Bibliography: Democracy (page 425 of 605)

This annotated bibliography is compiled and customized for the I'm with Jill website.  Some of the authors featured on this page include Robert Phillipson, Scientific United Nations Educational, Abraham Yogev, Thomas Ladenburg, Albert H. Yee, Val D. Rust, Chicago American Bar Association, Henry Kiernan, Barbara Sweeney, and WARREN E. GAUERKE.

United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Paris (France). (1992). Education Facing the Crisis of Values: Strategies for Strengthening Humanistic, Cultural, and International Values in Formal and Non-Formal Education. This document was prepared on the basis of discussions at a workshop organized by UNESCO and other groups on the subject of education facing the crisis of values from the point of view of: (1) cultural identity and cultural diversity in education; (2) humanistic, ethical, and aesthetic values in education; and (3) education facing the ethical problems that arise from scientific and technological progress. The document presents summaries and recommendations made regarding these themes. The first of five sections contains presentations by representatives of UNESCO and the Association Descartes. The next three sections each take one of the three featured points of view. Section 2 on the point of view of cultural identity and diversity contains: (1) "The reasons for providing intercultural education and an assessment of experiments to date" (Perotti); (2) "Cultural diversity and promotion of values" (Batelaan; Gundara); (3) "Ideology and ethical values in education" (Avakov); (4) "Prospects in Africa" (Wininga); (5) "Prospects in Latin America" (Lopez); (6) "The 'Musee en herbe'" (Lusardy). Section 3 on values includes: (1) "Humanism today: peace, tolerance, and democracy" (Best); (2) "Values and the school curriculum" (McNicoll); (3) "Prospects in Asia" (Rajput); (4) "The responsibility of local authorities" (Schuster); (5) "Art and one's everyday surroundings" (Langlois); and (6) "Art as salvation" (Rosenfeld). Section 4 on ethical problems contains: (1) "A jurist's viewpoint" (Gerin); (2) "A philosopher's viewpoint" (Lecourt); (3) "The ethical problems arising from research" (Adam); (4) "Education and bioethics" (Huber); (5) "A worldwide code of ethics: the role of universities" (Jaumotte); (6) "The role of industry in education" (Carrigou); and (7) "Physics teaching and the crisis of values" (Lovas). The fifth section contains conclusions and general recommendations.   [More]  Descriptors: Aesthetic Values, Cultural Differences, Curriculum Development, Educational Development

Harris, James F., Ed.; Metcalf, Fay, Ed. (1994). Germany and Europe Since World War II: Resources for Teachers. Designed as a resource for teachers to help high school students understand the new Germany, six background papers and nine lessons provide information on the difficult transition from the Third Reich to defeat and military occupation, on the establishment of two successor states, and on revolution and reunification. The six background papers cover aspects of the history, government, economy, and society of Germany since World War II: (1) "From Third Reich to No Reich: Germany after 1945" (James F. Harris); (2) "The Re-Birth of Democracy in Germany" (Rebecca Boehling); (3) "Germany's Role in the European and World Economies" (Robert Mark); (4) "German Culture in a Modern World" (Peter Jelavich); (5) "From Revolution to Unification: Creating a New Germany" (Konrad H. Jarausch); and (6) "Europe in U.S. Social Studies Textbooks: A Case Study on Germany in the Textbooks" (Dagmar Kraemer; Manfred Stassen). The nine lessons for use with secondary students of social studies draw from the contents of the background papers, and each lesson includes a plan for teachers and materials to be copied and distributed to students. Following the lessons, a timeline offers an annotated chronology of events in postwar Germany and the European Community. The next sections list 47 annotations of papers found in the ERIC database on Germany and Europe since World War II and 80 annotations from journals in the ERIC database on the topic. A selected bibliography of 44 books that pertain to the history of Europe and Germany during the 20th century precede 35 curriculum materials on Germany and Europe since World War II. An extensive directory of resources and useful addresses concludes the reference guide.   [More]  Descriptors: Area Studies, Economics, European History, Foreign Countries

