Bibliography: Democracy (page 490 of 605)

This annotated bibliography is reformatted and customized for the I'm with Jill website.  Some of the authors featured on this page include Ann Norton, Michael Fielding, V. Karongo, Donalyn Heise, S. Y. Ampofo, Peggy F. Hopper, Daniel Perlstein, Ellen Middaugh, Leslie McClain, and Jim Garrison.

Norton, Ann; Wilson, Kristin (2015). A Longitudinal View of the Liberal Arts Curriculum a Decade after Merger: A Multiple Case Study of Community Colleges in Connecticut, Kentucky, and Louisiana, Community College Journal of Research and Practice. This study is an examination of the state of the liberal arts curriculum in community colleges in three geographic regions of the United States. From a constructivist paradigm and using globalization theory as a theoretical framework, this multiple case study examined faculty work life and administrative processes related to curriculum change in merged community and technical colleges. Through an examination of research on globalization, mergers, and trends in the general education and liberal arts curriculum, a gap in the literature emerged in the studies of community college curriculums after merger. This study considers whether the focus on workforce development and decrease in the transfer mission has diminished the liberal arts courses in the college curriculum. Research on liberal arts courses identified them as courses that emphasize higher order thinking and the development of intellectual skills needed to engage in a democratic society. If students are not exposed to these skills, it may have a detrimental effect on a democratic society. Study findings suggested that the English and communication curriculums are narrowing and the mission is more toward workforce skill preparation. Also, the changing demographics of today's community college students, as well as the ongoing budget constraints, create challenges and frustrations for faculty members.   [More]  Descriptors: Community Colleges, Liberal Arts, Constructivism (Learning), Global Approach

Rosas, Marisela (2010). College Student Activism: An Exploration of Learning Outcomes, ProQuest LLC. Researchers, politicians, and the public have criticized colleges and universities for not effectively preparing college students to be active participants in their communities and within a democratic society. Institutional initiatives on civic engagement have focused on community service and service-learning initiatives to meet this demand. The existing literature, therefore, focuses on these civic engagement involvements and the outcomes associated with involvement. Little research is conducted on another form of civic engagement, activism. This study address the gap in the literature related to activism. Specifically, the purpose of this study was to identify the learning outcomes associated with student participation in activism.   Data from the Higher Education Research Institute's surveys, the 1999 Student Information Form (SIF) and the 2003 College Student Survey (CSS), were used in this study. The theoretical framework for this study was Astin's Theory of Student Involvement and the conceptual framework for this study was influenced by Pascarella's General Model for Assessing Change and Astin's Input-Environment-Output Model. The statistical analyses conducted in order to answer the research questions were multiple regression and logistic regression.   The results of this study provide some noteworthy findings that improve our understanding of activism and its effect on the learning outcomes of undergraduate students. First, students involved in activism or not involved in activism were no different when comparing demographic descriptive data (gender, modal age, college grades, etc.). Students differed in their academic course selection and out-of-class involvements. Secondly, characteristics positively predicting involvement in activism were male, African-American or Latino, involved in leadership training and racial/ethnic student organizations, who experienced high faculty support, and who enrolled in ethnic and women's studies' courses. Thirdly, student with high socio-political influence scores were associated with positive growth in all four of the learning outcomes, while student involvement in demonstrations was associated with positive growth in only two of the learning outcomes: humanitarianism and knowledge acquisition and application. Finally, the conditional analysis conducted to determine if different students (e.g., female and male, and White and Latino, African American, etc.) experience differently the effects of involvement in activism on the learning outcomes found: (a) conditional effects existed for males and females for the learning outcome humanitarianism and (b) no conditional effects existed for students of different racial/ethnic groups.   This examination of specific learning outcomes associated with activism offers student affairs professionals and higher education scholars and policy-makers a better understanding of what students gain from their activism. In addition, the results of this study contribute to the body of knowledge on the role of college involvements in developing an action-oriented citizen.   [The dissertation citations contained here are published with the permission of ProQuest LLC. Further reproduction is prohibited without permission. Copies of dissertations may be obtained by Telephone (800) 1-800-521-0600. Web page: www.proquest.com/en-US/products/dissertations/individuals.shtml.%5D   [More]  Descriptors: Undergraduate Students, Activism, Democracy, Ethnic Groups

