Bibliography: Democracy (page 489 of 605)

This bibliography is independently curated for the I'm with Jill website.  Some of the authors featured on this page include James S. Berkman, Kai Horsthemke, Ellen Quintelier, Lynn A. Kelley, Cedric Linder, John P. Myers, Lisa A. W. Kensler, Susan Printy, Dennis W. Sunal, and Robert Asen.

Mayer, Susan Jean (2009). Conceptualizing Interpretive Authority in Practical Terms, Language and Education. While educational theorists have long debated the pedagogical value of granting students the authority to construct certain of their own understandings in collaboration with their peers, a lack of empirical markers of student "interpretive authority" has constrained comparative study of the pedagogical tradeoffs at stake. Yet the thoughtful nurture of collaborative knowledge construction processes must represent an essential aim of democratic schools, which are charged with the responsibility of adequately preparing students to participate fully in democratic life. This paper offers a conceptualization of interpretive authority based on an extrapolation of the traditional initiation/response/feedback coding sequence and other reliable discourse measures. The discourse patterns of six pedagogically diverse preparatory school classrooms in the United States are employed to illustrate a range of authority balances within respected classroom practices. A five-part frame for the practical characterization of interpretive authority within classrooms is proposed.   [More]  Descriptors: Feedback (Response), Cooperative Learning, Comparative Analysis, Democracy

Neelands, Jonothan (2009). Acting Together: Ensemble as a Democratic Process in Art and Life, Research in Drama Education. Traditionally drama in schools has been seen either as a learning medium with a wide range of curricular uses or as a subject in its own right. This paper argues that the importance of drama in schools is in the processes of social and artistic engagement and experiencing of drama rather than in its outcomes. The paper contrasts the pro-social emphasis in the ensemble model of drama with the pro-technical and limited range of learning in subject-based approaches which foreground technical knowledge of periods, plays, styles and genres. The ensemble-based approach is positioned in the context of professional theatre understandings of ensemble artistry and in the context of revolutionary shifts from the pro-technical to the pro-social in educational and cultural policy making in England. Using ideas drawn from McGrath and Castoriadis, the paper claims that the ensemble approach provides young people with a model of democratic living.   [More]  Descriptors: Foreign Countries, Educational Policy, Theater Arts, Teaching Models

Myers, John P. (2009). Learning in Politics: Teachers' Political Experiences as a Pedagogical Resource, International Journal of Educational Research. The suggestion that teaching is a political act has been a divisive issue among educators. However, there has been little analysis of the ways that teachers draw on their political experiences as pedagogical resources. Using a case study of seven teachers in Porto Alegre, Brazil who were involved in politics, this article explores the relationship between political experiences and teaching citizenship. The data consisted of interviews with the teachers, observations of their teaching, and classroom materials. This research shows that politics played an important role in their efforts to teach democratic citizenship. Through the teachers' diverse political experiences and ideologies, they developed different understandings of the relationship of politics with citizenship education that promote democratization and social change.   [More]  Descriptors: Case Studies, Citizenship, Democracy, Citizenship Education

Quintelier, Ellen; Hooghe, Marc (2013). The Relationship between Political Participation Intentions of Adolescents and a Participatory Democratic Climate at School in 35 Countries, Oxford Review of Education. In the literature it is expected that a participatory democratic climate is associated with civic and political engagement intentions of adolescents. In this paper we use a three level multilevel analysis to explore these relations: the individual, school and country level. Using data from the International Civic and Citizenship Education Study (2009) from 35 countries, we find that the individual student perception of a participatory democratic climate, especially openness in classroom discussions at the individual level, is positively associated with intended political participation. The teachers' and principals' perception of the participatory climate, on the other hand, were not related to the intention to participate. In this discussion we offer some ideas on how this individual level effect might be explained.   [More]  Descriptors: Foreign Countries, Citizen Participation, Student Participation, Student Interests

Sunal, Cynthia Szymanski; Kelley, Lynn A.; Sunal, Dennis W. (2009). Citizenship Education in the Elementary Classroom: Teacher Candidates Photograph and Describe Their Perceptions, Journal of Social Studies Research. How elementary pre-service teacher candidates with considerable experience in clinical field placements identified, photographed, discussed, and categorized samples of what they construed as democratic citizenship education occurring within elementary classrooms was explored in this study. Candidates discussed an initial set of captioned photos taken in their classroom placements and categorized them into consensually determined categories, repeating the process after instruction on citizenship education in a social studies methods course. Criteria emerged in their discussions as essential in characterizing democratic citizenship education; the ability of the event photographed to facilitate the individual student's meaningful understanding of an action taken, and the event's active involvement of students in the community. This investigation suggests that elementary teacher candidates' views of the democratic citizenship education their students are experiencing are accessible through the photographs they take.   [More]  Descriptors: Methods Courses, Photography, Teacher Education Curriculum, Citizenship