American Bar Association, Chicago, IL. Special Committee on Youth Education for Citizenship. (1988). Liberty: Constitutional Update. Bar/School Partnership Programs Series. This is the first of four special handbooks on constitutional themes. "The Idea of Liberty" (I. Starr) suggests that for teaching purposes, the First Amendment in the Bill of Rights is an excellent operating definition of liberty. "Introducing the First Amendment" (D. Sorenson) is a lesson plan for use with upper elementary and middle school students. "The Bill of Rights" (C. Yeaton; K. Braechel) is a lesson plan designed to introduce that document to students in grades 4-6. "Freedom of Speech" and "Freedom of Speech and Expression" (D. Greenawald) are lesson plans for grades 4-6 and 7-12 respectively, designed to teach students why freedom of speech is important in a democracy. "Come to the First Amendment Fair" (A. Blum) is a lesson plan for secondary students that focuses on the standards that may limit government in the free speech area. "Going beyond Darwin" (M. Croddy) examines legislation and court cases that have influenced what is taught in schools concerning evolution. "The Religious Guarantees" (National Archives), a lesson plan for use with secondary students, examines the two guarantees of the First Amendment that relate to religion. "Our Freedom to Assemble and Associate" (A. Blum), for use in grades 9-12, looks at these freedoms. "It's My Life" (J. D. Bloom), for use in secondary grades, focuses on governmental power. "Historical Foundations of Individual Liberties" (S. Jenkins), for grades 9-12, helps students understand how the historical antecedents of the Bill of Rights affect their daily lives.   [More]  Descriptors: Citizenship Education, Civil Liberties, Class Activities, Constitutional Law

Rust, Val D., Ed.; Yogev, Abraham, Ed. (1994). International Perspectives on Education and Society. Volume 4, Educational Reform in International Perspective. National educational reform must be interpreted from a broader sociopolitical vantage point. Following the introduction, "The Change Process and Educational Reform" by Val D. Rust, the four papers in part 1 are devoted primarily to conceptual issues related to educational reform. They include: (1) "Problems of Educational Reforms in a Changing Society" (Torsten Husen); (2) "Language and History: A Perspective on School Reform Movements" (Sol Cohen); (3) "The Failure of Reform and the Macro-Politics of Education: Notes on a Theoretical Challenge" (Hans N. Weiler); and (4) "Conceptual Issues in 'Educational Reform': Ideology, the State, and the World Economic System" (Mark B. Ginsburg and Susan F. Cooper). The papers in part 2 focus on the role of the state in educational reform: (5) "Australian Education Inc.: The Corporate Reorganization of Public Education in Australia" (Susan L. Robertson); (6) "Educational System Reform as Legitimation for Continuity: The Case of Brazil" (Francis Musa Boakari); (7) "Educational Reform in Postrevolutionary Iran: A Shift in Policy?" (Golnar Mehran); and (8) "The Spirit of Capitalism and School Reform in America" (Abraham Yogev). Articles in part 3 give special attention to eastern Europe: (9) "Educational Reforms and the Discourse of Democracy in Soviet and Post-Communist Education: Evidence from a Meta-Analysis" (Joseph Zajda); and (10) "Reform in Polish Education" (Krzysztof Kruszewski). Finally, papers in the fourth part look at educational reform as a means of national development in the third world: (11) "Two Perspectives on the Role of Education in Development: The World Bank Versus the African View" (Ernestine K. Enomoto); and (12) "Education and Development Policies of India" (Vipula Chaturvedi and Mahesh Chaturvedi). References accompany each chapter. Descriptors: Developed Nations, Developing Nations, Economic Development, Educational Change