McClain, Leslie; Ylimaki, Rose; Ford, Michael P. (2010). Wisdom and Compassion in Democratic Leadership: Perceptions of the Bodhisattva Ideal, Journal of School Leadership. At the heart of democratic leadership rests a deep respect for what it means to be human, the cultivation of the common good, and the need to act according to one's own direction. If democratic leadership aims to create an environment in which people are encouraged and supported in "aspiring to truths about the world" (Woods, 2005, p. xvi), then wisdom and compassion must be critical components of such leadership. Through qualitative study, we interviewed administrators and teachers for their perceptions about wisdom and compassion as related to democratic leadership in schools. Such expressions have not been characterized and discussed in the mainstream educational leadership literature; however, they have been documented for centuries across philosophies and religions, including the Mahayana Buddhist teachings of the six virtues of the Bodhisattva, the awakened spiritual leader. The purpose of this article is to explore, through extant literature and empirical research findings, administrators' and teacher leaders' perceptions of wisdom and compassion as being relevant and essential to democratic educational leadership.   [More]  Descriptors: Humanism, Individualism, Democracy, Leadership

Williams, Leslie; Cate, Jean; O'Hair, Mary John (2009). The Boundary-Spanning Role of Democratic Learning Communities: Implementing the IDEALS, Educational Management Administration & Leadership. This multi-case study investigates characteristics and practices in schools that expand the traditional boundaries of school leadership and transform schools into democratic learning communities based on the level of implementation of the IDEALS framework. This investigation serves as a modus to illuminate democratic processes that change schools and address the needs of the students, not the needs of the adults in the system. A sample of five purposefully selected high schools, from the Midwest USA, was utilized. The schools serve Grade 9-12 students, but vary in size, residential area and socioeconomic status of the students. This study illuminates some of the challenges and strategies that facilitate or impede the process of creating more democratic schools that expand the boundaries of inquiry and discourse to include a broader range of community stakeholders and that respect and embrace issues of equity.   [More]  Descriptors: Educational Change, High Schools, Instructional Leadership, Institutional Characteristics

Tshabangu, Icarbord (2009). The Challenge of Researching Violent Societies: Navigating Complexities in Ethnography, Issues in Educational Research. Through use of a recent study researching democratic education and citizenship in Zimbabwe, this paper examines the methodological dilemmas and challenges faced by an ethnographer, particularly by a research student in a violent context. The article posits a bricolage strategy to navigate some of the dangers and methodological dilemmas inherent so as to bring about rigour in an environment empty of convention and lacking the rule of law. To navigate such societies ridden with violence and conflict, the bricolage strategy used a multidisciplinary approach, part of which included triangulation, mixed methods, distance and insider status. These research strategies are discussed in this paper and recommendations posited.   [More]  Descriptors: Research Problems, Democracy, Research Methodology, Interdisciplinary Approach