Social Education (2009). Powerful and Purposeful Teaching and Learning in Elementary School Social Studies. If American young learners are to become effective participants in a democratic society, then social studies must be an essential part of the curriculum in each of the elementary years. The purpose of elementary school social studies is to enable students to understand, participate in, and make informed decisions about their world. Social studies content allows young learners to explain relationships with other people, to institutions, and to the environment, and equips them with knowledge and understanding of the past. It provides them with skills for productive problem solving and decision making as well as for assessing issues and making thoughtful value judgments. Above all, it integrates these skills and understandings into a framework for responsible citizen participation locally, nationally, and globally. Teaching and learning in the elementary classroom should be meaningful, integrative, value-based, challenging, and active. These qualities of powerful social studies learning are foundational to the development of children's knowledge, skills, and dispositions as participating citizens. Effective elementary social studies instruction requires continuous support for student learning. Teachers need adequate preparation and professional development, daily instructional time, ample resources, and assistance at the local, state, and national levels. The democratic tradition of this country deserves an equal place in the elementary classroom.   [More]  Descriptors: Democracy, Citizen Participation, Social Studies, Elementary School Curriculum

Kensler, Lisa A. W.; Caskie, Grace I. L.; Barber, Margaret E.; White, George P. (2009). The Ecology of Democratic Learning Communities: Faculty Trust and Continuous Learning in Public Middle Schools, Journal of School Leadership. This cross-sectional explanatory study integrated three complex social processes–democratic community, faculty trust, and organizational learning–into a single testable model. The review of literature demonstrated substantial evidence for the proposed model. The data sources for the study included approximately 3,000 teachers from 79 public middle schools in Pennsylvania and New Jersey. Teachers from each school completed one of three surveys measuring democratic community, faculty trust, or continuous and team learning. Structural equation modeling was the primary method of analysis, with teacher responses aggregated to the school level. The data adequately fit the proposed model. Faculty trust was found to mediate the relationship between democratic community and continuous and team learning. Further research, including data collection over time, is necessary to fully understand the pattern of causal relationships among democratic community, faculty trust, and continuous and team learning.   [More]  Descriptors: Middle Schools, Structural Equation Models, Trust (Psychology), Case Studies

Kang, Young Taek; Printy, Susan (2009). Leadership to Build a Democratic Community within School: A Case Study of Two Korean High Schools, Asia Pacific Education Review. This article aims to explore how democratic community is manifest in schools in Korea. It also tries to examine how leadership, specifically transformational leadership, functions in shaping a democratic community within a school. Toward this aim, we have conducted a case study of two religious high schools in Korea. Based on the findings from the schools, we have discussed five aspects related to democratic community and transformational leadership. When school principals' leadership has transformational characteristics and consistency over the years, the leaders' mission and vision become shared values among the school members. The shared vision and cultural values make democratic systems work effectively. This article includes implications for educational policy and practice.   [More]  Descriptors: High Schools, Foreign Countries, Values, Transformational Leadership

Souto-Otero, Manuel (2013). Is "Better Regulation" Possible? Formal and Substantive Quality in the Impact Assessments in Education and Culture of the European Commission, Evidence & Policy: A Journal of Research, Debate and Practice. This article explores the initial results produced by the European Commission's "better regulation agenda", which aims to stimulate productivity and employment, on the use of evidence and its potential to enhance democratic governance. The article finds that implausible rational models of policy making dictate the ways in which the Commission is expected to conceive its programmes, and these models are adopted to legitimise rather than inform decisions. This negatively affects the processes by which interventions are designed and their social credibility. These processes are illustrated through an analysis of EU regulatory impact assessments in lifelong learning, culture, youth and citizenship during 2002-07.   [More]  Descriptors: Foreign Countries, Public Policy, Educational Policy, Federal Regulation

Lack, Brian (2009). No Excuses: A Critique of the Knowledge Is Power Program (KIPP) within Charter Schools in the USA, Journal for Critical Education Policy Studies. The purpose of this paper is to proffer a critical perspective about a specific brand of American schools within the larger charter school movement: the Knowledge Is Power Program (KIPP). KIPP is currently receiving wholesale acclaim as a radical alternative to public schooling "that works." While KIPP schools ostensibly claim that college acceptance for all students is their primary goal, the principles and practices that undergird their mission are founded upon capitalistic and militaristic ideals that run counter to the ideals of democratic education. I argue that KIPP schools merely preserve the status quo by asking students to overcome overwhelming disparities through "hard work" and "motivation," instead of addressing the structural sources of poverty and poor academic achievement–i.e., the unequal distribution of resources in schools and society. By subscribing to a dictum of no excuses, KIPP essentially puts the onus on the victims of poverty and institutional racism. This clearly conveys the fallacy to urban students that failure in this society will solely be a reflection of not working long and hard enough, or simply not complying with rules set by those with authority.   [More]  Descriptors: Urban Schools, Charter Schools, Poverty, Democracy

Asen, Robert (2004). A Discourse Theory of Citizenship, Quarterly Journal of Speech. This essay calls for a reorientation in scholarly approaches to civic engagement from asking questions of what to asking questions of how. I advance a discourse theory of citizenship as a mode of public engagement. Attending to modalities of citizenship recognizes its fluid and quotidian enactment and considers action that is purposeful, potentially uncontrollable and unruly, multiple, and supportive of radical but achievable democratic practices. Citizenship engagement may be approached through potential foci of generativity, risk, commitment, creativity, and sociability. A discourse theory reformulates the relationship between citizenship and citizen, reveals differences in enactments of citizenship, and calls attention to hybrid cases of citizenship.   [More]  Descriptors: Civics, Citizen Participation, Citizen Role, Democracy

