Bibliography: Democracy (page 426 of 605)

This bibliography is independently curated for the I'm with Jill website.  Some of the authors featured on this page include Paul Theobald, Louis M. Smith, Arthur J. Jones, Granby Annenberg Rural Challenge, Jaime S. Wurzel, Edward Franklin Buchner, Raymond Wolters, Eva Nordland, Andrew S. Targowski, and Jacquelyn Johnson.

Wurzel, Jaime S., Ed. (1988). Toward Multicuturalism: A Reader in Multicultural Education. This book of readings lays the foundation for the introduction of a broad multicultural perspective in education. "Multiculturalism and Multicultural Education" (J. S. Wurzel) outlines the multicultural process. Part 1, "Human Condition Themes," comprises the following sections: (1) "Ethnocentrism," including "Eating Christmas in the Kalahari" (R. B. Lee) and "Kapluna Daughter" (J. L. Briggs); (2) "The Nature Of Prejudice," including "An Interview with C. P. Ellis" (S. Terkel), "Beth Anne–A Case Study of Culturally Defined Adjustment and Teacher Perceptions" (G. D. Spindler) and "Stereotypes: Explaining People Who Are Different"; and (3) "Conformity and Resistance to Cultural Norms," including "You Will Do As Directed" (R. Jones) and "Beating the Man" (O. Simmons). Part 2,"Cultural Variation Themes," comprises the following chapters: (1) "Socialization," including "The Child in India" (S. Kakar), "Child Care in China" (B. Dollar), "Some Discontinuities in the Enculturation of Mistassini Cree Children" (P. S. Sindell), and "Free Enterprise and the Ghetto Family" (J. W. Sharff); (2) "Value Orientations," including "The Persistence of Ie' in the Light of Japan's Modernization" (H. Fukue) and "You've Gotta' Have Wa" (R. Whiting); (3) "Verbal and Nonverbal Communication," including "An Introduction to Intercultural Differences and Similarities in Nonverbal Communication" (S. Irujo), "Communicative Competence: A Historical and Cultural Perspective" (P. Menyuk and D. Menyuk), "What No Bedtime Story Means: Narrative Skills at Home and School" (S. B. Heath), and"Man at the Mercy of Language" (P. Farb); and (4) "Culture and Thought," including "Cognitive Styles and Cultural Democracy in Action" (M. Ramirez III) and "Cultural Thought Patterns in Inter-Cultural Education" (R. B. Kaplan). Discussion questions are included for each section. Descriptors: Bias, Cognitive Style, Cross Cultural Training, Cultural Differences

Mehlinger, Howard (1977). The High School Political Science Curriculum Project. Final Report. This project was designed to improve political science instruction for high school students in the United States. Its primary purpose was to design, develop, test, and disseminate an alternative program for the U.S. government course for grade 12 that sought to increase choices for teachers who wanted to improve basic citizenship competencies of students by offering important political science knowledge, skills, and participation training. The report describes the project activities in which three successive sets of curriculum materials were developed. Prototype units were tested in 25 schools across the United States. Based on the field tests of these materials, a full semester course was developed and tested. Evaluations and revisions were completed, a full year course was produced, and the course was tested in schools. Evaluations were conducted on each unit of the instructional materials. Student achievement was tested, teacher workability was surmised, and critic reviews were solicited from social scientists, social studies educators, teachers, students, parents, and minority group representatives. The findings of the project were: (1) an alternative program in U.S. government is needed at the high school level and will be used by teachers; (2) schools can use participation activities in school and the community to increase the citizenship competencies of students; (3) field testing is essential to the development of workable curriculum materials; and (4) in evaluating a curriculum product, face to face communication between curriculum designers and potential users is essential. As a result of creating an alternative that increased choices for teachers and focused on participation, students should become more skilled in actively participating in a democracy.   [More]  Descriptors: Citizenship Education, Curriculum Development, Educational Research, High Schools

