Bibliography: Democracy (page 427 of 605)

This annotated bibliography is reformatted and customized for the I'm with Jill website.  Some of the authors featured on this page include David B. Annis, C. Frederick Risinger, James E. Fisher, Cedric Cullingford, Washington National Association of State Universities and Land Grant Colleges, Patrick Slattery, Bobby Soobrayan, Kurt A. Heller, John F. Feldhusen, and Association for Education in Journalism and Mass Communication.

Soobrayan, Bobby (1992). Teachers and Politics: A Study of Coloured Teachers in the Greater Durban Area. The formation of the South African Democratic Teachers Union (SADTU) has raised a number of questions about the strategic orientation of teachers in South Africa. These questions are regarded in light of recent political and social changes in the country. Most teacher organizations are reluctant to disband in favor of the new union. The experience and political orientation of "coloured" teachers in Durban (South Africa) were studied. Section I of this report describes methodological considerations and the theoretical framework for the study. Section II deals with the analysis and interpretation of the findings. Subjects were 81 teachers in 11 schools. In the Durban area, colored teachers as a whole do not have a tradition of resistance to apartheid, but they cannot be separated from their sociopolitical context. Most colored teachers in Durban have been teaching a relatively short time, reflecting the new growth in education in their community. Many of the respondents were satisfied with many aspects of their work, but many expressed dissatisfaction with other aspects that appear to erode teacher autonomy over their work, bringing the work of teachers closer to that of the working class, and making the teachers less representative of the middle class. Findings also show a link between respondents' dissatisfaction and their attitudes toward the education department. Findings further suggest that individual colored teachers in Durban are engaged in individual strategies to acquire upward mobility. In Durban, these teachers are subjected to a number of social and political conflicts that pull them in different directions. There is, however, an objective basis for these teachers to be included in the establishment of a national democracy in South Africa. The teacher survey and a memorandum from the local teachers' organization are included. (Contains 12 tables and 27 references.)   [More]  Descriptors: Apartheid, Black Teachers, Elementary Secondary Education, Foreign Countries

Bernstein, Richard B. (1995). Crossroads: A K-16 American History Curriculum. Essays in American History. [Part One–I.]. This U.S. history curriculum guide is divided into five main components. The first component is titled "Essays in American History," and is accompanied by a bibliographic essay. The guide represents the "crossroads" model of curriculum development that begins with three strategic junctures of history education: (1) at grades 7 and 8, where a natural "crossroads" already exists between elementary and secondary education, between childhood and adolescence, and between an interest in the concrete and a capacity to grapple with the abstract; (2) in the first year of postsecondary education, where students are taking surveys of U.S. history, government, and education that can provide a critical juncture between secondary and postsecondary education; and (3) in capstone experiences of postsecondary education, notably social studies methods and student teaching. Essays in Part One-I examine the substantive themes of continuity and change that knit together the 12 chronological periods of U.S. history. Following an introduction, the essays are: (1) "A World of Their Own: The Americas to 1500"; (2) "Contact: Europe and America Meet, 1492-1620"; (3) "The Founding of New Societies, 1607-1763"; (4) "What Was the American Revolution? 1760-1836"; (5) "The Ambiguous Democracy, 1800-1848"; (6) "'Now We Are Engaged in a Great Civil War,' 1848-1880"; (7) "'What, Then, Is This American?' 1865-1900"; (8) "Waves of Reform, 1880-1921"; (9) "Boom and Bust, 1921-1933"; (10) "The Age of Franklin D. Roosevelt, 1933-1945"; (11) "Leader of the Free World, 1945-1975"; and (12) "A Nation in Quandary, 1975-."   [More]  Descriptors: Cultural Context, Curriculum Development, Elementary Secondary Education, Higher Education