Eisenberg, Bonnie (1995). Woman Suffrage Movement: 1848-1920. This unit is designed to be used in a history or government class in grades 5-12. It introduces students to individuals, organizations, and the political processes of the women's suffrage movement. In addition, the guide links past women's organizations to today's womens organizations, and helps students understand political strategies used in campaigning for the suffrage movement. When the goals are reached, students should be able to answer two important questions: what basic beliefs and ideals underlie U.S. democracy? And how can citizens participate in the U.S. political and economic system? The guide begins with a time line of the suffrage movement and the evolution of various organizations. An overview of individuals and organizations that made an impact on the movement is presented. The narrative section is divided into nine chapters, with study questions at the end of each: (1) "Early Beginnings"; (2) "After the Civil War"; (3) "Two Organizations for Women's Rights"; (4) "Slow Progress"; (5) "The Opposition"; (6) "The Campaign for Woman Suffrage in Great Britain"; (7) "New Leadership for the Suffrage Movement"; (8) "The Tide Turns"; and (9) "Lessons and Legacy." Topics for discussion or research and eight classroom activities follow the narrative section. An 11-item list of related curriculum resources concludes the guide along with a 32-item list of general related bibliographic resources. Descriptors: Elementary Secondary Education, Females, Instructional Materials, Social Studies

Margolis, Edwin; Moses, Stanley (1992). The Elusive Quest: The Struggle for Equality of Educational Opportunity. This book is designed as a primer on the politics of the struggle for equal educational opportunity in U.S. public schools through a look at the experience of New York State. It shows how efforts to shrink the gap between rich and poor school districts by adjusting state aid formulas are frustrated largely due to the dictates of political bargaining, legislative compromise, and electoral survival, as well as the failure of legal challenges in the courts. Chapter 1 focuses on the ideal of equal educational opportunity as a central part of U.S. democracy as well as the importance of educational policy due to the key role that schools play in modern society. Chapter 2 traces the long struggle for equality in New York State in all branches and levels of government whose goal has been to create a system of educational finance that would eliminate fiscal input disparities. Chapter 3 analyzes the institutional and political constraints that have prevented the success of equalization efforts even when these efforts seemed to have broad-based support. Chapter 4 traces the issues involved in and the outcomes resulting from attempts to impose through the courts changes that could not be achieved through the political and legislative processes. Chapter 5 presents an analysis of New York State's current conditions that prevail as a result of a high court decision to uphold the legality of the current system of educational finance. Chapter 6 assesses certain basic characteristics of society and the governmental system that have precluded success in achieving equality and why fiscal equalization is now less probable. Descriptors: Affirmative Action, Court Litigation, Court Role, Cultural Influences

Yee, Albert H., Ed. (1995). East Asian Higher Education: Traditions and Transformations. Issues in Higher Education Series. First Edition. This volume contains 15 papers on higher education in 13 East Asian societies as well as the region as a whole, including analysis of leading issues such as tyranny versus democracy and state-funded versus proprietary higher education. Following an editorial by A. H. Yee, the papers include: "The University of Tokyo: The Graduate School Reformation Project" (W. Mori); "Traditionalism versus Research and Development at Japanese Universities" (S. Yamamoto); "Higher Education in Hong Kong" (A. H. Yee); "Comparative Higher Education: Burma and Thailand" (Sunait Chutintaranond and Pracob Cooparat); "Malaysian and Singaporean Higher Education: Common Roots but Differing Directions" (T. G. Lim); "Higher Education in Indonesia: Its Development, Problems and Prospects" (S. Ranuwihardjo);"Development of Islamic Higher Education in Indonesia" (M. Nakamura and S. Nishino); "Higher Education in South and North Korea" (R. Kim and Y. S. Ahn); "Universities and Science in China: New Visibility in the World Community" (R. Hayhoe and W. Zhong); "The Difficult Path Toward an Integrated University and Community College System in Vietnam" (K. B. Do); "Higher Education in Vietnam: Historical Background, Policy, and Prospect" (J. Berlie); "Higher Education Regulation in the Philippines: Issues of Control, Quality Assurance, and Accreditation" (R. P. Cooney and E. Paqueo-Arreza); "Educational Supply and Demand in East Asia: Private Higher Education" (A. H. Yee and T. G. Lim); and "Educational Need and Economic Advancement: The Role of Vocational Education in the Republic of China" (T.  F. Boyd and C. Lee). Most papers contain references. Descriptors: Community Colleges, Comparative Education, Developing Nations, Educational Change

