Bibliography: Democracy (page 428 of 605)

This annotated bibliography is curated specifically for the I'm with Jill website.  Some of the authors featured on this page include BARBARA PATTERSON, Neville B. Grady, Jeannie Oakes, Maria Nubia Barbosa Bonfim, Julie Ann Hagemann, Karen Hunter Quartz, Lucien Morin, Stephen R. Sleigh, Calabasas Center for Civic Education, and Edwin S. Gleaves.

Spies, Jerry (1992). Sex Education: Issues of Power and Participation. The diversity of values about sexuality among administrators, teachers, parents, and children creates serious challenge for public schools. This case study offers an insider's view of what happened in a community when conservative parent groups challenged a senior high health curriculum. In the "Laketown Public Schools," conflict erupted over the "Current Health Issues" course. The main group opposing the curriculum, Concerned Citizens, objected to the value-free approach that invited students to make their own choices. They feared that information about sex would encourage promiscuity and that the concept of "safe sex" misrepresented real dangers. They objected to the inclusion of homosexuality as a discussion topic. Language played a critical role in the conflict: "safe sex,""alternative lifestyles,""graphic" descriptions of sex, the use of warlike and partnership metaphors to describe the conflict, and even the names of various groups became the subject of debate and dialogue. The Concerned Citizens group and the vocal, but less organized group supporting the curriculum exercised an agenda-setting power. A third, much larger, though less vocal group of parents took a variety of positions during the debates. Students were active participants. The curriculum director refocused the discussion on the language of the community, allowing the parties to agree to 15 conclusions that provided a framework for resolving the conflict. Schools, as microcosms of democracy, are required to be inclusive of the diversity that exists in the community, and school administrators can contribute by doing research and reflecting on their practices. (Contains 12 references.)   [More]  Descriptors: Case Studies, Citizen Participation, Community Involvement, Community Problems

Birzea, Cesar (1994). Educational Policies of the Countries in Transition. This report discusses the emergence of a new geopolitical reality, that of countries in transition. Although the expression usually refers to former Communist countries, a closer analysis shows that transition is, in fact, a universal historical phenomenon. As used here, countries in transition must evidence the following factors: (1) the starting-point or initial state of transition; (2) the destination or the objectives pursued; and (3) the actual content of transition, i.e. the derived transformations. In-depth analyses are presented to provide greater understanding of the education policies of the countries in transition. The social, political, and psychological contexts of the education reforms are established to facilitate that understanding. The report is divided into two parts. Part 1, "Reforms, crises and transitions in Central and Eastern Europe," covers the following topics: (1) "Towards a general theory of transition" (including transition as a transformation of the social and political system, as a state of anomie, as an historical trend, and as a process of societal learning); (2) "The transition from dictatorship to democracy: models, myths and realities"; and (3) "The reforms in Central and Eastern Europe: unity in diversity." Part 2, "Transition as an educational project," speaks to the following issues: (1) "Ideological changes and educational consequences"; (2) "Strategies and priorities: four case studies" (including Hungary, Poland, the Czech and Slovak Republics, and Romania); and (3) "The education legislation of transition" (including rectification measures, modernization measures, and restructuring measures). An extensive bibliography concludes the report. Descriptors: Change Strategies, Comparative Education, Cross Cultural Studies, Cultural Differences

