Bibliography: Democracy (page 454 of 605)

This bibliography is selected and organized by the I'm with Jill website.  Some of the authors featured on this page include Kathryn Field, Tiance Wang, Barbara Cambridge, Kaitlyn Haynal, Gert Biesta, Luke Billingham, Parag Joshi, Tricia Kress, Elaine Unterhalter, and Megan E. Tompkins-Stange.

Billingham, Luke (2016). Investigating Contingency in School History: An Aid to Rich, Meaningfully Critical Citizenship?, Curriculum Journal. A common charge levelled at English and Welsh citizenship education, whether taught as a separate subject or incorporated into other disciplines, is that it encourages compliance more than it inspires critical thought. There is room within the compulsory citizenship framework, however, for teachers to advance genuinely critical attributes in students. My aim here is to suggest that school History has particular potential for this, and to argue more specifically that the historical study of contingency in human affairs could advance a rich, meaningfully critical form of citizenship that contributes to Gutmann's ideal of "conscious social reproduction". Gutmann's vision for citizenship centres on the idea that through critical scrutiny of present norms and institutions, students can be equipped to take part in the collective shaping of their future. Drawing on the work of social and political theorists as well as that of educationalists and philosophers of history, I argue that contingency can be rigorously and fruitfully investigated in school History, and that this could–at best–help students to develop three vital capacities for critical citizenship and conscious social reproduction: discernment of historical possibility, subtle normative reflection, and enriched political imagination.   [More]  Descriptors: Citizenship Education, Foreign Countries, Critical Thinking, Social Theories

Field, Kathryn (2017). Debating Our Way toward Stronger Thinking, Gifted Child Today. Teachers often find it challenging to incorporate higher order thinking skills in ways that both inspire student interest and allow for meaningful differentiation. Structured debate is an activity that can facilitate all of these goals. This article explains, in detail, how debates can be structured to promote a variety of critical thinking skills and intrinsic motivation to learn. Concrete suggestions are provided for how to design a high-quality debate and how to avoid pitfalls that allow students to evade higher level thinking.   [More]  Descriptors: Critical Thinking, Motivation, Debate, Thinking Skills

Unterhalter, Elaine (2017). Global Injustice, Pedagogy and Democratic Iterations: Some Reflections on Why Teachers Matter, Journal of Curriculum Studies. The article argues teachers matter because of their potential to engage in critical reflection on values associated with connecting the local, the national and the global. Their practice can support those who are dislocated, and who have no place. Teachers matter because they can help us understand how we share humanity and aspirations across many differences. The discussion identifies some similarities between approaches to pedagogy and Seyla Benhabib's notion of democratic iteration. Both concepts suggest a navigation between the general, the particular and some of the complexities of their contradictions which can guide teachers' work. Frameworks from cosmopolitanism and the capability approach are explored for detail they provide on how this navigation can be considered in practice across differently politically constituted formations and diverse, unequally situated groups. Drawing on some reflections on work in an international classroom, the conclusion explores some of these navigations across inequalities.   [More]  Descriptors: Teaching Methods, Reflection, Critical Thinking, Values

Tompkins-Stange, Megan E. (2016). Policy Patrons: Philanthropy, Education Reform, and the Politics of Influence. Educational Innovations Series, Harvard Education Press. "Policy Patrons" offers a rare behind-the-scenes view of decision making inside four influential education philanthropies: the Ford Foundation, the W. K. Kellogg Foundation, the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, and the Eli and Edythe Broad Foundation. The outcome is an intriguing, thought-provoking look at the impact of current philanthropic efforts on education. Over a period of several years, Megan E. Tompkins-Stange gained the trust of key players and outside observers of these four organizations. Through a series of confidential interviews, she began to explore the values, ideas, and beliefs that inform these foundations' strategies and practices. The picture that emerges reveals important differences in the strategies and values of the more established foundations vis-à-vis the newer, more activist foundations–differences that have a significant impact on education policy and practice, and have important implications for democratic decision making. In recent years, the philanthropic sector has played an increasing role in championing and financing education reform. "Policy Patrons" makes an original and invaluable contribution to contemporary discussions about the appropriate role of foundations in public policy and the future direction of education reform. [Foreword written by Robert B. Schwartz.]   [More]  Descriptors: Decision Making, Philanthropic Foundations, Interviews, Values

