Bibliography: Democracy (page 469 of 605)

This bibliography is selected and organized by the I'm with Jill website.  Some of the authors featured on this page include Susan Garnett Russell, Leon Benade, Christine Musselin, Kholoud Ahmed Saleem Khasawneh, Joseph C. Wegwert, Joan Bradbury, Dijana Tiplic, Liv Torunn Grindheim, Silvia Edling, and Shanti Elliott.

Saar, Ellu; Tçht, Kadri; Roosalu, Triin (2014). Institutional Barriers for Adults' Participation in Higher Education in Thirteen European Countries, Higher Education: The International Journal of Higher Education and Educational Planning. This study focuses on institutional barriers that adult learners experience while participating in higher education programmes. We developed a holistic measure of diversification, accessibility, flexibility and affordability of higher education for adults. Based on pre-economic-crisis data across Europe we then explored the impact of macro-level institutional factors on the formation of the barriers by national welfare state arrangements. We found that perceived barriers are the lowest in liberal and social democratic countries but highest in post-soviet ones, with other post-socialist countries and continental ones in between. While perception of various barriers can be lessened by increasing flexibility of the educational programmes, our findings still show that the level of perceived barriers remains high also in flexible systems, hence other characteristics of higher education systems seem to be of more relevance. Higher education diversification and better affordability of higher education system seems to predict lower level of institutional barriers for adult learners, indicating that these are the crucial aspects. Our study serves as a baseline for further studies on the effects of changes that have been put in place since, especially regarding the variety of national responses.   [More]  Descriptors: Foreign Countries, Higher Education, Adult Students, Barriers

Grindheim, Liv Torunn (2014). "I Am Not Angry in the Kindergarten!" Interruptive Anger as Democratic Participation in Norwegian Kindergartens, Contemporary Issues in Early Childhood. This article calls into question the idyllic picture of Norwegian kindergartens where harmonious and joyful interaction is the preferred and normal way to participate. If taking children's right to democratic participation and freedom of expression seriously, anger can also be seen as a legitimate way of participating. Conflicts of interest, contradictory perspectives and children's resistance to adjusting to settled conventions are understood as important aspects of democratic participation. Episodes from fieldwork indicate that children who communicate what they regard as disrespect or injustice through anger are more often considered to be aggressive children who need to modify their emotions than communicators presenting an important message. This response to anger can be seen as a limiting condition for children's democratic participation. Children in kindergarten get angry and so interrupt this understanding of how children are supposed to interact and participate. In relations among children, however, anger seems to be more accepted. Nevertheless, anger appears to present both a temporary threat to friendship and the possibility of being heard.   [More]  Descriptors: Foreign Countries, Psychological Patterns, Emotional Response, Kindergarten

Machumu, Haruni J.; Kaitila, Mafwimbo M. (2014). Influence of Leadership Styles on Teachers' Job Satisfaction: A Case of Selected Primary Schools in Songea and Morogoro Districts, Tanzania, International Journal of Educational Administration and Policy Studies. This study reports on the kind of school leadership style that best suits for promoting teachers' job satisfaction in primary schools in Tanzania. The study employed cross sectional research design with samples of 200 teachers from 20 selected primary schools in Songea and Morogoro districts. Interviews, documentary analysis and questionnaires were used to collect data. The data were analyzed both qualitatively and quantitatively using tables, frequencies and percentages. It was found that the democratic leadership style was the most dominant in best performing primary schools. It is therefore suggested that there is much to be learnt with democratic leadership style as a copying strategy in least performing primary schools. Moreover, level of teachers' job satisfaction was reportedly high in best performing schools compared to least performing schools. The findings commended that democratic leadership style is the one which promotes high teachers' job satisfaction among teachers in primary schools.   [More]   [More]  Descriptors: Foreign Countries, Leadership Styles, Influences, Teacher Attitudes