Mathews, David (1988). Teaching Politics as Public Work: An Alternative Theory of Civic Education. The conventional way of thinking about politics keeps us from studying the important work that citizens must do to achieve political efficacy. Students learn the procedures of government as if politics were a spectator sport. While everyone learns about the politics of government, there is little discussion about the politics of the public. Unless people are capable of doing the things that public politics require, they cannot effectively participate in the political life of the country. The core of political work is dealing with uncertainties–not about facts, but about the goals and purposes of government. Judgments are required when decisions are made without certainty and everything depends upon their quality. The purpose of judgment is to capture political realities through reflection and deliberation, not impression. Developing public judgment requires the integration of diverse points of view. In forming public judgments people must spend considerable time assessing the interrelations of their many interests and the long-term consequences of their policy options. It demands deliberation and reflection on experiences. In a democracy citizens need to be able to talk together in order to think together, to explore together, to compare, to synthesize. If public politics require such skills, surely the central task of a civic educator is to teach them. Direct experience in public work seems to be essential to learning public skills. Based on what the future is likely to require of politics, there is an educational imperative in sorting out what tasks are required in a diverse nation and even more diverse world. Descriptors: Citizen Participation, Citizenship Education, Citizenship Responsibility, Civics

Turner, Mary Jane; And Others (1990). The Civic Achievement Award Program in Honor of the Office of the Speaker of the House of Representatives. Instructor Manual and [Student Resource Book]. Launch Edition. The Civic Achievement Award Program (CAAP) was established by the U.S. Congress in response to national concerns about the need to increase civic literacy among the nation's young people. The program was designed to provide elementary and middle school educators with interdisciplinary materials that focus on providing a base of civic competence, knowledge, and skills for all citizens. CAAP consists of three student projects: the learning project, the research project, and the civic project. Students who participate in the program receive the Civic Achievement Award, a certificate from the United States Congress. The first of these related manuals is for CAAP instructors and contains sections paralleling the student book. The three student projects are described, including each project's purpose, components, and process, and examples from schools that have used the CAAP program. The instructor's manual also includes a class management form, a guide for obtaining publicity, and a list of national and government organizations. Answers to the study sheets and mastery test that appear in the student book make up two-thirds of the instructors' manual. The second of these manuals, for students, includes the CAAP timeline which lists some of the important events that have occurred in the United States from 1492 to the present. Using information from the timeline, students are expected to complete the learning project, which is designed to provide them with a common body of knowledge relating to U.S. history, government, geography, economics, culture, and current events. This guide also includes the materials necessary for students to complete the research project, which teaches students that the ability to analyze information and to communicate it to others is necessary for full participation in democracy, and the civic project, which encourages students to become informed and to develop opinions about civic issues. Descriptors: Citizen Participation, Citizenship Education, Citizenship Responsibility, Democratic Values

Jones, Arthur J. (1907). The Continuation School in the United States. Bulletin, 1907, No. 1. Whole Number 367, Bureau of Education, Department of the Interior. The term "continuation school," while commonly used in England for some time has not been generally employed in this country and may need some further explanation. As use in this bulletin, it refers to any type of school which offers to people while they are at work opportunity for further education and training. It thus presupposes educational training of some kind and continues but does not necessarily repeat the work of the regular school. it is supplementary to the work of the regular school in the sense that is additional to it. This work was undertaken at the suggestion of Dean James E. Russell, of Teachers College, Columbia University, after a preliminary study of the German Fortbildungsschulen had been made. So little systematic work has been done in this direction in the United States that it seemed well worth while to make a study of the situation as it is here, and a comparison of the means employed in Germany, England, and the United States. So far the only important attempt to make such a study is that of the Massachusetts Commission on Industrial and Technical Education. This report is admirable, but can not take the place of a definite study of local conditions even in Massachusetts, and much less in other places. the following study an attempt has been made: (1) To show the need of continuation schools; (2) To describe the agencies employed in Germany and England to meet a similar situation; (3) To describe representative types of continuation school in the United States; and (4) To show the place of the continuation school in country's educational system and the general purpose of such a school in a democracy. Bibliography and index are included. (Contains 21 tables and 15 diagrams.) [Best copy available has been provided.]   [More]  Descriptors: Adult Education, Foreign Countries, Educational Needs, Agencies