Rocavert, Carla (2016). Democratizing Creativity: How Arts/Philosophy Can Contribute to the Question of Arts Bias, Creativity Research Journal. This article critically deconstructs the 21st-century economization and massification of creativity. It extends the discussion of arts bias and the associated ideas that artistic creativity is institutionalized, elitist, and an obstruction to more profitable applications of creativity. A tension is thus highlighted between the historically prevalent domain of art, and newer domains which focus on everyday, functional, organizational and the dark sides of creativity. The aim is to open up a genuine debate about the place of art in modern creativity discourse, and to examine the problematic theme of democratization in creativity as it relates to cultural, economic and industrial issues. A new framework for conceiving creativity in hermeneutics is also suggested, with a view to cohesively and logically balancing the artistic with other domains, and eliminating some of the current problems that render creativity less than it has been regarded in generations past.   [More]  Descriptors: Creativity, Art Expression, Philosophy, Bias

Stemhagen, Kurt (2016). Deweyan Democratic Agency and School Math: Beyond Constructivism and Critique, Educational Theory. In this article, Kurt Stemhagen reconstructs mathematics education in light of Dewey's democratic theory and his ideas about mathematics and mathematics education. The resulting democratic philosophy and pedagogy of mathematics education emphasizes agency and the connections between mathematics and students' social experiences. Stemhagen considers questions about the disconnect between constructivist reformers and critical mathematics educators, and he positions Dewey's ideas as a way to draw on the best of both to create an active and more democratic school math experience.   [More]  Descriptors: Mathematics, Mathematics Education, Constructivism (Learning), Mathematics Instruction

Haynal, Kaitlyn (2016). The Transformative Power of Communication: Democratizing Practices for the General Education Classroom, Journal of General Education. This article examines the common communication practices of deliberation, discussion, delivery, and debate, for their democratizing potential through their greater inclusion in all general education classrooms. It argues that these tools are underutilized outside of communication classrooms but offer numerous benefits to teachers and students alike who participate in the general education process. Increasing communication opportunities for students in more classes can contribute to greater self-reflection, more positive engagement with and openness to difference, and higher connectivity with class content. Likewise, increased communication by faculty with students about the values of general education can reduce the risk of students missing out on the democratizing values that stand to be gained through a general education curriculum. These findings have implications for the reenvisioning of how general education classes can be taught as well as how instructors might better appeal to student engagement with course material based on the transformative power of communication.   [More]  Descriptors: Communication (Thought Transfer), General Education, Discussion, Debate

Wang, Tiance (2016). Quantitative Analysis of Strategic Voting in Anonymous Voting Systems, ProQuest LLC. Democratically choosing a single preference from three or more candidate options is not a straightforward matter. There are many competing ideas on how to aggregate rankings of candidates. However, the Gibbard-Satterthwaite theorem implies that no fair voting system (equality among voters and equality among candidates) is immune to strategic voting, also known as manipulation. This dissertation is a quantitative analysis of strategic voting from a geometric perspective. Anonymous voting rules, where all voters are equal, can be viewed as a partition of a high dimensional simplex, where different distributions of votes correspond to different points in the simplex, and each particular way of partitioning the simplex corresponds to a voting rule. It is revealed that the orientation, instead of the location, of the boundary determines manipulability. A boundary that separates two winning candidates is not manipulable if and only if the boundary is parallel to all vote changes that does not switch the order of the candidate pair. We analyze the vulnerability to strategic voting of several popular voting systems, including plurality, Borda count and Kemeny-Young, under various vote distributions. When there are three candidates, we show that the Kemeny-Young method, and Condorcet methods in general, are categorically more resistant to strategic voting than many other common voting systems, due to the existence of non-manipulable boundaries. We verify our results on voting data that we collected through an online survey on the 2012 US President Election. Finally, we explore the collective behaviors of manipulative voters. Assume every voter can change their vote for an infinite number of times. They formulate strategies based on their observations on the preference of the population. The observations, which contain noise, are generated by some distribution conditioned on the current vote status. We show that the plurality rule almost always elects the instant run-off winner, while Borda count almost always elects the Condorcet winner (when one exists) as the number of voters grow. [The dissertation citations contained here are published with the permission of ProQuest LLC. Further reproduction is prohibited without permission. Copies of dissertations may be obtained by Telephone (800) 1-800-521-0600. Web page:   [More]  Descriptors: Voting, Reputation, Statistical Analysis, Preferences

