Bibliography: Democracy (page 445 of 605)

This annotated bibliography is reformatted and customized for the I'm with Jill website.  Some of the authors featured on this page include Suzanne M. Miller, Joseph Kahne, Gunnar Myrdal, Roger Hart, Owen Sanders, Cynthia McCallister, Gary Horn, Angela Thody, Juhani Karvonen, and John Lawson.

Thody, Angela (1993). Practising Democracy: Business Community Representatives in the Control of English and Welsh Schools. The 1986 Education Act required that business community members in England and Wales be appointed to the governing boards of local public schools. Since the passage of the law, the idea of sponsored governors has developed. Sponsored governors receive financial supported from their companies to serve on the boards. A survey of employees of three United Kingdom companies found that only about one-third of those serving as governors were identified on their boards as being from the business community. The members were overwhelmingly male and from the upper management levels. Most were also between 30 and 50 years old and had worked for their companies for more than 10 years. The governors attended an average of 12 meetings annually and made several visits to the schools. The members tended to serve on committees having to do with management of the school such as finance, personnel, and public relations. The contributions of the companies involved included time off with pay for governorship duties, use of office resources, and contributions of materials. The study confirmed that governors from the business community benefit schools through their management expertise, and, in turn, businesses improve their public relations. (Contains 36 references.)   [More]  Descriptors: Business Responsibility, Community Involvement, Corporate Support, Elementary Secondary Education

Kahne, Joseph (1996). Reframing Educational Policy: Democracy, Community, and the Individual. Advances in Contemporary Educational Thought, Volume 16. Rather than defining and debating particular goals, educational policymakers tend to focus on the technical issues surrounding educational practice. This book considers the social and ethical orientations that structure mainstream policy dialogues and the way in which adoption of some alternative social and ethical principles would change the form and focus of political debates. Chapters 2 through 4 describe four political and ethical approaches toward policymaking, policy analysis, and policy implementation: the utilitarian, the rights-based, the communitarian, and the humanist. These perspectives are used to examine the connections between educational and societal goals. The fifth and sixth chapters examine two contemporary policy issues, tracking and school choice, through the lens of each framework. A conclusion is that mainstream dialogue is shaped primarily by a utilitarian and rights focus on human capital development. Chapter 7 discusses the longitudinal research conducted in the 1930s and early 1940s by the Progressive Education Association's Commission on the Relation of School and College, the Eight-Year Study of 30 schools pursuing democratic communitarian and humanistic goals. The final chapter argues that two alternative frameworks–democratic communitarianism and humanistic psychology–can provide a wider and perhaps more desirable vision of the purpose of education. An index is included and an appendix summarizes the four perspectives. (Contains 239 references.) Descriptors: Democratic Values, Educational Philosophy, Educational Policy, Elementary Secondary Education

Maryland State Bar Association, Baltimore. (1990). Shaping American Democracy: U.S. Supreme Court Decisions. Revised Edition. This resource guide has been designed to assist teachers and students in the study of key U.S. Supreme Court cases. Each of the 93 cases listed includes a presentation of the facts, issue, and decision of the Court. Twenty-five commonly used textbooks were analyzed to determine the extent to which they cited the Supreme Court cases. No text cited all of the cases, and some of the cases were not cited at all. References varied from simple references to more complete discussions; the textbooks discussed few cases in full. To assist teachers, the first section of this guide is a table that indicates which cases are cited in which textbooks. Cases are grouped by topic, e.g., Constitution; Civil Rights/Discrimination, Freedom of Expression, etc. The second section contains a bibliography of coded textbooks. The third section provides a brief synopsis of the cases. Because of the topical arrangement, teachers or students can review preceding or following cases to consider changes in precedents and gain a quick reference for further legal research. The fourth section includes strategies and activities highlighting the case study method. Appendices include a table of cases, a copy of the complete U.S. Constitution, and a glossary of terms. Descriptors: Case Method (Teaching Technique), Civil Liberties, Constitutional Law, Content Analysis

Garcia, F. Chris (1978). Chicano Political Learning and Public Policy: Prospects for Political and Cultural Democracy, Integrated Education. The Mexican American child lives in a different cultural milieu than the Anglo child. This results in a different political learning experience for these children. Problems and inequalities faced by Chicano children in the American educational system are focused upon in this article. New policies are suggested for improving the situation. Descriptors: Biculturalism, Bilingual Education, Culture Conflict, Educational Experience

McCallister, Cynthia (1993). The Language of Classroom Democracies: Assessing Language and Learning within the Student Culture. Anne Haas Dyson's concept of the "child collective" and Colette Daiute's concept of "youth genres" can be useful observational frameworks for better understanding classroom dynamics. In studying classrooms where children are given opportunities to collaborate, Dyson's "child collective" identifies those behaviors that children use to express their own identity in classrooms, which allow children the freedom and flexibility to communicate and interact freely. Similarly, Daiute observes that children have their own means of communicating among themselves, which include the following approaches: (1) playfulness; (2) experimentation and approximation; and (3) affection (i.e., raising of voices, giggling). In observing their own classrooms, teachers will notice that their students indeed have their own means of communicating among themselves. For instance, one group of kindergarten students who were playing a detective game had developed "secret files," which were coded so that only they could read them. A number of transcribed conversations among students furthermore shows them identifying and sharing common problems as "kids." The challenge to teachers is to structure classrooms so that students have the opportunity to use exploratory language and to construct knowledge. In an important study, William Corsaro emphasizes the importance of teachers setting up boundaries within which a peer culture can develop.   [More]  Descriptors: Classroom Communication, Cooperation, Discourse Communities, Emergent Literacy