Annenberg Rural Challenge, Granby, CO. (1995). Annenberg Rural Challenge. Former U.S. Ambassador and philanthropist Walter H. Annenberg has pledged a significant portion of his personal wealth to America's public schools if his contribution is "matched" by the nation. Up to $50 million in matching money over the next 5 years has been earmarked specifically for rural schools. This document provides a context for the Annenberg Rural Challenge, an explanation of its vision for rural schools, and an overview of how it operates. The Annenberg Rural Challenge recognizes that improving the nation's schools requires the full involvement of the rural constituency, routinely excluded from key national policy making decisions. This rural initiative seeks to confront the myths and stereotypes that haunt rural education, and to challenge those involved with rural schools to build on their strengths to create lasting reform and "genuinely good" schools. Such schools recognize that every child is special and can learn, expect rigorous intellectual performance of each student, and promote democracy and authority in the classroom and in school governance and policy making. In addition, genuinely good rural schools make the most of their rural nature, acknowledge their dual obligation of preparing students for rural and urban environments, and effectively compensate for rural-related disadvantages. The Rural Challenge will place the overwhelming majority of its resources in those communities, schools, districts, and networks that are acting in harmony with its vision. Rather than being a grant competition, the Rural Challenge features a search process carried out by regional teams, collaboration with a variety of rural partners, inclusiveness of all stakeholders and interested citizens and of diverse rural populations, and a national agenda of network building and advocacy for rural education. Includes photographs.   [More]  Descriptors: Change Strategies, Community Involvement, Educational Change, Educational Principles

Billington, James H. (1988). Books and the World. Center for the Book Viewpoint Series No. 22. The most ambitious connection that libraries can make in our time is the link between an individual and the rest of the world. Libraries are the places where books and other records of human memory and imagination are transmitted from one group of people to another, and librarians are the impresarios of the process. Personal experience and long study of Russian culture have shown that the answer to an important question is often more likely to be found in yesterday's book than in today's newspaper; deifying some books while denying access to others can be dangerous; and libraries can provide a quiet refuge for scholarly integrity. The American experience and example may be increasingly relevant to the world because: (1) the evolutionary American model may have more to offer than the absolutist models; (2) their various religious beliefs enable Americans to identify with a dimension of human experience that is incomprehensible in an atheistic society; (3) the maintenance of a civil, civic unity among diverse communities is an American aspiration that is becoming increasingly relevant as the world grows more diverse culturally, even as it becomes more interrelated technologically; and (4) Americans are strongly committed to higher education at a time when education and intellectual leadership in world politics are becoming increasingly important. The American type of democracy has depended on knowledge and grown through books, which are the individual's portable, affordable link with the memory, mind, and imagination of the rest of humanity, and the best guides we have for the exploration of our own basic humanity. Because the American example is so relevant, and because deepened and broadened knowledge has been so central to it, the necessity of getting more of our young people into creative contact with books and reading is an urgent concern for all American libraries.   [More]  Descriptors: Access to Information, Books, Cultural Awareness, Democratic Values

Smith, Louis M.; And Others (1983). Innovation and Change in American Education. Kensington Revisited: A Fifteen Year Follow-Up of an Innovative Elementary School and Its Faculty. Volume I–Chronicling the Milford School District: An Historical Context of the Kensington School. Final Report. This first volume of a six-volume study details the historical context of a particular school district (code-named "Milford") in order to examine the genesis and evolution of American education. The study's key research documents were the district school board's official minutes; additional modes of inquiry included participant observation, interviews, newsletters, and newspaper accounts. Following a brief historical overview in chapter 1, chapter 2 traces the district's origins through the tenures of its first two superintendents. Chapter 3, "The Genesis and Evolution of a School District: Preliminary Generalization," gives attention to such community items as county and state government agencies, elections, and population growth. The chapter also covers organizational structures and process, including sections on the school board, finances, and the role of the superintendent; and classrooms, curriculum, and teaching. Chapters 4, 5, and 6 cover, respectively, "The Early McBride Era" (1935-49), "The Modernization of Milford, 1949-52," and "The Decade of Rapid Growth and Expansion: 1952-61." Following chapter 7 entitled "The Tangle of Administrative Succession" and other issues from the years 1961-62, chapter 8 offers a summary, conclusions, and implications in the following areas: democracy in educational schooling, policy-making and administration, and longitudinal systems for examining innovation and change. In order to protect the anonymity of the school district studied in such detail, pseudonyms have been used for all place names (school, school district, city, county, state) and personal names (school superintendents, school board members, teachers, students) appearing in the various volumes of this set.   [More]  Descriptors: Administrator Role, Case Studies, Educational Change, Educational Environment