Corrado, Gail (2016). Scripts, Tricks and Capability Theory: Using an Empirical Window into the Logic of Achievement to Illustrate How a Critical Addition to Capability Theory Might Work to Guide Action, Studies in Philosophy and Education. Capability theory improves our understanding of well being because it takes account of the "conversion" problem: income/wealth/commodities. (IWCs) need to be made effectively available to really increase well being. However, just as IWCs need to be converted into functionings in order to be effective in bringing additional possibilities to a person, our institutions, abilities and environments need to be converted as well to allow them to be used effectively in the same pursuit. Freedom of the press and speech, education and certainly economic independence as well as the democratic political processes themselves are as inert as IWCs without some additional conversion to enable them to do what we have set them up to do. The moniker "conversion factor" is the name of the problem rather than the source of a solution. This paper will explore the possibility that the needed theoretical addition to capability theory might be found by understanding how the elements of the capabilities equation change over time. Using education as an example of a conversion factor, the paper will explore how an addition to the theory might help create effective policy alternatives.   [More]  Descriptors: Achievement, Well Being, Equal Education, Democracy

Burroughs, Nathan A. (2016). Rawls, Republicanism, and the Adequacy-Equity Debate, Theory and Research in Education. In this article, I critique the foremost proponents of the adequacy and equity approaches to educational equality. I identify tensions within the adequacy approach related to positionality in education, fostering a democratic elite through higher education, and its defense of private schooling. In contrast, equity theorists are vulnerable to the leveling down critique and place too much emphasis on education as a private good. This article sketches out strategy for integrating these principles inspired by Rawls' lexically ordered two principles of justice. Concerns about the bases of equal status as citizens can ground an adequacy standard and prevent leveling down, while a "level playing field" conception for educational opportunities addresses positional competition and promotes the long-term stability of favorable background conditions. The privileging of the first principle of justice over the second also emphasizes education as a public good.   [More]  Descriptors: Equal Education, Justice, Educational Theories, Role of Education

Democracy & Education (1999). Privilege, Poverty, and Power: Remembering Paulo Freire's Work. This special edition honors the life and work of Paulo Freire by recalling the impact he had and continues to have on educators and students. Articles in this issue are: (1) "Editor's Introduction" (Tom Wilson); (2) "Nita's Elegy to Paulo Freire (in Portuguese) 'Privilegio, Pobreza e Poder'" (Ana Maria Araujo "Nita" Freire); (3) "Elegy to Paulo Freire (in English) 'Privilege, Poverty and Power'" (Ana Maria Araujo "Nita" Freire); (4) "The Bottom of the Barrel" (David Keiser); (5) "The Paulo Freire Democratic Project" (Penny Bryan and Tom Wilson); (6) "The courage to stand alone, a found poem" (Bobbi Fisher and Jan Osborn); (7) "The Revolutionary Legacy of Paulo Freire" (Peter McLaren and Valerie Scatamburlo); (8) "Questions for a Rock" (David Keiser); (9) "Teacher Research: Praxis for the Oppressed" (Susie Weston-Barajas); (10) "Power, Politics, and the Middle School Classroom" (Chris Byron); (11) "The Right To Choose Choice" (Cora Sorenson); (12) "Learning Together from Each Other" (Cheryl King); (13) "Uncovering a Myth" (Deedee Carr); (14) "How Fifth Grade & Paulo Freire Taught Me To Teach Graduate School" (Lani M. Martin); (15) "South Africa: Lessons from Freire's Humanizing Pedagogy" (Ivy N. Goduka); (16) "Paulo Freire in Memory" (Zumara Cline); and (17) "River Stone" (David Hart).   [More]  Descriptors: Adult Education, Democracy, Developing Nations, Educational Change