Ampofo, S. Y.; Bizimana, B.; Ndayambaje, I.; Karongo, V.; Lawrence, K. Lyn; Orodho, J. A. (2015). Social and Spill-Over Benefits as Motivating Factors to Investment in Formal Education in Africa: A Reflection around Ghanaian, Kenyan and Rwandan Contexts, Journal of Education and Practice. This study examined the social and spill-over benefits as motivating factors to investment in formal education in selected countries in Africa. The paper had three objectives, namely) to profile the key statistics of formal schooling; ii) examine the formal education and iii) link national goals of education with expectations in Ghana, Kenya and Rwanda. The major contention of the paper is that investment in education is not a matter of random choice but rather an imperative led by the fact that education holds returns and externalities to the largest society. Authors reviewed theory of human capital, local and international publications on social and spill over benefits of education focusing on Ghana, Kenya and Rwanda. The analysis of government policies and other publications from these three African nations have shown that education is considered as a key sector in these developing nations. Nevertheless, the researchers found out that mostly only primary and secondary education are distinctively accorded considerable public financial resources which might be associated with the countries limited financial ability, competitive needs, national and global trends. However, the fact that Ghana, Kenya and Rwanda strive to become democratic, self-reliant and middle income nations by conquering long terms set visions in which caliber manpower, welfare, self-employment, reduced social inequalities, increase in average income, knowledge based society, ICT driven and sustainable economy are key characteristics; it is imperative to invest substantially in TVET and higher education. It is also recommended that Ghana, Kenya and Rwanda put in place strong institutions that objectively, effectively and rationally ensure the efficient use of all available resources towards maximum educational outputs.   [More]  Descriptors: Foreign Countries, Social Influences, Motivation, Role of Education

Pryor, Caroline R. (2010). How Democratic Practitioners Can Address School Bullying: An Imperative for Educational Leaders, Scholar-Practitioner Quarterly. There are various ideas about the root causes of bullying, such as the bully's prior victimization or perception of a student's position in a perceived popular peer group. Remediation suggestions include using various types of literature to help students gain interpersonal perspective from the lives of others. Some research notes that parental and community involvement in school problems can help change a culture of school bullying. Less discussed in the literature about bullying are calls to provide K-12 teachers "a deep structure" of the principles foundational to the ways in which people communicate cultural expectations for participation in American democratic society. Studies of teacher beliefs indicate that knowledge of democratic ideals is a strong predictor of teacher integration of these ideals into their classroom practices. In this brief essay the author posits that administrators as educational leaders are central to communicating the importance of teachers understanding the principles of a democratic society, and teaching the ideals of liberty, justice, and equal opportunity.   [More]   [More]  Descriptors: Bullying, Elementary Secondary Education, Democracy, Community Involvement

Heise, Donalyn (2010). Folk Art in the Urban Artroom, Art Education. This article provides a rationale for integrating folk art in an urban K-12 art classroom to provide meaningful instruction for all students. The integration of folk art can provide a safe, nurturing environment for all students to learn by acknowledging the value of art in the community. It can prepare students for participation in a democratic society by recognizing the richness of multiple perspectives found in individual and community creations. It can provide access to art for students who may have never viewed art in a museum or gallery setting. Rather than promoting an approach to art education that reduces art to a commodity, or simply teaching a technique, integrating folk art embraces a concept of teaching that celebrates the uniqueness in each person, and encourages them to think globally using universal themes. This article provides lesson examples and resources for integrating folk art in the art curriculum. This information may provide insight for art teachers using folk art to empower youth who are often labeled as at-risk by societal institutions.   [More]  Descriptors: Elementary Secondary Education, Democracy, Art Education, Art Teachers