Reardon, Betty, Ed.; Nordland, Eva, Ed. (1994). Learning Peace: The Promise of Ecological and Cooperative Education. This book is a collection of writings by American, Russian, and Norwegian scholars who, in 1988, launched the Project on Ecological and Cooperative Education. Formation of the group was motivated by the conviction that the planet needs an ecologically conscious culture to overcome the fragmentation and specialization that is typical of the worldview of dominant societies today. The book examines how knowledge about planetary problems at the end of the twentieth century, and fatal threats to the planet resulting from rivalries among powerful individuals, cultures and states, have an impact on environmental education. Chapter titles include: (1) "New World-New Thinking-New Education" (Eva Nordland); (2) "Learning Our Way to a Human Future" (Betty Reardon); (3) New Thinking: Its Application for New Learning" (Valentina Mitina); (4) "'Big Ideas' of Ecology That Every Peace Educator Should Know" (Willad J. Jacobson); (5) "Social Responsibility and Ecological Culture through Ecological Education" (Sergei Polozov); (6) "Educational Planning for an Ecological Future" (Susan Aheam); (7) "Education for Democracy, Social Responsibility, and Creative Activity in the Russia of Today" (Anatoly Golovatenko); (8) "Peace Education, Social Responsibility, and Cooperation" (Galina Kovalyova); (9) "Ecological Leadership in an Age of Diminishing Superpower Expectations" (Robert W. Zuber); and (10) "Steps to a Renewal of Education: Concluding Words" (Eva Nordland). Additional sections contain: (1) questions for reflection and discussion that correspond to the chapters; (2) information about the authors; (3) a list of 49 suggested readings; and (4) an index. Descriptors: Cultural Education, Ecology, Elementary Secondary Education, Environmental Education

American Historical Association, Washington, DC. (1989). Charting a Course: Social Studies for the 21st Century. A Report of the Curriculum Task Force of the National Commission on Social Studies in the Schools. This report by the Curriculum Task Force represents its considered conclusion about general reform (K-12) of the social studies curriculum in the United States. It presents a balanced and comprehensive curriculum program adapted to the needs of present day society and suggests direction for the future. Part 1 discusses the recommended social studies curriculum for grades K-12. Part 2 discusses the research basis for curriculum choice. Part 3 contains essays prepared by representatives of the professional associations holding membership in the Social Science Association's Task Force for Pre-College Education. These essays provide a perspective from the following fields: (1) anthropology; (2) economics; (3) U.S. history; (4) world history; (5) political science; (6) psychology; and (7) sociology. The characteristics of a social studies curriculum for the 21st century as set forth in this report include the following: (1) It must instill a clear understanding of the roles of citizens in a democracy and provide opportunities for active, engaged participation in civic, cultural, and volunteer activities. (2) It must provide consistent and cumulative learning from kindergarten through grade 12. (3) History and geography should provide the matrix for social studies with concepts from political science, economics, and other social sciences integrated throughout the curriculum. (4) A global approach should be taken, for a curriculum that focuses on one or two major civilizations is neither adequate nor complete. (5) Integration of other subject matter with social studies should be encouraged. (6) Students must be made aware that they have the capacity to shape the future. (7) Teaching strategies should help students become both independent and cooperative learners who develop skills of problem solving, decision making, negotiation, and conflict resolution. (8) Learning materials must incorporate a rich mix of written matter, audiovisual materials, computer programs, and items of material culture. Descriptors: Anthropology, Curriculum Development, Curriculum Guides, Economics