Slattery, Patrick (1995). Curriculum Development in the Postmodern Era. Garland Reference Library of Social Science, Volume 929. Critical Education Practice, Volume 1. This book provides an introduction to the field of curriculum and instruction development as it relates to emerging postmodern education paradigms. The book discusses such terms as "curriculum development,""postmodernism,""hermeneutics,""paradigm,""chaos theory,""poststructuralism," and "critical theory" in the context of the educational milieu of the 1990s in the United States. Readers are challenged to examine their own definitions of and the reality of the classroom connections. The book is divided into three parts with 13 chapters. Part 1, "Postmodern Curriculum Development as a Field of Study," includes: (1) "Introduction to Curriculum Development and Postmodernity"; (2) "Historical Perspectives on Curriculum as a Field of Study"; (3) "The Reconceptualization of Curriculum and Instruction"; and (4) "Postmodern Schooling, Curriculum, and the Theological Text." Part 2, "Contemporary Curriculum Development Paradigms," contains: (5) "The Hermeneutic Circle and Postmodern Community"; (6) "Race, Gender, and Ethnicity in a Multicultural Milieu"; (7) "Postmodern Philosophies in Curriculum Studies"; (8) "Curriculum for Interdependence and Ecological Sustainability"; (9) "Utopian Visions, Democracy, and the Egalitarian Ideal"; (10) "Qualitative Inquiry, Fine Arts, and the Synthetical Moment"; and (11) "Time Management and Chaos in the Finite Cosmos." Part 3, "Curriculum Development in the Postmodern Era," includes: (12) "Postmodern Education: Kaleidoscopic Sensibilities"; and (13) "A Postmodern Postscript: Proleptic Prolegomena." Descriptors: Chaos Theory, Critical Theory, Curriculum Development, Educational Change

Bookmark (1991). Perspectives [on Library Service Developments] 1991. This theme issue of "The Bookmark" provides 1991 perspectives on several library service developments, including papers by three New Yorkers who played an important role in the White House Conference on Library and Information Services: Thomas Sobol, Commissioner of Education; Robert Wedgeworth, Dean of the School of Library Service at Columbia University; and Timothy Healy, President of the New York Public Library. Papers and reports in this issue include: (1) "Christopher Columbus Quincentenary Will Help New Yorkers Explore New Worlds" (an overview of library activities planned for the quincentenary and a schedule of exhibits); (2) "An Information-Sharing System for Students–The New York Experience" (a perspective on the first years of school library systems in New York State, Judith H. Higgins); (3) "Summary and Evaluation of the New York State LSCA (Library Services and Construction Act) Program, FY 1990"; (4) "Libraries, America 2000 and Education Reform" (Thomas Sobol); (5) "A Quiet Revolution and the Fragility of Graduate Library Education" (Robert Wedgeworth); (6) "The Research Library's Contribution to Democracy" (Timothy S. Healy); (7) "The U.S. Department of Education Office of Educational Research and Improvement, Library Services and America 2005" (chapter from a report prepared for the U.S. House of Representatives Subcommittee on Select Education of the Committee on Education and Labor, August 1991); (8) "Public Library Outreach Services" (Joseph F. Shubert); (9) "An Ideal Platform: Technology for Libraries" (Corinne Wightman); (10) "The Imagination Celebration Is 'Seeking New Horizons' in 1992" (Stephen Partisano); and (11) "The New York State Library: 1991" (a brief report of major accomplishments in the year ending March 31, 1991). Descriptors: Annual Reports, Educational Change, Elementary Secondary Education, Federal Government

Patrick, John J. (1989). "The Federalist" in the Curriculum. "The Federalist Papers," a collection of 85 essays on the principles of republican government written to support the ratification of the Constitution of 1787, has been praised as an outstanding work by individuals ranging from such founding fathers as Thomas Jefferson and George Washington to contemporary scholars in history and government. Some basic constitutional concepts treated in "The Federalist" include: (1) majority rule with minority rights; (2) public order with private rights; and (3) national sovereignty with states' rights. Yet this classic work is only mentioned briefly, if at all, in high school textbooks. While it is possible that teachers may feel the central ideas of "The Federalist" are no longer applicable in contemporary classrooms or curricula or that the rhetoric is too difficult for the average student to comprehend, a credible case for the inclusion of these essays can be made. The reasons for making such a case are: (1) the essays are the keys to knowledge of constitutional government and citizenship in the United States; (2) "The Federalist Papers" reflect core values in the civic culture; and (3) these papers are directly connected to the curriculum of history, government, and civics. Strategies that could be used to introduce these materials into the curriculum are: (1) document based teaching and learning; (2) issue based teaching and learning; and (3) course-wide infusion of content. Education for constitutional democracy should not be viewed as an ideological exercise, but as an extension to each new generation of citizens of the challenge confronted by James Madison and others of the founding period.   [More]  Descriptors: Citizenship Education, Constitutional History, Curriculum Enrichment, Democratic Values