Gleaves, Edwin S., Ed. (1990). Nashville '90: Annual Meeting of the White House Conference on Library and Information Services Taskforce (WHCLIST) (11th, Nashville, Tennessee, August 16-18, 1990). Final Conference Report. This report provides outlines of the reports, comments, and recommendations which emanated from the 3-day Tennessee Library and Information Services Taskforce conference. Representing the first and second general sessions, and included in this report, are the opening remarks; reports from Washington, D.C. on the status of plans for the second White House Conference on Library and Information Services (WHCLIS II); and reports of the pre-White House Conference activities in Colorado, Florida, Hawaii, Illinois, and New York. Also summarized in this report are recommendations from 10 focus groups. These recommendations encompass a wide range of issues related to the White House conference process in the states and at the national level. These recommendations are entitled: (1) Creative Ideas for Delegate Education: What Has Worked So Far/What Can Work in the Future; (2) Issues in Delegate Selection: Applying, Electing, Appointing; (3) Resolution Preparation: Ways and Means; (4) A Literacy Program That Works: The North Carolina Experience; (5) Theme Selection: Productivity, Literacy, Democracy, and Beyond; (6) The Funding Question: Financial Support for State Conferences; (7) Creating Coalitions: How To Build and Maintain Support Groups in the States; (8) Public Information on Information to the Public: What Works in the States; (9) After the Ball Is Over: Follow-up Activities in the States; and (10) But Will You Love Me in the Morning: The Future of WHCLIST after WHCLIS II. Nine resolutions approved by the Task Force are presented and awards bestowed at the conference are described. The report concludes with the text of an address by Edwin S. Gleaves, "Wandering through WHCLIST: A Fond Recollection, 1985-1990." Descriptors: Conferences, Federal Government, Government Role, Librarian Attitudes

Hagemann, Julie Ann (1986). Confucius Say: Naming as Social Code in Ancient China. Confucius (551-479 B.C.) believed in the power of language to regulate society. Concerned about civil war and the moral and social decay of his time, he advocated a peaceful society with a mild and moderate form of law and order and with an emphasis on the well-being of individuals through compassion, kindness, and justice. This form of law consisted of learning a set of names and corresponding duties that became a social code. For him, language was a system of names of titles that gave a man his definite status in society and defined his relationship with others. Language learning was both the skill of applying the correct name to the reality of the situation and the motivation to act accordingly. Confucius concentrated on both filial and political names and inherent relationships. One was expected to know the duties and to fulfill them, to meet the standard and thereby earn the name. When the standard was not met, the title was stripped and the name was changed or rectified to fit the true situation. Thus a name reflected desired or abhorred attitudes, allowed or forbidden actions. Confucius believed that these rules and names had the power to regulate the lives of millions of people for thousands of years, and indeed they have pervaded every aspect of Chinese society, possibly because the system was backed by the ruling class and perpetuated the existing social structure, but most of all because of the code's inherent democracy. Confucianists accept such a code because it promotes their individual and social interest. Descriptors: Ancient History, Chinese, Chinese Culture, Confucianism

Tolliver, Johnny E. (1991). Identifying the Myths: Lies That Fetter the Human Spirit. "Our World," by Virginia prison inmate Marvin Atkinson, is a poem which aptly describes the isolation of Black Americans from the national ideals that America represents. To most Blacks these ideals are myths that continue not only to elude them but enslave them. Four American myths which stand in the way of 30 million Black people who are still struggling for true freedom in this country are: the "American Dream"; Equality; Equal Opportunity; and Blind Justice. The American Dream suggests that every American can get a job, own a home, have a wonderful family, and live happily as a full American, but for most Blacks, however, the Dream does not exist; they earn less than Whites, have a harder time getting a mortgage, and frequently live in poverty. Furthermore, the country's historically Black colleges and universities are in danger of losing their state support. Opponents of these schools argue that Black colleges are no longer relevant in an integrated university community. This is obviously not true, since almost half of Black students who graduate from college graduate from Black colleges. The unequal allocation of resources between Black and other colleges parallels the unequal system of justice in America. While those responsible for the savings and loan scandal get a slap on the wrist, a Black who robs a bank gets a maximum sentence. If America is ever to become the democracy that it is not, the lies of the American Dream–equality, equal opportunity, and justice–will have to become realities for Blacks. Descriptors: Black Colleges, Black Education, Blacks, Cultural Isolation