Johnson, Jacquelyn; And Others (1994). Global Issues in the Middle School Grades 5-8. Third Edition. This activity book contains 27 activities designed to help teachers address the goal of including global education in their classrooms. The activities, organized into five sections, are presented in a standard format of: (1) a brief introduction; (2) a list of objectives; (3) an estimate of required time for the activity; (4) list of needed materials; and (5) step-by-step procedures for the activity. Some activities include suggested follow-up exercises, a list of resources, background information, and masters for student handouts. A list of resources concludes the book. Section 1, "Introducing the Concept of Global Awareness," includes: (1) "Global Connections"; (2) "The Global Kid"; and (3) "What Do We Know About…? What Do We Want to Know?" Section 2, "Studying Human Values,"  includes: (1) "What are 'American Family Values'?" (2) "Special Ways with Holidays"; (3) "Religion and Values"; (4) "The Trees of Life"; (5) "World Music"; and (6) "Creating Culture Wheels." Section 3, "Studying Global Systems," includes: (1) "What Is a System?" (2) "They've Got the Whole World in Their Hands"; (3) "The Rights of Indigenous Peoples"; (4) "The Communications Network"; (5) "Sharing Our Global Environment"; and (6) "Adventure in Antarctica: A Case Study in Cooperation." Section 4, "Studying Global Issues and Problems," includes: (1) "Global and Local Issues A Survey"; (2) "Biodiversity"; (3) "Democracy at the Turn of the Century"; (4) "Refugees: Has the Welcome Mat Been Pulled?" (5) "Poverty and Population"; and (6) "Sustainable Development." Section 5, "Studying Global History," includes: (1) "Historical Relations"; (2) "The Family Tree of a Language"; (3) "The Spice of Life"; (4) "Potato Power: How One Food Changed the World"; (5) "The Nobel Peace Prize: Conflict in the 20th Century"; and (6) "Humankind's Better Moments." Descriptors: Cross Cultural Studies, Global Approach, Global Education, Interdisciplinary Approach

Wolters, Raymond (1984). The Burden of Brown. Thirty Years of School Desegregation. The Supreme Court's decision in Brown vs. Board of Education is one of the most important events in the recent history of the United States. Although "Brown" prohibited the use of racial discrimination to separate the races in the Topeka (Kansas) schools, similar cases from Delaware, South Carolina, and Virginia were consolidated on appeal, and a case decided the same day held that public schools could no longer be segregated. This book describes how things have worked out in the school districts where desegregation began. Attention is focused on the districts other than Topeka because their experience better illustrates how the laws have changed and how desegregation has been redefined. Compliance with the Supreme Court's order was readily achieved in Topeka. The Court's major premise was that official segregation constituted a denial of equal protection, while its minor premise held that racial isolation damaged the confidence of black youths and distorted their self-image. In the "Brown" districts, education has suffered from naively liberal court orders, from the influence of progressive education, and from the defiant and irresponsible behavior of some students. Furthermore, in a democracy, social reform should be undertaken by the people's elected representatives and not by unelected judges. Overall, the attempt to integrate the nation's schools has been a failure, as judges have been inept educational administrators. The following chapters are included: (1) "Washington: Showcase of Integration"; (2) "Massive Resistance in Prince Edward County, Virginia"; (3) "Beyond Freedom of Choice: Clarendon County, South Carolina"; (4) "The Bus Stops Here: New Castle County, Delaware"; and (5) "Back in Topeka." (Contains 13 tables.) Descriptors: Civil Rights, Court Litigation, Desegregation Effects, Desegregation Plans

