 1999. First, citizenship education seems to be exclusively about responding to cultural diversity; secondly, articulated as part of a nation state driven strategy of the sociocultural integration of foreigners, migrants and ethnic minorities. From this follow the questions: What does integration mean, and integration into what? I will make use of four different versions of multiculturalism as my analytical framework–assimilationism, cosmopolitanism, fragmented pluralism, interactive pluralism, and pointing to the fact that the first seems to be the hegemonic understanding of the purpose of citizenship education.   [More]  Descriptors: Citizenship, Democracy, Citizenship Education, Christianity

McGuire, Margit; Waldman, John (2008). Get Real: Teaching about the Presidential Election, Phi Delta Kappan. A paramount duty of education is to prepare young people for their role as citizens in a democratic society. Voting is one of the important responsibilities of a citizen but statistics indicate that young people often don't vote and don't believe they have a stake in the outcome of the presidential election. Storypath is a teaching strategy that can be used to create powerful lessons about the presidential election. Students create parties, write platforms, and play the roles of campaign workers and candidates. Through this, they experience the election process from beginning to end and learn the importance of being informed voters.   [More]  Descriptors: Democracy, Elections, Political Campaigns, Teaching Methods

Magno, Cathryn (2008). Refuge from Crisis: Refugee Women Build Political Capital, Globalisation, Societies and Education. For women who have escaped political crises, NGOs can provide a healing space. This study explores nonformal and informal educational processes that occur in NGOs founded and staffed by refugee women who have resettled in the United States. Interviews and documents demonstrate that the refugee women gain knowledge and skills through participation in the NGO, find their voices through the supportive environment of the NGO and networking with others, and take opportunities to make social change. The results of this research indicate that women gain political capital through NGO participation and that increased support of NGOs can therefore result in increased democratisation.   [More]  Descriptors: Nonformal Education, Females, Social Change, Learning Processes

Wells, Ryan (2008). The Effect of Education on Democratisation: A Review of Past Literature and Suggestions for a Globalised Context, Globalisation, Societies and Education. Democratisation is an important component of current globalisation trends, and education is commonly thought to lead to greater democratisation. Thus, education holds a prestigious place in political development discourses. Are policies that promote this belief grounded in research-based evidence, or simply the propagation of institutionalized myths? This study reviews the literature concerning education's effect on democratisation. Ultimately, the evidence is inconclusive, and cannot justifiably be used to support an education-democratisation link at the national level. Therefore, this review concludes with a call for a revitalized research effort concerning education and democratisation that uses new approaches to account for a newly globalised context.   [More]  Descriptors: Educational Change, Democracy, Democratic Values, Global Approach

Derouet, Jean-Louis (2008). Extending the Schooling Period or Recommending Lifelong Training?: The Place of Higher Education at a Time of Revamped Conceptions of Justice and State Forms in France, European Education. Until the mid-1990s, French educational policy was in line with the traditional model of democratization, which aimed to extend the schooling period. However, this age-old process came to a halt in the late twentieth century. The 1975 Haby Reform, the law modernizing the French educational system, established the creation of comprehensive schools in lower secondary education. The movement then gained upper secondary education, with the target of bringing 80 percent of each age group to the baccalaureate level and then to the universities. In the 1970s, a new model that mixes instruction and work periods was developed. The state guarantees a common core of knowledge and competencies to all fifteen- or sixteen-year-old students. Individuals then develop their own career paths and fit into networks in which training courses are part of larger dynamics. The objective of a longer schooling period for all is replaced by a "Europeanized" access to higher education for the elite only. This article considers the crisis of the former democratization model as well as the shifts of French policy between the 1989 and the 2005 education acts. Next, it reviews the challenged model and attempts to elaborate on the converging principles behind the new organization. Finally, the author discusses the positioning of higher education at a time of reshaped conceptions of justice and state forms in France.   [More]  Descriptors: Higher Education, Secondary Education, Foreign Countries, Educational Policy