PATTERSON, BARBARA; AND OTHERS (1964). THE PRICE WE PAY FOR DISCRIMINATION. THE COSTS, BOTH IN MONEY AND HUMAN SPIRIT, INCURRED BY THE SOUTH'S RESISTANCE TO EQUAL OPPORTUNITY HAVE BEEN FAR GREATER THAN THIS AREA AND THE NATION ARE ABLE TO AFFORD. THE ECONOMY OF MANY SOUTHERN COMMUNITIES HAS SUFFERED BECAUSE OF FAILURE TO ATTRACT INDUSTRY AND INVESTMENT, LOSS TO THE CONSUMER MARKET DUE TO BOYCOTTS, POLICE AND JAIL COSTS, DEPLETION OF FUNDS FOR SUPPORT OF SEGREGATIONIST ORGANIZATIONS, AND COSTS OF HOLDING SEPARATE ELECTIONS. RACIAL DISCRIMINATION IN EMPLOYMENT HAS RESULTED IN PERHAPS AN EVEN GREATER LOSS, SINCE THE YOUNG, EDUCATED NEGROES LEAVE THE SOUTH FOR BETTER JOB OPPORTUNITIES. LEGAL COSTS OF THE DEMONSTRATIONS AGAINST DISCRIMINATION ARE ALSO STAGGERING. MANY NEGROES ASK FOR SEPARATE TRIALS WHEN ARRESTED FOR DEMONSTRATIONS, THEREBY INCREASING BOTH COST AND TIME OF COURTROOM PROCEDURES. EDUCATION IN THE SOUTH HAS ALSO SUFFERED BY AN INABILITY TO ATTRACT FACULTY, STUDENTS, AND RESEARCH EFFORTS. UNIVERSITY AND PRIVATE OFFICIALS ARE HESITANT TO INVEST CAPITAL IN NEW EDUCATIONAL FACILITIES FOR SEGREGATED, RACIALLY DISTURBED COMMUNITIES. THE CLOSING AND BOYCOTTING OF INTEGRATED SCHOOLS, THE TUITION GRANTS TO SEND WHITE STUDENTS TO PRIVATE SCHOOLS, AND THE DUPLICATION OF EDUCATIONAL RESOURCES ARE FURTHER COSTS IN EDUCATION TO THE SOUTH. SOUTHERN SEGREGATED COMMUNITIES ARE PAYING A HIGH PRICE FOR RACIAL DISCRIMINATION WHEN THEY ARE DENIED MANY CULTURAL, ENTERTAINMENT, AND SPORTS ACTIVITIES BY ORGANIZATIONS WHO REFUSE TO PERFORM BEFORE SEGREGATED AUDIENCES. TOURISM AND LOCATION OF CONVENTION IN THE SOUTH ARE ALSO DECLINING DUE TO SEGREGATED PUBLIC ACCOMMODATIONS. THE HIGH COSTS ON THE LOCAL, STATE, AND REGIONAL LEVELS ARE ALSO MAGNIFIED NATIONALLY IN COSTS OF FEDERAL TROOPS AND LOST GROSS NATIONAL PRODUCT. AN EVEN GREATER PRICE IS PAID IN THE AREA OF FOREIGN RELATIONS AS THE IMAGE OF AMERICAN DEMOCRACY IS OVERSHADOWED BY RACIAL STRIFE. Descriptors: Costs, Economic Opportunities, Economic Status, Employment Opportunities

Morin, Lucien, Ed. (1981). On Prison Education. This book, consisting of 19 essays, deals with the meaning and objectives of prison education. Included in the volume are the following works: "Inmate Right to Education," by Lucien Morin; "Penitentiary Education in Canada," by J. W. Cosman; "Rehabilitation through Education: A Canadian Model," by Stephen Duguid; "Towards a Prison Curriculum," by William Forster; "Education in Prisons: a Developmental and Cultural Perspective," by J. D. Ayers; "Can Corrections be Correctional?" by Douglas K. Griffin; "The Benefits of Advanced Education in Prisons," by T. A. A. Parlett; "The Humanities in Prison: A Case Study," by Morgan Lewis; "Prison Education and Criminal Choice: The Context of Decision-Making," by Stephen Duguid; "On the Place of Values Education in Prisons," by Lucien Morin;"Some Theoretical Aspects of Correctional Education," by T. A. A. Parlett; "Correctional Education as Practice of the Judicial Approach: A Contradiction," by Lucien Morin; "The Idea of Fairness as the Basis for the Educational Reform of the Prison," by Peter Scharf; "The Major Psychological Processes in Moral Behavior," by James Rest; "Moral Development, Justice and Democracy in the Prison," by Stephen Duguid; "Effects of Just Community Programs on the Moral Level and Institutional Perceptions of Youthful Offenders," by William Jennings; "Corrections Education and Practical Reasoning: Needs, Methods and Research," by Ian Wright; and "Competencies of the Correctional Educator," by Douglas K. Griffin. Descriptors: Access to Education, Case Studies, Community Programs, Correctional Education