Miller, Suzanne M. (1997). Language, Democracy, and Teachers' Conceptions of "Discussion": Insights and Dilemmas from Literacy Research, Theory and Research in Social Education. Argues that understanding teachers' conceptions of discussion is a neglected and important issue. Reviews new insights from literacy research on text discussion; suggests how that literature provides a broader context for understanding social studies teachers' conceptions of classroom talk. Reflects on the relationship of open-forum discussion to democratic education. Descriptors: Classroom Techniques, Democratic Values, Discussion (Teaching Technique), Educational Methods

Karvonen, Juhani (1974). School Democracy and Social Attitudes of Students and Teachers in Finnish Schools, Comparative Education Review. This article has briefly described the democratization process of decision-making in Finnish secondary education. Descriptors: Educational Development, Educational Environment, Educational History, Learning Motivation

Fennimore, Beatrice S. (1997). When Mediation and Equity Are at Odds: Potential Lessons in Democracy, Theory into Practice. Questions the ethical use of conflict mediation in situations where opposing parties with unequal power address social or institutional injustice, examining informal aspects of teaching and learning that occur when those with unequal power struggle for equal opportunity in public schools. Presents examples from an urban elementary school. Descriptors: Administrator Role, Black Students, Conflict Resolution, Democratic Values

Hart, Roger; Schwab, Michael (1997). Children's Rights and the Building of Democracy: A Dialogue on the International Movement for Children's Participation, Social Justice. Examines the trend of children engaging in community environmental action and policy development around the world. It reveals that children are beginning to constitute themselves as a force within city governance, environmental planning, and social policy and explores whether this activity constitutes a "children's movement." Descriptors: Advocacy, Childrens Rights, Community Development, Foreign Countries

Sanders, Owen (1997). Consultative Processes in a Small Democracy: D.A.R.E. New Zealand. This paper outlines the approach to drug abuse education being taken by D.A.R.E. (Drug Abuse Resistance Education) New Zealand, a distinctly indigenous response characterized by a consultative association involving the police, the schools, and the community. A key feature of D.A.R.E. New Zealand is the extent to which parents and the wider community became involved in and committed to the program. The program developed in a certain historical and economic context and the history of that development is reported here. The paper outlines the approach to drug abuse education being taken by D.A.R.E. New Zealand, a distinctly indigenous response characterized by a consultative association involving the police, the schools, and the community. Developments leading up to the adoption of the programs, such as making schools responsible for choosing a drug education program and which culminated in political, regulatory, and economic changes during the 1980s, are reviewed. So far, six national programs have been released. The development of the program in the Maori language, with the cooperation of the Maori people, is reported, as is the overwhelming evidence from those schools that welcomed police education officers into their classrooms. The collaboration improved the effectiveness of teachers and officers. A skillful adaptation of the D.A.R.E. idea to the culture of policing and the pedagogical climate of schools in New Zealand was achieved. (Contains 11 references.)   [More]  Descriptors: Adolescents, Alcohol Education, Children, Drug Education

Lawson, John (1994). "If You Know What's Good for You…": Prevention, Coercion, and Democracy, Thresholds in Education. Identifies barriers that keep education from contributing effectively to people's quality of life, focusing on typical community-based health promotion interventions concerning adolescent drug education, school readiness, and African American lifestyle choices. Resource people cannot determine a community's health education and promotion agenda. Educators must prepare citizenry capable of participating in community processes and thinking in quality of life terms. Descriptors: Community Education, Community Involvement, Cooperative Programs, Elementary Secondary Education

Myrdal, Gunnar (1996). An American Dilemma. The Negro Problem and Modern Democracy. Volume I. The American dilemma, with regard to race, is posed as the question of how the nation can square its lofty ideals with the base realities of racial discrimination. This study, originally commissioned by the Carnegie Corporation in 1938, makes it clear that the struggle goes on in the hearts of all Americans. The root of the "Negro problem" is the conflict between American moral valuations preserved in the American ideal and the valuations existing on specific planes of individual and group living. There is a jarring discrepancy between the professed respect for the inalienable rights of all and the pervasive violations of the dignity of blacks. Volume I contains 23 chapters, divided into the following parts: (1) "The Approach"; (2) "Race"; (3) "Population and Migration"; (4)"Economics"; and (5) "Politics." Chapters 24 through 45 and the appendixes are included in Volume II. The introduction by Sissela Bok, the author's daughter, provides insight into the author's philosophy and methodological approach. References follow Volume II. (Volume I contains 32 tables, including those in footnotes, and 5 figures.) Descriptors: American Dream, Black Culture, Black History, Blacks

Horn, Gary (1989). Belize, Central America: Role of Academic Debate in an Emerging Democracy. Many secondary school principals in Belize had expressed a desire and a strong need to start developing in their students the many and varied skills to be gained from participating in debate. The principals feel that the educational system of Belize is their greatest asset and that adding debate to their curriculum would make it even stronger. To help implement debate in Belize, the Director of Forensics at Ferris State University (Michigan) took a debate team to Belize to demonstrate forensics for the secondary teachers and students. Before leaving for Belize, in addition to learning about the country for the 10-day trip, the team collected all of the debate and communications textbooks available for the students and teachers to use as reference material. The group traveled to many parts of Belize (San Pedro, Southern Belize, Western Belize, Orange Walk District, and Corozal) to lecture and demonstrate. In Corozal, the Belizian students were so eager that they participated in a debate with the Ferris team. It was obvious that Ferris State's efforts had been appreciated and would be a foundation for the Belizians to build on for their future. Descriptors: Debate, Developing Nations, Educational Improvement, Educational Innovation

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