Christensen, James E., Ed.; Fisher, James E., Ed. (1991). International Journal of Educology: A Journal of Research, Inquiry and Development about the Educational Process from an Educological Perspective, 1987-1991, International Journal of Educology. The "International Journal of Educology" publishes works that examine the educational process from an educological perspective. The term educology means knowledge about education and has been in use since the seminal work in educology by L. W. Harding in the 1950s. The educological perspective is inclusive of scientific, praxiological, historical, and philosophical discourse about the educational process. Volume 1, Number 1 includes four articles considering theory and structure in education and educology in relation to curriculum models, the information society, and handicapped students. Volume 1, Number 2 covers historical and economic aspects of educology in five articles. Volume 2, Number 1 presents an editorial and six articles that relate educology to politics, society, economic conditions in Australia, culture, teaching, and science concepts. Volume 2, Number 2 contains an editorial and five articles focused on educology in relation to socio-cultural factors, democracy, effective schools, and testing and student attitudes about test formats. Volume 3, Number 1 contains an editorial and five articles discussing teacher education, staff development, teaching methods, and curriculum analysis. A guest editorial and eight articles in Volume 3, Number 2 focus on various issues related to educology, a national curriculum, and school-based management. In Volume 4, Number 1, an editorial and five articles consider curriculum and policy issues. Volume 4, Number 2 contains an editorial and eight articles focusing on teacher education. Volume 5, Number 1 contains an editorial and eight articles discussing such aspects of educology, as an educological model for developing countries, an educology for science, a philosophical educology, and an educology of poverty.   [More]  Descriptors: Curriculum Development, Economic Factors, Editorials, Educational History

Heller, Kurt A., Ed.; Feldhusen, John F., Ed. (1986). Identifying and Nurturing the Gifted: An International Perspective. The volume consists of papers from the 1985 symposium "Identification of the Gifted" at the Sixth World Conference on Gifted and Talented Children in Hamburg (Federal Republic of Germany). Twelve chapters have the following titles and authors: (1) "Introduction" (J. F. Feldhusen and K. A. Heller); (2) "A Conception of Giftedness" (J. F. Feldhusen); (3) "The Identification of Gifted Children in Secondary Education and a Description of Their Situation in Holland" (F. J. Monks et al.); (4) Identification, Development and Analysis of Talented and Gifted Children in West Germany" (K. A. Heller and E. A. Hany); (5) "Identification of Highly Gifted Adolescents–Methods and Experiences" (G. Trost); (6) "Identification by Provision: Limited Field Test of a Radical Alternative for Identifying Gifted Students" (B. M. Shore and A. Tsiamis); (7) "The Identification and Labeling of Gifted Children. What Does Research Tell Us?" (A. Robinson); (8) "Taxonomical Approach to Qualitatively Differential Didactics for the Gifted in a Democracy" (H. G. Jellen and D. L. Gulley); (9) "Competition System for Gifted Children in Hungary" (A. Pek); (10) "Talent Education in the Hungarian School Environment" (Z. Bathory); (11) "The First Information and Counseling Center for the Gifted in West Germany" (B. Feger and T. Prado); (12) "Are Highly Gifted Children and Adolescents Especially Susceptible to Anorexia Nervosa" (M. Detzner and M. H. Schmidt). The Appendix includes a selected bibliography with emphasis on German literature.   [More]  Descriptors: Adolescents, Anorexia Nervosa, Classification, Counseling Services

Fishman, Steve (1992). Exploring Water-Tight Compartments. John Dewey employed the phrase "water-tight compartments" to mark deficiencies of integration within an individual's personality. For Dewey, the self is complex, but a strong personality integrates its various habits so that they reinforce rather than conflict with one another. Dewey's focus on this problem of personality has relevance for teachers in the everyday world, in the classroom, and in the field of composition. Dewey's ideas can help teachers understand their own struggles for integration, the inability to bring the varied activities of teacher, father, and friend together so that they can energize one another. Dewey described biological, social, and political factors which promote a separation of personality in the modern world. He also analyzed certain habits of mind which have an affinity with an old-fashioned individualism dating back at least seven centuries to medieval religion. Dewey criticized this brand of individualism by showing how Americans associate it with living in isolation and identify it with the self-reliance of frontier people. The upshot of Dewey's critique is his discussion of democracy, the essence of which (in his view) is community. According to Dewey, all of the great modern advances have been cooperative affairs. The modern lack of integration has two causes: (1) modern life is too weighted toward isolation; and (2) modern life is victimized by professionalization. Thus, many teachers are driven to experimentation in the classroom, where they have the most control, and attempt to create a community along Deweyan lines by overcoming the water-tight compartments that separate human beings.   [More]  Descriptors: Classroom Environment, Cooperative Learning, Higher Education, Holistic Approach