Grady, Neville B.; And Others (1995). Relationships between Teachers' Images of School and Students' Perceptions of Classroom Environment. This study explored how elementary school teachers' mental images of their schools, as revealed by metaphor, were related in systematic ways to the perceptions their students had of the classroom psychosocial environment. The data were gathered during 1992 from 1,923 students and their teachers in 162 classes in grades 5-8 in Tasmania, Australia. The schools were in rural and urban locations; the teachers were 31 percent male and 69 percent female; students were 40 percent male and 60 percent female. Teachers' images of their school were assessed through the administration of a questionnaire, developed for the study, called "Images of Schools through Metaphor" (ISM), asking teachers to indicate the extent to which they agreed or disagreed with each of 26 metaphors (e.g., "my school is a mental straight jacket" or "my school is an orchestra"). Respondents were also invited to add other metaphors (less than 10 percent did). Students' perceptions of the psychosocial environment of their classroom were assessed through administration of a questionnaire. Results of examination of both sets of data found that nearly every metaphor was associated with at least one classroom environment scale. For, instance "School as Family" and "School As Olympic Games" were associated with cohesiveness, satisfaction, and democracy in a positive direction and with speed or difficulty in a negative direction. School leaders ought to consider it important to inquire into the nature of the images their teachers have of their schools and to contemplate ways of building or strengthening particular images in them. (Contains 50 references.)   [More]  Descriptors: Classroom Environment, Elementary School Students, Elementary School Teachers, Elementary Schools

Craver, Samuel M., Ed. (1986). Beyond the Empirical Tradition: Reconstructing Educational Inquiry. Proceedings of the Annual Meeting of the South Atlantic Philosophy of Education Society (30th, Boone, North Carolina, October 18-19, 1985). The following papers (with authors and respondents) were presented at the annual conference of the South Atlantic Philosophy of Education Society: (1) "Education as a Liberal Field of Study" (Walter Feinberg) Respondent–Eric Bredo; (2) "The Meaning of Foundations: An Alternative Paradigm for Assessing the Effects of Foundational Studies" (George W. Noblit) Respondent–Paul Bitting; (2) "The Meaning of Schooling: A Paradigm for Teaching Foundations of Education" (J. Don Reeves) Respondent–J. Gordon Chamberlin; (4) "Sympathetic Critique of Donald Vandeberg's Methodology and Moral Principles" (Roderic Owen); (5) "Education, Schooling and Theoretical Consciousness" (David Kennedy) Respondent–Howard Ozmon; (6) "Augustine's Theory of Wisdom: A Renewed Vision of Educational Purpose" (William F. Losito) Respondent–Ernst Marshall; (7) "The Empirical Beast: Containment vs Rejection" (Virgil S. Ward) Respondent–Sam Holton; (8) "Beyond the Philosophical Tradition: Deconstructing Educational Philosophy" (Tom Buford) Respondent–Frans Van Der Bogert; (9) "Integrating Value Orientation and Social Science Research toward the Improvement of Instruction" (Beatrice Sarlos) Respondent–Gene Agre; (10) "Reasoning about Values" (Rocco Porreco); (11) "Educational Reform in the United States: Are We Asking the Right Questions?" (Frank Lowney) Respondent–E. Sidney Vaughn; "Democracy's Implication of Education" (Robert Heslep) Respondent–Peter Carbone; and (13) "What Is 'Appropriate' Curriculum?" (Tom Hawkins) Respondent–Joe Congleton.   [More]  Descriptors: Critical Thinking, Educational Philosophy, Ethics, Foundations of Education