Wegwert, Joseph C. (2014). Looking the Tiger in the Eye: Overcoming Fear-Based Teacher Identities, Childhood Education. There has been a growing interest in and research on the construction of teachers' professional identity and parameters of practice among researchers worldwide. This piece examines the nature of teachers' perceptions about their professionalism and practice. It also explores teacher isolation stemming from assumptions related to classroom control and community politics, resulting in fear and relational distance. The exposition contributes to discussions in the field of teacher education and professional development that might change the individualistic and isolated environments in schools and among teaching professionals. It encourages re-thinking of teacher authority and relationships to build school cultures that enable powerful student learning and strengthen teachers' professional identities.   [More]  Descriptors: Professional Identity, Teachers, Teacher Attitudes, Professional Isolation

Drissi, Sihem (2014). Citizenship Education Reconsidered in the Era of Democratic Transition, Citizenship, Social and Economics Education. This article suggests that citizenship education is essential to establish a culture of democratic practices and national commitment in Tunisia. The growing demands for and debates about democratisation and political participation from the mass citizenry, along with an increased pressure from civil society, go beyond the legalistic definition of "citizenship" to encompass the more multidimensional meanings of the concept–justice, belonging, tolerance and intercultural understanding. Teaching democratic citizenship can serve as the touchstone to guarantee social harmony, civic engagement, democratic practices and a mentality of difference/tolerance inside and outside classrooms. This article makes the case that the (re)mapping of democratic citizenship in the higher education curriculum is a good paradigm to destabilise the risks of counter-revolution, religious extremism and political propaganda, which have marked the democratic transition of Tunisian society.   [More]  Descriptors: Foreign Countries, Citizenship Education, Democratic Values, Democracy

Merrigan, Michaôl (2014). Education in Responsibility in Order to Secure Human Rights in Times of Crisis, Journal of Social Science Education. Education in and awareness about human rights is generally seen as one of the less contentious elements of citizenship education. However, it would seem that, for the concept of human rights to have a real impact in today's world, theoretical knowledge of human rights standards should be complemented by an understanding of the ethical concept of individual responsibility. This concept could, moreover, prove to be a valuable tool in conceiving creative answers to some of the consequences of the crisis Europe has been facing. This crisis has affected especially the protection and realisation of socio-economic rights, as many States were left with increasingly less budgetary space to meet increasingly urgent societal demands. Over the last few decades, and already prior to the current crisis, many have called for a greater stress on "duties and responsibilities," as it was perceived that "rights-talk" alone did not provide all the answers. From a legal perspective, as well as from the side of human rights advocacy groups, however, these appeals were often met with scepticism and hostility. In answer to the often justified criticism, it is essential to make a distinction between the "legal," the "moral" and the "ethical" realms. While an unnuanced greater focus on moral duties is potentially dangerous, education based on the proposed notion of ethical "responsibility" would seem, on the contrary, essential for the survival of human rights and, hence, of the democratic society.   [More]  Descriptors: Citizenship Education, Civil Rights, Citizenship Responsibility, Ethics

Khasawneh, Kholoud Ahmed Saleem (2014). The Attitudes of the High School Students of Hail, Saudi Arabia towards the Current Educational Concepts, Journal of Education and Learning. This study aimed to identify the attitudes of public secondary school students in the State of Hail towards the modern educational concepts, and what are the differences between them. It has been used in the study descriptive analytical method. The study was conducted on a sample of 400 male and female students, chosen randomly according to the variables of gender, branch of high school, school type, and average. A questionnaire was made and consisted of (39) items, and distributed on five key areas: Technology Education, Democratic Education, Integrated Education, Creative Education, and Environmental Education. The results indicated that students' attitudes toward contemporary educational concepts have come up in two areas: Technology Education and Democratic Education and the rest of the areas were the medium degree of importance. The results also showed no statistically significant differences in students' attitudes due to the variables of the study.   [More]  Descriptors: Foreign Countries, High School Students, Student Attitudes, Predictor Variables