Zoeller, Geoffrey W., Jr. (2010). The Censor, the Computer, and the Textbook, ProQuest LLC. Education in a free society requires that students are provided with a provocative and thoughtful curriculum and learning materials that will prepare them to function as productive adult citizens in a diverse and changing world. Textbooks and curricular materials that engage the rising generation in the study of social ideas, problems, and issues are often targets for censorship. Advocates of the "new" media apply pressure to have computer-based instructional (CBI) materials utilized in schools, and make claims of CBI's superiority over other materials and forms of instruction.   Despite the extravagant claims made for computer-based instruction pointing to its alleged superiority over other instructional media, a study of the research and documented cases of censorship demonstrates that there are no censorship incidents directed at computer programs, whereas the censorship of school textbooks, school library books, and other "conventional" curriculum materials is epidemic. This raises fundamental questions about the limitations and realistic uses of computer-based instruction in the schools of a democratic society.   Policy makers and administrators who are responsible for making decisions about the curriculum in public schools are often under pressure to implement new technology-based instructional programs, with the hope that computer technology will somehow improve the educational process at reduced cost and greater efficiency. With the advent 30 years ago of relatively inexpensive microcomputers, there has been a dramatic increase in the accessibility to and use of CBI materials in America's schools.   Textbooks, anthologies, literary works of fiction and non-fiction, and other print materials have been the traditional materials used for classroom instruction, and those that have been developed to inform and challenge students with the social problems that confront our world have often been targeted for censorship. Extravagant claims have been made that the computer is a more effective and efficient instructional tool than traditional print materials and might even be able to replace the teacher. Yet these claims have not been substantiated in the research literature.   This study investigates why computer-based instruction has been virtually immune from the eyes and arms of the censor, whereas censorship continues to impact the textbook and other print media with the exception of the workbook and worksheet. Is the computer being used predominantly as an electronic workbook? This question raises profound implications for the schools in a free society.   The study finds that over the past 30 years there has not been a single documented case of censorship directed at computer-based instructional materials, while censorship targeting other instructional materials continues unabated, with hundreds of censorship attempts recorded in the professional literature each year. The study also reveals virtually no mention of censorship in professional research studies, journals, and research handbooks. This lack of research underscores the disturbing avoidance by educational professionals and researchers to engage those who would censor instructional materials for the nation's students. Perhaps the true import of this study is as a "call to arms" for those who are willing to see the significant implications to a free society posed by censorship and the long-term dilution of the curriculum provided to our country's children.   [The dissertation citations contained here are published with the permission of ProQuest LLC. Further reproduction is prohibited without permission. Copies of dissertations may be obtained by Telephone (800) 1-800-521-0600. Web page: www.proquest.com/en-US/products/dissertations/individuals.shtml.   [More]  Descriptors: Social Problems, Textbooks, Printed Materials, Democracy

Middaugh, Ellen; Perlstein, Daniel (2005). Thinking and Teaching in a Democratic Way: Hilda Taba and the Ethos of Brown, Journal of Curriculum and Supervision. In the middle decades of the 20th century, Hilda Taba played a prominent role in efforts to help American schoolchildren develop the cognitive skills and values necessary to think democratically. Drawing on the principles of progressive education and on social psychological and cognitive developmental theory, Taba directed Intergroup Education in Cooperating Schools, an anti-prejudice project involving scores of cities in the United States. She then adapted the Cooperating Schools program for K-8 social studies. Throughout, Taba sought to inculcate shared democratic beliefs while encouraging the individual, autonomous thinking necessary for self-representation, and to foster empathy toward the perspectives of different cultures while developing critical intelligence and common, democratic values. In her simultaneous attentiveness to classroom social relations and to pedagogy and curriculum, Taba created a powerful theoretical and practical framework for democratic education.   [More]  Descriptors: Administrators, Educational History, Consciousness Raising, Democracy

Foley, Jean Ann; Morris, Doug; Gounari, Panayota; Agostinone-Wilson, Faith (2015). Critical Education, Critical Pedagogies, Marxist Education in the United States, Journal for Critical Education Policy Studies. As critical pedagogy becomes more mainstream on the educational landscape in the United States, it is important to revisit the original tenets of critical pedagogy and explore their current manifestations. Since the beginning of "criticalism" from the theoretical/foundational work of the Frankfurt School of Critical Social Theory, critical theory challenges traditional theory steeped in positivism and calls out for justice and liberation. This article traces the paths of critical education, critical pedagogies, and Marxist education in the United States by examining the tenets of critical pedagogy from a Marxist point of view while providing a historical context. In addition, this piece presents familiar challenges and critiques lodged against the practice of critical pedagogy in the United States. Examples of revolutionary/Marxist critical pedagogy-in-practice in various K-adult contexts are described and questions about vitality or the ability of critical pedagogy to endure in the face of intensified capitalism are also explored.   [More]  Descriptors: Marxian Analysis, Critical Theory, Social Theories, Social Justice