United Nations Economic and Social Council, New York, NY. (1985). Latin American Youth in a Time of Change and Crisis. This 4-part study reaffirms the concepts of a previous study entitled "Situation and Prospects of Youth in Latin America" and approved in 1983, and on the basis of new knowledge explores more deeply national situations and their diversity. It offers new conceptual and theoretical contributions on the condition of youth in Latin America and its significance. It also analyzes a number of new topics relating to the situation of youth in the region. These include: changes in the socioeconomic structure; social institutions as a possible channel of economic integration for youth; consumerism in Latin America and its impact on young people; implications of the world of work; the importance of symbolic dimensions in the condition of youth; and the identity of youth vis-a-vis social stratification in the region. Part 1, "Social Change and Its Effect on Youth," looks at the youth of the region and their relationship with the processes of transformation of the social structure, change, and the international economic crisis. Part 2, "Young People and Politics," reviews social determinants of political participation, the concept of political poverty, young people's capacity for political change in situations where modernization is a recent phenomenon, political participation and social strata, attitudes towards democracy and political institutions, the situation in those countries where modernization came early, spheres of participation, the family and political socialization, and social inclusion and exclusion processes: their effect on political attitudes. Part 3, "The Diversity of Situations in the Region," describes the typification of social development situations and the status of youth in relation to their specific situations. Part 4 contains prospects and conclusions. Also included in an appendix summarizing the 1983 study of which the present document is a follow-up. Descriptors: Developing Nations, Foreign Countries, Higher Education, Latin American Culture

Oakes, Jeannie, Ed.; Quartz, Karen Hunter, Ed. (1995). Creating New Educational Communities. Ninety-fourth Yearbook of the National Society for the Study of Education. Part I, Yearbook of the National Society for the Study of Education. The work reported on in this yearbook collection represent the work of educators committed to the concept that genuine reform takes place in settings where students and teachers work together to create new educational communities. Reports on ongoing projects in several parts of the United States are included in the following chapters: (1) "Normative, Technical, and Political Dimensions of Creating New Educational Communities" (Jeannie Oakes); (2) "Dismantling Status Hierarchies in Heterogeneous Classrooms" (Elizabeth G. Cohen, Diane Kepner, and Patricia Swanson); (3) "Creating Communities of Effective Practice: Building Literacy for Language Minority Students" (Kris D. Gutierrez and Brenda Meyer); (4) "The AVID Classroom: Academic and Social Support for Low-Achieving Students" (Mary Catherine Swanson, Hugh Mehan, and Lea Hubbard); (5) "Success for All: Creating Schools and Classrooms Where All Children Can Read" (Robert E. Slavin and Nancy A. Madden); (6) "Teaming: Creating Small Communities of Learners in the Middle Grades" (Gretchen Guiton and others); (7) "A Schools" (Ann Lieberman, Beverly Falk, and Leslie Alexander); (8) "Thomas Edison Accelerated Elementary School" (Gene Chasin and Henry M. Levin); (9) "Cityworks: Redefining Vocational Education" (Adria Steinberg and Larry Rosenstock); (10) "Complementary Energies: Implementing MI Theory from the Laboratory and from the Field" (Mara Krechevsky, Thomas Hoerr, and Howard Gardner); (11) "Democracy in a Multicultural School and Community" (Paul E. Heckman, Christine B. Confer, and Jean Peacock); (12)"Creating Coalition Schools Through Collaborative Inquiry: (Patricia A. Wasley, Sherry P. King, and Christine Louth); (13) "Creating New Educational Communities: Implications for Policy" (Kati Haycock); and (14) "Sustaining New Educational Communities: Toward a New Culture of School Reform" (Karen Hunter Quartz). Descriptors: Community, Cultural Differences, Educational Change, Educational Environment