Balockaite, Rasa (2014). On Ideology, Language, and Identity: Language Politics in the Soviet and Post-Soviet Lithuania, Language Policy. The paper illuminates links between state politics and language politics in Lithuania during different historical periods: (a) the thaw period, (b) the stagnation period, (c) the liberalization periods of Soviet socialism, and (d) the two post-Soviet decades characterized by both nationalism and liberalization. Based on analysis of the texts by leading Lithuanian linguists published in the main language and culture journals during the period of 1960-2010, the paper argues that the concept of a good, proper language is a purely political idea, produced for the sake of governance by both the Soviet authorities as well as the pro-nationalist governments. The nationalist version of a "good language" is sanitized from foreign effects; the socialist version is sanitized from bourgeois remnants and capitalist influence. In both cases, the proper language is assigned a moral value, but the ideological construct masks inequalities of power. During the post-Soviet years, due to democratization, liberalization, and growing diversity, the idea of one "good, proper language" forfeited its social significance; it remained purely a linguistic ideal. With the development of multiple language cultures and subcultures, it stands increasingly as a metaphor for the totalitarian Soviet period for its omnipresent uniformity and homogeneity.   [More]  Descriptors: Social Change, Language Attitudes, Foreign Countries, Politics

Russell, Susan Garnett; Tiplic, Dijana (2014). Rights-Based Education and Conflict: A Cross-National Study of Rights Discourse in Textbooks, Compare: A Journal of Comparative and International Education. This paper investigates the extent to which rights-based education is utilised in textbooks from conflict-affected countries. Drawing on a unique dataset of 528 secondary social science textbooks from 71 countries from 1966 to 2008, we analyse factors that predict a rights discourse in texts. We find that textbooks from conflict-affected nations are significantly less likely to emphasise a rights-based discourse, while more recently published textbooks from more democratic countries are more likely to emphasise a rights discourse. Our findings have ramifications for curricular reform and rights-based education in conflict-affected nations.   [More]  Descriptors: Civil Rights, Textbooks, Content Analysis, Educational Change

Edling, Silvia (2014). Why Not Simply Use the Best Theory? A Critical Discourse Analysis of the Notion of Plurality in Three Texts Used at a Teacher Education Institution in Sweden, Citizenship, Social and Economics Education. Drawing on ambitions to contest violence in education, this article challenges ideas that student teachers only need to rely on evidence-based theory in their future profession. This is accomplished by analysing and comparing theories of plurality as described in three texts used in courses at one teacher education institution in Sweden. The texts express three different theoretical discourses of approaching social challenges regarding violence, plurality in education, and teacher expectations. Hence, since violence is played out in a variety of ways, the logic of evidence-based research is insufficient when it comes to handling plurality.   [More]  Descriptors: Discourse Analysis, Teacher Education, Violence, Teacher Expectations of Students

Zay, Danielle (2014). Is the Decline of European Multiculturalism the Beginning of a More Secular Europe?, Policy Futures in Education. The bloody First and Second World Wars awakened the dream of a cross-border peaceful territory supported by the Christian community principles of the clerics founding the first universities in the Middle Ages. Since the 1950s the European Union has been built up from six member states to reach twenty-seven, with more associate members. But increasing immigration, in particular from Islamic countries, has challenged the Western democratic paradigm. Multicultural state policy aiming to respect populations with an immigrant background was rejected by political leaders after terrorist attacks and other critical incidents. At the same time, Europe's historically established churches promoted the idea of a declaration in the preamble to the Constitution, stating that Europe's values are rooted in Christianity. Are religious wars coming again in Europe and breaking the ideal of peace, as in the sixteenth century? What is the democratic answer to diversity? France is alone in having chosen a secular state policy. But several national and European associations support secularism and their actions have increased, particularly over the last five years. This article will analyse this evolution in Europe, using French secular policy results to examine the issues.   [More]  Descriptors: Foreign Countries, European History, Democracy, Cultural Differences