Risinger, C. Frederick (1993). The Core Ideas of "Lessons from History: Essential Understandings and Historical Perspectives Students Should Acquire." ERIC Digest. This digest discusses "Lessons From History," the report of the National Center for History in the Schools at the University of California, Los Angeles. The report provides a rationale for the study of history throughout the K-12 curriculum and specifies core ideas, themes, and topics that undergird both content and performance standards in United States history and world history. The study of history must reflect the three ultimate purposes of education in a free society: to prepare individuals for (1) active citizenship, to safeguard liberty and justice; (2) a career of work, to sustain life; and (3) the private pursuit of happiness, or personal fulfillment. Many recent reports from a variety of sources have emphasized that the importance of history requires a significant increase in the time currently devoted to the subject in most schools. No less than four full years of history should be required of all students between grades 7-12, and history should also be included in ways appropriate to the students' capabilities in the K-6 grades. Three years and two years respectively are recommended for U.S. history and world history. Selecting specific historical topics and content requires an organizational structure based on enduring themes and questions that exemplify the human experience. This digest lists and discusses the major themes presented in "Lessons From History," namely: (1) the development and changing character of human societies; (2) the economic and technological development of societies, resulting in the continual quest to sustain and improve the quality of life; (3) peoples' understanding of themselves, their place in the universe, and the quest for meaning; and (4) the development of political theories and democracy. The digest concludes by describing seven principles found by the report to be associated with effective teaching and learning of history. A list of ERIC resources is included.   [More]  Descriptors: Citizenship Education, Educational Research, Elementary Secondary Education, History Instruction

Annis, David B., Ed.; Oliker, Michael A., Ed. (1991). Proceedings of the Annual Conference of the Midwest Philosophy of Education Society (Chicago, Illinois, November 10-11, 1989, and November 9-10, 1990). Proceedings from two conferences of a society of specialists in the philosophy of education comprise this document. Fourteen papers are included from the 1989 conference program. They are: (1) "George S. Counts: Dare Educators Inspire World Vision?" (C. A. Ryan); (2) "Political Activities of George S. Counts and John L. Childs" (L. J. Dennis); (3) "Recollection" (P. A. Schilpp); (4) "The Failure of Reconstructionism" (D. G. Smith); (5) "The Legacy of Counts: Contemporary Motivational Theory in Education and the Power of the Status Quo" (R. Brosio); (6) "Zen Buddhism: A Religious Paradigm of Pedagogy" (D. Schultz); (7) "Makers of Meaning: Students as Active Participants" (J. S. Kelly); (8) "Making History, Making Lives, and Making Connections" (S. Schroeder); (9) "Neurophilosophy of Sensorial Epistemology: An Update on G. H. Mead's Second Stage of the Act" (G. W. Stickel); (10) "Conversation for Diversity: A Case for Critical Hermeneutics" (M. Abascal-Hildebrand); (11) "Democratic Character and Democratic Education: A Cognitive and Rational Reappraisal" (M. Gross); and three papers on education and institutional democracy by B. F. Radebaugh, R. P. Craig, and A. Brown. Twelve papers from the 1990 conference are presented. These include: "Ahead to the Past: Adventures in Pragmatic Justification" (J. A. Popp); "Comments" (H. S. Brody); "The Semiotics of Habit: A View of Charles Sanders Peirce's Categories in Learning" (G. W. Stickel); and "Classics and Beyond" (D. B. Owen). Other authors include Richard H. Owens, Jack S. Kelly, Ronald M. Swartz, Lawrence J. Dennis, Robert P. Craig, Edward G. Rozycki, and Alexander Makedon. The presidential address, "Doing Dewey Again and Again," was delivered by Ronald M. Swartz. Descriptors: Aesthetic Education, Educational History, Educational Philosophy, Educational Responsibility