Berkman, James S. (2009). Mann's Democratic Vision and School Choice, Schools: Studies in Education. While attending the Klingenstein Center's Heads of Schools Program at Teachers College, Columbia University, fellows studied Horace Mann's nineteenth-century vision for a "common school" that would unite all citizens; they considered whether this model is still best suited to serve a democratic society and questioned how current "school choice" between competing school models–including their own–might better serve the increasingly complex needs of students in the twenty-first century.   [More]  Descriptors: Democracy, School Choice, Principals, Role of Education

Lindahl, Mats Gunnar; Linder, Cedric (2013). Students' Ontological Security and Agency in Science Education–An Example from Reasoning about the Use of Gene Technology, International Journal of Science Education. This paper reports on a study of how students' reasoning about socioscientific issues is framed by three dynamics: societal structures, agency and how trust and security issues are handled. Examples from gene technology were used as the forum for interviews with 13 Swedish high-school students (year 11, age 17-18). A grid based on modalities from the societal structures described by Giddens was used to structure the analysis. The results illustrate how the participating students used both modalities for "Legitimation" and "Domination" to justify positions that accept or reject new technology. The analysis also showed how norms and knowledge can be used to justify opposing positions in relation to building trust in science and technology, or in democratic decisions expected to favour personal norms. Here, students accepted or rejected the authority of experts based on perceptions of the knowledge base that the authority was seen to be anchored in. Difficulty in discerning between material risks (reduced safety) and immaterial risks (loss of norms) was also found. These outcomes are used to draw attention to the educational challenges associated with students' using knowledge claims (Domination) to support norms (Legitimation) and how this is related to the development of a sense of agency in terms of sharing norms with experts or with laymen.   [More]  Descriptors: Foreign Countries, High School Students, Logical Thinking, Science and Society

Lukenchuk, Anotonina (2009). Living the Ethics of Responsibility through University Service and Service-Learning: "Phronesis" and "Praxis" Reconsidered, Philosophical Studies in Education. This article considers the notion of service-learning (SL) as essentially different from other similar activities, such as philanthropy, charity, voluntarism, or a single act of kindness which are "one-way" socially engaged activities. Service-learning is different because it necessarily entails reciprocity and mutuality which are "two-way" relationships. SL is about serving "and" learning–learning by doing, acting, affecting, intervening, problem-solving, reflecting, and acting again. The author's preoccupation with what constitutes meaningful university service, how much of it can suffice, and how it is justified has led this article to reconsider the nature of service with regard to its relationality. The author contends that service-learning should be taken into consideration as one, or even perhaps the most meaningful way to meet professional service requirements. Faculty service-learning engagement can certainly contribute to elevating the status of service in the education profession, and put it on a par with teaching and research. The author further contends that service-learning pedagogy models critical democratic praxis rooted in "practical wisdom" ("phronesis"), as opposed to "true knowledge" ("episteme") or "scientific knowledge" ("techne"). With regard to phronetic deliberations, the author examines service and service-learning by extension through the lens of Hannah Arendt's typology of fundamental human activities (labor, work, and action). The author argues that service-learning conceived as "vita activa," in Arend's terms, is an expression of plurality, people's collective social and political engagement, and an embodiment of critical democratic aspirations and practices. By juxtaposing service and service-learning, the author extends the arguments to the sphere of ethics by employing Levinas's "first philosophy."   [More]  Descriptors: Altruism, Service Learning, Professional Services, Private Financial Support

Horsthemke, Kai (2009). The South African Higher Education Transformation Debate: Culture, Identity and "African Ways of Knowing", London Review of Education. Following the first democratic election in South Africa in 1994, there has been a strong drive towards democratising education at all levels, primary, secondary and tertiary. The present paper examines some of the key ideas in the debate around transformation in higher education in South Africa, namely the notions of an African essence, culture and identity, as well as African knowledge systems. It contends that neither the idea of the "essence of Africa" nor an emphasis on "African culture and identity" constitutes an appropriate theoretical framework for conceptualising change in higher educational thought and practice in South Africa, the major problems turning on issues around essentialism and cultural relativism. Similarly, the post-colonialist and anti-discrimination discourse underpinning "African ways of knowing" is unfortunately riddled with problems, logical and epistemological. While the present contribution is sympathetic to the basic concerns articulated in the respective debates, especially around the significance of indigenous languages, it offers both conceptual clarification as well as a critical (re-)evaluation of the pertinent issues. Thus, "African knowledge" is argued to be a misnomer that raises more problems than it can conceivably solve. What its proponents hope to achieve is arguably better achieved by an emphasis on restorative justice that locates the principle of reconciliation within a basic framework of human rights.   [More]  Descriptors: Higher Education, African Culture, Academic Achievement, Foreign Countries

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