Joshi, Parag (2016). Argumentation in Democratic Education: The Crucial Role of Values, Theory Into Practice. Educators, implicitly or explicitly, are interested in truth and, therefore, in argumentation. Argumentation is defined here as an evidence-based process by which one person may convince another of the rightness of his or her point of view. One of the primary uses of argumentation is within democratic deliberation writ large and within classrooms. As a teacher of an applied philosophy course, I was interested in exploring the concept of truth through the mechanism of argumentation. In this article I explore the degree to which the model of "rational argumentation" reflects what actually persuades people in their political lives. How important are underlying values in the political and other positions people take? Given that schools are one of the only spaces where ideological diversity can be encountered within a supportive environment, I argue that discussions about values is a vital ingredient toward democratic life.   [More]  Descriptors: Democracy, Persuasive Discourse, Democratic Values, Social Studies

Biesta, Gert (2013). Responsive or Responsible? Democratic Education for the Global Networked Society, Policy Futures in Education. In this article, which is based on an invited keynote presentation given at the 14th biennial conference of the European Association for Research on Learning and Instruction (EARLI), the author discusses the question of how education should respond to the ongoing rise of the global networked society. He provides an analysis of the history and transformation of global networks, making a distinction between centred, decentred and pseudo-decentred networks. Against this background he discusses two different educational responses to the global networked society. He characterises the first as a responsive response, one where education is urged to adapt itself to the demands of the global networked society. He discusses the twenty-first-century skills movement as an example of such a response. He characterises the second as a responsible response, one that takes a more critical position vis-à-vis the different manifestations and demands of such a society. He argues that the proper educational response has to be a responsible rather than a responsive one, on the assumption that education should always be understood as more than just a function of existing social and societal orders because it comes with a duty to resist. He shows how this duty is both inherently educational and inherently democratic.   [More]  Descriptors: Global Approach, Networks, Social Change, Educational Practices

Lake, Robert; Kress, Tricia (2017). Mamma Don't Put That Blue Guitar in a Museum: Greene and Freire's Duet of Radical Hope in Hopeless Times, Review of Education, Pedagogy & Cultural Studies. Within the current U.S. sociopolitical context of rampant violence, increasing levels of racism and xenophobia in society and the rise of authoritarianism in schools, a new and fresh confluence of Maxine Greene and Paulo Freire's work revitalizes and expands the concept of radical hope. Their educational philosophies enable one to see beyond "what is" into more democratically just and humane worlds of "what might" be. This article focuses on ways that these two scholar-activists' key contributions converge to release a much needed melody that exposes exploitation and falsehood while inspiring wide awakeness, personal reflection, and directed action. Inspired by the metaphor of playing music on the blue guitar, it takes a "call and response" approach to examining these key ideas from the works of Greene and Freire that are parallel and complementary to each other. Sounds of Maxine Greene's (1995, 2001) and Freire's (1970, 1992) harmonic pairings of wide-awakeness and critical consciousness, aesthetic education and "reading the world," social imagination, and radical hope will resound anew, with particular attention paid to ways that both Greene and Freire define hope above and beyond passive and wishful thinking. The authors conclude by reframing radical hope as a "theory of change" (Tuck and Yang 2014) in which imagination can be understood as an insurgent praxis useful for destabilizing the contemporary global neoliberal order that is more concerned with creating workers and consumers than democratically minded citizens.   [More]  Descriptors: Racial Bias, Social Bias, Social Justice, Consciousness Raising

Cambridge, Barbara (2013). Validity through Dialogue, Teaching & Learning Inquiry. "Teaching & Learning Inquiry" takes responsibility for engaging in what Senge (2006) calls "reflective openness," encouraging a range of appropriate epistemologies to study teaching and learning. The journal, like its parent organization, embodies the role of "intermediary" through the practice of continual examination of ideas and the provisions of "stability, expert depth, and fieldwide reach" (Bacchetti & Ehrlich, 2006) for the Scholarship of Teaching and Learning.   [More]  Descriptors: Scholarship, Instruction, Transformative Learning, Periodicals

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