Cravens, Hamilton (1993). Before Head Start: The Iowa Station and America's Children. This book chronicles the evolution of the child welfare movement of the early 20th century into the science of child development, from both the national perspective and the perspective of the field's best-known research center, the University of Iowa's Child Welfare Research Station. The book first explores the child welfare movement as it evolved into a science, and the role of the Research Station in that evolution. Then, noting that the most obvious child science shift of the post-1950s era was the sudden emergence of the notion of the child as an individual–often as a victim–rather than as a member of a particular group, the book discusses the historical background of the Head Start program during 1960s, exploring the political and scientific climate that affected the individualistic, compensatory, and redistributionist assumptions underlying the Head Start philosophy. The seven chapters of the book are: (1) "A Problem of Definition"; (2) "The Big Money," on philanthropy and the child welfare movement; (3) "Inventing a Science," on the IQ theory; (4) "Great Expectations," on the growth of the Child Welfare Research Station; (5) "The Science of Democracy," on the notion of an individual child as the sum of external influences; (6) "Individualism Reconsidered," on the sensitivity of intellectual development to positive or negative pressures; (7) "The Perils of Professionalism," on the effects of conservatism on the momentum of child science; and (8) "Epilogue: Toward Head Start," on the inception of Head Start and related issues and perspectives.  Extensive notes on primary sources for the book are included. Descriptors: Child Development, Child Rearing, Child Welfare, Childhood Needs

Flake, Carol L., Ed. (1993). Holistic Education: Principles, Perspectives and Practices. A Book of Readings Based on "Education 2000: A Holistic Perspective.". In 1991 a conference of holistic educators produced "Education 2000: A Holistic Perspective," a statement of what education should be and an examination of holistic theory. This book expands that work with 59 articles exploring the principles of holistic education and describing holistic education programs. Holistic education calls for creating a sustainable, just, and peaceful society in harmony with the Earth and its life, and is based on the following assumptions: (1) education is a dynamic, open human relationship; (2) education cultivates a critical awareness of the many contexts of learners' lives–moral, cultural, ecological, economic, technological, and political; (3) all persons hold vast multifaceted potentials; (4) holistic thinking involves contextual, intuitive, creative, and physical ways of knowing; (5) learning is a lifelong process; (6) learning is both an inner process of self-discovery and a cooperative activity; (7) learning is active, self-motivated, and encouraging of the human spirit; and (8) a holistic curriculum is interdisciplinary, integrating both community and global perspectives. Ten chapters containing 59 articles cover the following educational principles: educating for human development; honoring students as individuals; the central role of experience; holistic education; new role of educators; freedom of choice; educating for a participatory democracy; educating for cultural diversity and global citizenship; educating for earth literacy; and the spirituality of education. Each chapter includes articles of personal and professional reflections, as well as articles describing a holistic approach to curriculum development. Appendices include the text of "Education 2000: A Holistic Perspective," references for each chapter, and sources of previously published contributions. Descriptors: Academic Freedom, Consciousness Raising, Cultural Pluralism, Curriculum Development

National Association of State Universities and Land Grant Colleges, Washington, DC. (1992). A Challenge of Chance: Public, Four-Year Higher Education Enrollment Lessons from the 1980s for the 1990s. This book offers essays on the response of public four-year colleges to the enrollment trends and challenges of the 1980s, particularly the challenges of providing service in light of the unexpected demand for higher education in that decade. The issues and lessons of the experience of the 1980s are covered in 10 chapters by higher education experts and practitioners. The chapters are as follows: (1) "Public College Enrollment Trends of 1979-1989" by Ernest L Boyer; (2) "Immigration: Recognizing the Benefit, Meeting the Challenges" by Lee Kerschner; (3) "Institutional Outreach: Enrollment Issues of the 1980s, Enrollment Strategies for the 1990s" by Shirley F. Binder; (4) "Rethinking Institutional Outreach" by Wayne Sigler; (5) "Looking Back While Moving forward: Curricular Lessons from the 1980s for the 1990s" by Stephen R. Portch; (6) "The Changing Nature of the Transfer Student Population" by Louis W. Bender and Harry C. Doster; (7) "Democracy's Promise: Access for Adults in Higher Education" by Timothy Lehmann and Mary Edinburgh; (8) "Better Measures of Equity in Minority Participation and Enrollment" by Richard C. Richardson and D. Michael Pavel; (9) "Minority Participation in Higher Education: Trends, Implications, and Imperatives" by Muriel Morisey Spence; and (10) "Building an Ethnically Diverse Institution" by Eugene M. Hughes. References accompany the articles.   [More]  Descriptors: Access to Education, Adult Students, College Students, Curriculum Development