HANNAH, JOHN A. (1962). PROBLEMS OF SEGREGATION AND DESEGREGATION OF PUBLIC SCHOOLS, SYNOPSIS OF CONFERENCE BEFORE THE UNITED STATES COMMISSION ON CIVIL RIGHTS, WASHINGTON, D.C., MAY 3-4 1962. THE THREE SUBJECTS DISCUSSED AT THE CONFERENCE ON PUBLIC SCHOOL SEGREGATION-DESEGREGATION WERE THE EDUCATIONAL PROBLEMS OF SCHOOL SEGREGATION AND DESEGREGATION, FACTORS TO BE CONSIDERED IN PLANNING DESEGREGATION, AND PREPARATION FOR DESEGREGATION. THE SYNOPSIS SUMMARIZES THE DIVERGENT VIEWS EXPRESSED IN THE PANELS AND BY SPEAKERS AT THE CONFERENCE ON THESE SUBJECTS. THE PURPOSES OF AMERICAN SCHOOLS WERE DEFINED AS PROVIDING THE OPPORTUNITY AND THE MEANS FOR EACH STUDENT TO DEVELOP HIS INDIVIDUAL POTENTIAL AND INDUCTING ALL YOUTH INTO AMERICAN CULTURE AND SOCIETY SO THAT THEY MAY ACTIVELY PARTICIPATE IN THE ADULT WORLD. NEGRO CHILDREN ARE VICTIMS OF THE HISTORY OF THEIR RACE AND DESERVE SPECIAL EDUCATIONAL ATTENTION. SOME GUIDELINES SUGGESTED TO MEET THE EDUCATIONAL PROBLEMS OF THE NEGRO CHILD INCLUDE–COMPENSATORY OPPORTUNITY IN THE FORM OF LOWER STUDENT-TEACHER RATIO, ADDITIONAL GUIDANCE SERVICES, AND BETTER PHYSICAL FACILITIES, AVOIDANCE OF SOCIAL ENGINEERING (LOCATING SCHOOLS AND ZONING) AS INCONSISTENT WITH THE PURPOSES OF DEMOCRACY, FREEDOM OF CHOICE OR THE OPEN ENROLLMENT POLICY, AND EXTENSIVE TEACHER TRAINING. A CLEAVAGE OF VIEWPOINT, NORTH AND SOUTH, WAS APPARENT IN THE CONSIDERATION OF FACTORS FOR PLANNING DESEGREGATION. SOUTHERN COMMUNITIES OFTEN REFUSED TO CONSIDER DESEGREGATION UNTIL FORCED TO DO SO BY A COURT ORDER. OTHER PERTINENT FACTORS DISCUSSED WERE COMMUNITY ATTITUDES, GRADE-A-YEAR DESEGREGATION PLAN, AVOIDANCE OF SOCIAL AND ECONOMIC PRESSURE ON NEGRO PARENTS, NEED FOR A RACIAL SCHOOL CENSUS, AND INCREASED COST. THE NEED FOR PREPARATION FOR DESEGREGATION WAS RECOGNIZED AS PRIMARILY A SOUTHERN PROBLEM. PLANS OUTLINED EMPHASIZED THE NEED FOR ACTIVE INVOLVEMENT OF BUSINESS LEADERS, CITY OFFICIALS, NEWS MEDIA, SCHOOL PERSONNEL, AND PARENTS. Descriptors: Black Students, Civil Rights, Community Attitudes, Community Involvement