Targowski, Andrew S. (1996). Global Information Infrastructure: The Birth, Vision, and Architecture. A new world has arrived in which computer and communications technologies will transform the national and global economies into information-driven economies. This is triggering the Information Revolution, which will have political and societal impacts every bit as profound as those of the Industrial Revolution. The 21st century is viewed as one that will implement the mass-enlightenment, which will integrate the world commercially and culturally as a New Information Civilization. Aimed at professionals, scholars, and students, this book is divided into three sections: National Information Infrastructure, Enterprise Information Infrastructures, and Local Information Infrastructure. The book includes the following chapters and highlights: (1) Information Utility (Information Utility Technology, Standards and Protocols, Message Signaling and Organization, Telco Switching Networks, User Computer Networks, Transborder Data Flow, Global Telematic Policy, and Managing Global Information Technology); (2) Telematic Services (Electronic Transaction Processing Services, Electronic Commerce, Electronic Information Services, Electronic Communications Services, Networking Telecommunications Services, and Cable and Broadcast TV Information Services); (3) Electronic Money; (4) Electronic Knowledge (Innovations and Democracy, Role of Information Technology in Libraries, and Alternative Futures for Libraries); (5) Virtual Business; (6) On-Line Government (A Case of the City of Kalamazoo, Michigan); (7) Virtual Schools and Universities (Society-Economy-Education, Careers and Work Trends, Education Technology Trends, Distance Learning, Electronic Schools, Electronic Universities, and Electronic Classrooms); and (8) TeleCity (the New Urban Landscape through Telework, a New Information Landscape of North America, a City as an Electronic Global Village, and the Electronic Town). (Contains references at the end of each chapter.) Descriptors: Case Studies, Computer Mediated Communication, Distance Education, Educational Technology

Buchner, Edward Franklin (1923). Educational Surveys. Bulletin, 1923, No. 17, Bureau of Education, Department of the Interior. This bulletin is the fifth report in the special series presenting a record of the educational-survey movement, and was prepared with special reference to the biennium 1920-1922; but, for the sake of continuity with the material in preceding reports, it includes the relatively few surveys made in 1915-1920. The surveys within each classified group are arranged in historical order. It is believed that this enables the reader to detect more readily the subtle changes which are appearing in the movement. Each of these trends in the movement was apparently inevitable, and essentially experimental in discovering the possibilities and the limitations of this new instrument for measuring and promoting educational progress. The definition of community attitudes, the justification of the new expense involved, the value of a special, synthetic view of the facts in school systems, the propriety of "outsiders prying into home affairs," the provincialism that hesitated to be transformed into a nationalizing democracy, and the absence of any established principles to guide in the formulation or the acceptance of proposals for betterment–all these were elements in educational surveying which came to light amid the countercurrents of belief and doubt, friendliness and opposition. By repeated efforts, and even unrelated trials, the survey came in the course of these years to find itself validated as an acceptable agency of progress, both in lay and in professional judgments. Following the Introduction, topics covered in this bulletin include: (1) State and Territorial surveys; (2) County and rural surveys; (3) City surveys; (4) Special phases in city surveys; (5) Training of teachers for public education; (6) Higher educational institutions; (7) Foreign survey; and (8) Unpublished surveys. (Contains 40 footnotes.) [Best copy available has been provided.]   [More]  Descriptors: Foreign Countries, School Surveys, Measurement, Counties

Theobald, Paul; Howley, Craig (1997). Public Purpose and the Preparation of Teachers for Rural Schools. The challenge of "ruralizing" teacher preparation programs is to teach teachers to think with sufficient critical intent to violate professional norms that have been unhealthy for rural schools and communities. Universities are institutions with cosmopolitan rather than local purposes. Over the centuries, the mission of higher education has shifted from serving society as a whole to serving individuals. At the same time, philosophy has almost disappeared as a field of study, supplanted by an emphasis on the development of expertise. As it prepares students for the myriad professions, the university diffuses technical rationality as the most "useful" form of mind and virtually abandons forms of rationality characteristic of philosophy, thereby subverting both intellect and feeling. The work of the mind has been restricted to the path of economic instrumentalism, advancing scientific and industrial "progress" and, most recently, the global economy. Underlying these developments are assumptions about the desirability of large size, efficiency, technological progress, and unlimited consumption–assumptions that have helped to create many social and environmental problems and to undermine rural community life. The absence of philosophy from professional preparation is particularly bothersome in the case of teacher education. Properly educative experiences develop character, and character development depends upon ethical action in the local sphere. Teacher educators who would build a program that resonates with their rural locale must honor the local genius that shapes character and must also embrace values of sustainability, social justice, and democracy. These mutually reinforcing ideas form the basis of an education that cultivates civic virtue–a major shift in thinking about the public purpose of education. Contains 28 references.   [More]  Descriptors: College Role, Democratic Values, Educational Philosophy, Educational Principles

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