Cullingford, Cedric, Ed. (1997). Assessment versus Evaluation. Children, Teachers and Learning Series. The chapters in this collection deal with a range of issues that surround the positive and negative aspects of assessment and distinguish assessment and evaluation. Educational organizations have become more and more dominated by the processes of assessment and evaluation in various guises such as teacher appraisal, accountability, and student testing. These discussions center on the British context, the functions of the Office of Standards in Education, and the work of the Task Group on Assessment and Testing (TGAT). The following chapters are included: (1) "Introduction" (Cedric Cullingford); (2) "Assessment and the Curriculum" (David Brady); (3) "Whatever Happened to TGAT?" (Paul Black); (4) "Teacher Appraisal: The Connection between Teaching Quality and Legislation" (Bob Butroyd); (5) "Culture and 'Subjectivity' in the Discourse of Assessment: A Case Study" (Peter Sanderson); (6) "Assessment, Evaluation and the Effective School" (Cedric Cullingford); (7) "How Primary Schools Deal with Assessment in the National Curriculum" (Val Woodings); (8) "Practical Assessment and Testing in a Secondary School" (Graham Herbert); (9) "Evaluation: Trinkets for the Natives or Cultural Change?" (David Hopkins, David Jackson, Mel West, and Ian Terrell); (10) "Profiling and Self-assessment: An Evaluation of Their Contribution to the Learning Process" (Ann-Marie Latham); (11) "Is Self-Assessment a Valid Concept?" (Ralph Tuck); (12) "Pierre Bourdieu and the Sociology of Assessment and Evaluation" (Lewis Owen); (13) "Social Sciences and Democracy" (Pierre Bourdieu); and (14)"Conclusion: The Personal Effects of Assessment" (Cedric Cullingford). Each chapter contains notes and references. (Contains 12 figures.) Descriptors: Curriculum Development, Educational Assessment, Elementary Secondary Education, Evaluation Methods

Association for Education in Journalism and Mass Communication. (1993). Proceedings of the Annual Meeting of the Association for Education in Journalism and Mass Communication (76th, Kansas City, Missouri, August 11-14, l993). Part VII: Politics and Mass Media. The Politics and Mass Media section of this collection of conference presentations contains the following 13 papers: "The 1992 Presidential Debates: A Cognigraphic View" (Richard F. Carter and Keith R. Stamm); "Moving to the Front of the Bus?: Network Coverage of the Invisible Primaries during the 1988 and 1992 Elections" (Thomas J. Johnson and Joe Foote); "Information Presentation and Issue Salience: Their Relationships with Voter Decision-Making Strategies" (David Domke and Dhavan Shah); "Print Media Use and Perceived Credibility among Senior Congressional Staff" (James R. Edwards, Jr.); "The 'Bimbo Primaries': A Comparison of How the Major Television Networks Covered Charges of Womanizing against Bill Clinton and Gary Hart" (Jeanne Norton Rollberg and others); "Newsmagazine Visuals and the 1992 Presidential Election" (Sandra E. Moriarty and Mark N. Popovich); "Self-Efficacy Class, Race, and Call-in Political Television Show Use" (John E. Newhagen); "Talk Show Politics: The Match That Rekindles American Democracy?" (Edward Horowitz); "The Effect of 'Horse Race' Reporting in Increasing Voters' Issue Knowledge" (Xinshu Zhao and Glen L. Bleske); "Is It a Wall? A Tree? A Rope? Or an Elephant?–Television News and Ads as Sources of Issue Information" (Xinshu Zhao and others); "Negative Political Advertisements: Effects of Position, Performance and Personal Attacks" (Megan Mills and others); "Does the Audience Learn More about Images Than Issues from Televised Debates? Effects of the First 1992 Presidential Debate" (Jian-Hua Zhu and others); and "Media Priming in the 1992 Election Campaign: The Effects of Newspaper Stories on Evaluations of President Bush" (Lars Willnat).   [More]  Descriptors: Audience Participation, Audience Response, Debate, Mass Media Role

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