Ostrem, Solveig (2008). The Public/Private Dichotomy: A Threat to Children's Fellow Citizenship?, International Journal of Early Childhood. When child-raising involves violence, a conflict of values arises between the parents' autonomy and the children's right to equal participation in a democratic society. In this article I discuss, from the perspective of discourse analysis, how a dichotomous understanding of the public versus private sphere can constitute a threat to children's fellow citizenship. One of the questions I dwell upon is if there is a contradictory relationship between, on the one side, a type of thought that identifies the child with the family and private sphere and, on the other hand, the understanding of the child as active participant in a democratic society.   [More]  Descriptors: Children, Citizenship, Democracy, Family (Sociological Unit)

Kahne, Joseph; Middaugh, Ellen (2008). High Quality Civic Education: What Is It and Who Gets It?, Social Education. In this article, the authors review the state of civic education in schools. They point out that students typically "take only one semester-long course on American government"–unlike the situation in the 1960s, when it was common "for students to take multiple courses in civics covering not only the structure of American government, but also the role of citizens and the issues they and the government face." Here, the authors pose the question, "What is high quality civic education and who gets it?" and conclude that students have inadequate opportunities at school to develop civic commitments and capacities, and that minority students are the group most likely to be deprived of a good civics education.   [More]  Descriptors: Citizenship Education, Civics, Minority Groups, Educational Quality

Evans, Ronald W. (2008). The Rugg Prototype for Democratic Education, International Journal of Social Education. Harold O. Rugg was one of a small group of leaders of the Progressive Education Movement centered at Teachers College, Columbia University, and a leader among the Social Frontier group that emerged in the 1930s to argue that schools should play a stronger role in helping to reconstruct the society. He was the author of an innovative and best selling series of social studies textbooks which ultimately came under attack from "patriotic" and business groups in the prelude to the United States involvement in World War II. The story of his rise and fall encapsulates a significant and central story in the history of American education. The Rugg story reveals a great deal about the direction of schooling in American life, the many alternative roads not taken, and possibilities for the future. This article focuses primarily on the examination and discussion of Rugg's social studies ideas. Revisiting Rugg's vision will underline several of the main themes of his work and highlight the fact that Rugg was instrumental, a seminal thinker in the world of social studies theory and practice. A full understanding requires a brief examination of the origins of his ideas, his developing theory, his critique of the standard practices in schools, the key principles and explicit rationale under-girding his social science program, and the controversy he inspired.   [More]  Descriptors: Schools of Education, Textbooks, Science Programs, Democracy

Jarab, Josef (2008). Reforming Systems and Institutions of Higher Learning: Towards the Creation of a European and Global Higher Education Area, Education, Citizenship and Social Justice. Before Europe–as a continent–could seriously think of creating a common European Higher Education Area grave differences between the former West and East had to be dealt with. The fall of the Iron Curtain in 1989 made it possible to start reforming totalitarian educational systems and introduce principles of democratization and academic liberties. The transition period was not an easy one but neither did the process of harmonization and integration of higher learning in the freer part of the continent proceed without hindrances. The drafting and signing of the Bologna Magna Charta Universitatum, the declaration and launching of the Bologna Process, the activities and resolutions of the Council of Europe, UNESCO, the OECD and the European Union have proved decisive catalyzers in the process, which has progressed considerably, but has still to face some challenges before it achieves its full potential and a functional common higher education area in Europe and in the global context is created.   [More]  Descriptors: Higher Education, Foreign Countries, Educational Cooperation, Educational Change

Shields, Carolyn M.; Mohan, Erica J. (2008). High-Quality Education for All Students: Putting Social Justice at Its Heart, Teacher Development. Despite decades of reform and school improvement initiatives, large numbers of students are still underachieving, failing, or being pushed out of school. Clearly, a distinctly new approach is needed–one that takes into account the global diaspora and increasing school demographic diversity. Unless educators begin to take account of differences in students' material realities and lived experiences, ongoing lack of school success for many students will continue to inhibit their life chances, and ultimately negatively affect our democratic society. The authors argue that teaching in socially just ways is not only a prerequisite for students' intellectual growth and improved outcomes, but for educating citizens who will become agents of change for themselves and others in the quest for a more just society.   [More]  Descriptors: Social Justice, Democracy, Educational Quality, Educational Change

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