Kushner, Saville (2005). Democratic Theorizing: From Noun to Participle, American Journal of Evaluation. What is the relationship between theory and design in evaluation pretending to be "democratic?" When do we feel able to relinquish elements of intellectual control over evaluation? If not in qualitative versus quantitative tendencies, where lie key value divisions in evaluation? To elicit the views of two leading United Kingdom-based theorists of evaluation, Ray Pawson and Nigel Norris, Saville Kushner penned a brief argument positing the democratic imperative of ceding theoretical control to participants. Pawson, coauthor of "Realistic Evaluation", has intellectual preferences for (contextualized) causal reasoning; Norris, a close associate of Barry MacDonald, is a long-standing advocate of democratic evaluation. Although not necessarily diametrically opposed, their approaches to evaluation theorizing are distinct. In his "Aunt Sally" opener, Kushner argues that choosing or not to cede or share theoretical control of an evaluation with participants better characterizes differences between value positions in evaluation than more conventional bipolarities such as qualitative-quantitative or "strong" and "weak" designs. Norris and Pawson move this simple argument further and explore its more complex dimensions.   [More]  Descriptors: Evaluation Methods, Democracy, Theories, Evaluators

Burroughs, Susie; Brocato, Kay; Hopper, Peggy F.; Sanders, Angela (2009). Media Literacy: A Central Component of Democratic Citizenship, Educational Forum. Educators from Europe, Latin America, and the United States convened to explore issues inherent in democratic citizenship. Media literacy, a central component of democratic citizenship, was studied in depth. Data from the camp were examined for evidence of the participants' understandings of media literacy and how it might be taught. Results revealed that the camp participants developed a deeper understanding of media literacy, the importance of its teaching, and ways to teach it.   [More]  Descriptors: Foreign Countries, Citizenship Education, Media Literacy, Citizenship

Fielding, Michael (2009). Public Space and Educational Leadership: Reclaiming and Renewing Our Radical Traditions, Educational Management Administration & Leadership. Among the most important features of a democratic way of life is public space within which we collectively make meaning of our work and lives together and take shared responsibility for past action and future intentions. This article looks briefly at the argument for democratic public space within political and educational theory before focusing on its central importance for contemporary school leadership. In seeking to ground the enormous potential of democratic public space in schools it then looks to the radical traditions of state education for compelling exemplification in the pioneering work of Alex Bloom, headteacher at St George-in-the-East Secondary School, Stepney, London. The article concludes with a three-fold analytic nexus of interrelated practices and orientations that support the development of inclusive public spaces in 21st-century schools.   [More]  Descriptors: Instructional Leadership, Democracy, Educational Theories, Politics

Garrison, Jim (2005). Curriculum, Critical Common-Sensism, Scholasticism, and the Growth of Democratic Character, Studies in Philosophy and Education. My paper concentrates on Peirce's late essay, "Issues of Pragmaticism," which identifies "critical common-sensism" and Scotistic realism as the two primary products of pragmaticism. I argue that the doctrines of Peirce's critical common-sensism provide a host of commendable curricular objectives for democratic "Bildung". The second half of my paper explores Peirce's Scotistic realism. I argue that Peirce eventually returned to Aristotelian intuitions that led him to a more robust realism. I focus on the development of signs from the vague and indeterminate to the determinate and universal. The primary example will be the evolution of the very idea of number. I believe we will never arrive at the end of number history because we can never fully contain creativity. I draw similar conclusions for the idea of curriculum. Whether or not there is an end to the evolution of signs in Peirce is a matter of debate. I incline toward the opinion there is not, though I am unsure. I conclude by arguing that rationality itself is but the form and structure of poetic creation and that we should embrace paradox and even contradiction rather that become caught in totalizing and totalitarian end of history stories.   [More]  Descriptors: Curriculum Development, Realism, Democratic Values, Democracy

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