Musselin, Christine (2014). Research Issues and Institutional Prospects for Higher Education Studies, Studies in Higher Education. This paper explores two new perspectives for the research on higher education. Building on the case of Europe with a special focus on France, it first addresses the trend toward more competition and more differentiation that can be observed in countries that traditionally were more egalitarian and the strong implication of European states in reshaping their higher education and research systems. It also questions the social role of higher education while knowledge economies are engaged in a competitive race. Finally, it looks at the capacity of higher education studies to address such issues and critically questions how should this domain further develop.   [More]  Descriptors: Foreign Countries, Higher Education, Educational Research, Role of Education

Elliott, Shanti; Bradbury, Joan; Gardner, Joseph (2014). Finding the Cracks: Progressive, Democratic Education in an Era of Standardization, Schools: Studies in Education. In the spring of 2014, Chicago educators met to reflect on the opportunities and challenges for progressive, democratic education in Chicago-area schools. This article weaves together the writings of teachers and principals from over 15 public schools and a couple of private and parochial schools who are thinking about their own experiences in relation to what they learn of Mission Hill, a public progressive school in Boston. Through these diverse voices–Chicago counterparts of the diverse voices of Boston's Mission Hill School–discussing testing, teacher evaluation methods, classroom practice, and school culture, possibilities emerge for educators seeking to expand and deepen progressive practice in urban schools. Relationships of trust and respect, courageous action, and finding the cracks all prove important in the process.   [More]  Descriptors: Progressive Education, Democracy, Public Schools, Private Schools

Benade, Leon (2014). Developing Democratic Dispositions and Enabling Crap Detection: Claims for Classroom Philosophy with Special Reference to Western Australia and New Zealand, Educational Philosophy and Theory. The prominence given in national or state-wide curriculum policy to thinking, the development of democratic dispositions and preparation for the "good life", usually articulated in terms of lifelong learning and fulfilment of personal life goals, gives rise to the current spate of interest in the role that could be played by philosophy in schools. Theorists and practitioners working in the area of philosophy for schools advocate the inclusion of philosophy in school curricula to meet these policy objectives. This article tests claims that philosophy can aid in the acquisition of democratic dispositions and develop critical thinking and considers to the extent to which these aims are compatible with each other. These considerations are located in the context of certain policy statements relating to the curricula of Western Australia and New Zealand.   [More]  Descriptors: Foreign Countries, Democratic Values, Educational Philosophy, Curriculum

Å erek, Jan; Macek, Petr; JeÅæek, Stanislav; Lacinová, Lenka (2014). Twenty Years after the Velvet Revolution: Shifts in Czech Adolescents' Perceptions of Family, School, and Society, Journal of Adolescent Research. Families and schools are traditionally seen as substantial socialization agents forming adolescents' social values and their views of society. Special attention is paid to the question whether the relative importance of these influences remains stable in times of major social changes. In this study, two different generations of Czech middle adolescents are compared: (a) the "post-totalitarian" generation that grew up in the last decade of the communist regime and entered adolescence during the time of rapid political and socioeconomic changes (data collected in 1995) and (b) the current generation without personal experience with the communist regime, raised in a stable democratic society (data collected in 2010). Both groups of participants (total N = 2,127, aged from 14 to 17 years) were administered an identical questionnaire. First, we examined the changes in adolescents' perception and evaluation of the society over the last 15 years. Today's adolescents perceive society more as a community and their future orientations are more focused on materialistic and less on environmental values. While the emotional relationship between the children and parents remains the same, adolescents learn a somewhat different message in the family, emphasizing self-reliance. School environment is perceived more as positive and engaging than 15 years ago. Second, we predicted adolescents' social views and values from their assessment of family and school environment. Our results show that the effect of parental values on adolescents' value orientations is higher in the current generation. Positive school environment contributes to the development of socially responsible orientations despite the changes in society.   [More]  Descriptors: Adolescent Attitudes, Social Change, Social Systems, Democracy

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