Sleigh, Stephen R., Ed. (1993). Economic Restructuring and Emerging Patterns of Industrial Relations. This book contains nine papers presented during a year-long series of seminars and a conference that analyzed the relationship between economic restructuring and industrial relations involving the joint academics, union leaders, government officials, business executives, and graduate fellows. These analyses include case studies from Western Europe, as well as detailed examination of U.S. examples, particularly state-level efforts from Michigan, Massachusetts, and Pennsylvania. The analyses emphasize the role of industrial relations in these processes. An "Introduction" (Stephen Sleigh) summarizes the case studies and analyses and provides an executive summary of the key conclusions that follow from the papers. The nine papers are as follows: "Economic Development and Industrial Relations in a Small-Firm Economy: The Experience of Metalworkers in Emilia-Romagna, Italy" (Bruce Herman); "Managing Local Development: Lessons from Spain" (Michael Barzelay); "Worker Democracy in Socialist France" (Bernard Brown); "International Competition and the Organization of Production: The Study Action Team Process at Trico Products" (Peter Lazes); "Collaborative Restructuring Efforts: Textile and Apparel Labor-Management Innovation Network, Lehigh Valley, Pennsylvania" (Robert Coy et al.); "Labor and Industrial Relations Strategies in the State of Michigan" (Michael Schippani); "Applying Skills-Based Automation through Participatory Management: The Center for Applied Technology" (Frank Emspak); "Can the End of the Social Democratic Trade Unions Be the Beginning of a New Kind of Social Democratic Politics?" (Charles Sabel); and "Training and the New Industrial Relations: A Strategic Role for Unions" (Wolfgang Streeck). Appendixes include lists of the Seminar Advisory Board and seminar presenters, a 360-item bibliography, and an index. Descriptors: Collective Bargaining, Developed Nations, Economic Change, Employer Employee Relationship

Center for Civic Education, Calabasas, CA. (1987). Constitution for the United States of America. A Secondary Level Student Text. This book was designed to provide a basis for understanding constitutional government and for participating in U.S. society. Each lesson within the book's six units contains a statement of purpose and a list of review questions: most also contain problem solving exercises. Unit One introduces students to the study of political philosophy. The students learn that the Founders were influenced by certain political philosophies, their understanding of history, and their own experiences. Unit Two gives an account of the influence of the British government upon the U.S. system. A discussion of the Magna Carta is presented. After an examination of the Declaration of Independence, students learn about the major characteristics of state constitutions and the Articles of Confederation.  Unit Three includes an account of the Philadelphia Convention and the Virginia and New Jersey plans for a new national government. The students also learn about the legislative branch and the reason for the two houses of the U.S. Congress. Unit Four describes some of the more important developments under the new Constitution. Students study the manner in which the Bill of Rights was added and the organization of the executive and judicial branches of the U.S. government. Unit Five is a discussion of fundamental rights. It is pointed out that these rights have been expanded in the last 200 years. Due process in the Fifth and Fourteenth Amendments is discussed. The students also learn why these rights are important. Finally, in Unit Six, the roles and responsibilities of the citizen in a constitutional democracy are discussed. An appended reference section contains copies of the Declaration of Independence and the Constitution, a glossary of major terms, biographical notes, a list of important dates, and a list of Supreme Court cases cited in the text. Descriptors: Civil Liberties, Civil Rights, Constitutional History, Constitutional Law

Bonfim, Maria Nubia Barbosa (1990). The EDUCAR Foundation in Brazil: Two Experiences. Literacy Lessons. Data from a 1980 population census indicates that of the over 73.5 million people in Brazil who were over 15 years of age, 25.4 percent were illiterate and 27.42 percent had less than 1 year of schooling. Such data show the precarious situation of education in Brazil, particularly that of adolescents and adults. Its origins lie in the dual nature of the Brazilian economy, typified by considerable industrial development, ranking Brazil among the 10 major economies in the west, compared with a subsistence economy frequently encountered in urban slums and rural areas. This polarity has led to the concentration of income in the hands of the already affluent members of society and to a situation of absolute poverty, even misery, among the population excluded from the industrialization process. In 1985 the Brazilian government established the National Foundation for Youth and Adult Education (EDUCAR) to stimulate the development of literacy and basic education programs aimed at those who did not have access to school when they were young or who were prematurely excluded from it. It has promoted educational experiences of several kinds as long as they favored adult education as a process for achieving the rights of citizenship in a society moving toward democracy. An EDUCAR project in the Baixada Fluminese suburb begun in 1986 now provides 294 adult education classes in basic skills, social studies, and natural sciences. Another EDUCAR project, "Life as a School" in the city of Cabo, uses the methods of Paulo Freire and provides adults and adolescents with 6 months of literacy classes and 15 months of additional schooling. Descriptors: Adult Basic Education, Adult Education, Basic Skills, Community Education

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