Leue, Mary, Ed. (1997). SKOLE: The Journal of Alternative Education, 1997, SKOLE: The Journal of Alternative Education. The four issues of the journal SKOLE published in 1997 contain articles, personal narratives, and interviews about small alternative schools, home schooling, educational history, the deficiencies of public education, and educational philosophy and innovations. Major articles include: "The Creatures They Are: Children Becoming Their Nature" (about imagination) (Richard Lewis); "Eyeless in Gaza" (about literacy) (John Taylor Gatto); "Notes on My Trip to Waabno Gamaak: Helping To Change a School from an Authoritarian to Democratic Process" (Jerry Mintz); "I Went to Seven Different Elementary Schools" (Arthur Gladstone); "Hanging On at the Edge of the World: Teaching Writing to Urban Special Needs Youth" (Barbara Geis); "Breaking the Silence of Violence: Teaching Our Children New Strategies" (Michael Massurin); "Sharing One Skin" (about the Okanagan Indian community) (Jeannette Armstrong); "So Are You a Teacher, or What?" (Bill Kaul); "Like China in the Bull Shop: Classroom Accidents Waiting To Happen and Downshifting into Boredom" (Robert L. Kastelic, Kathleen McLinn); "Emily's Tree; Imagination and the Soul of Learning" (Richard Lewis); "Competition, Conditioning, and Play" (John Chilton Pearce); "A School Must Have a Heart" (Chris Mercogliano); "Montessori & Steiner: A Pattern of Reverse Symmetries" (Dee Joy Coulter); "On Conflict Resolution" (Bill Kaul); "School Is Bad for Children" (John Holt); "'Partial Vision' in Alternative Education" (Ron Miller); "Impatience" (John Potter); "It Takes a Community" (Sarah Scott); "The Different Drum: Community Making and Peace" (M. Scott Peck); "Why I Believe Attention Deficit Disorder Is a Myth" (Thomas Armstrong); "Elizabeth Byrne Ferm, 1857-1947" (Alexis C. Ferm); "Our Solar-Heated Bio-Dome" (Ted Strunck, Jane Strunck); "Radical Democracy and Our Future: A Call to Action" (John Taylor Gatto); "'Lifelong Learning': A Holistic View" (Nathaniel Needle); and "Receding Yet Again. Then Dissolving into Imaginary Gelatin" (about teaching) (Bill Kaul). This journal also contains poems, student writings, interviews, letters to the editor, and reviews of books and videos.   [More]  Descriptors: Attention Deficit Disorders, Community Schools, Conflict Resolution, Educational History

Kiernan, Henry, Ed.; Pyne, John, Ed. (1993). China and Japan (Theme Issue), The Docket: Journal of the New Jersey Council for the Social Studies. This serial issue is devoted to the theme "China and Japan" and contains six articles that focus on educational, political, and cultural issues in the two Asian countries. In the first article, "China and Japan: A New Era in Relations with the United States," Henry Kiernan and John Pyne provide a brief overview of the history of United States' relations with China and Japan and frame the subsequent articles on issues in the social studies. In the second article, "Acceptance Speech of the Andrew Allen Liberty Award," Fang Lizhi discusses the pursuit of democracy in China. The third article, "China in the Social Studies Curriculum," by Benjamin A. Elman, explores themes of Chinese history prior to 1900 and how they relate to China in the 20th century. The next article by Charles Von Loewenfeldt, "Some Reflections on Building Bridges of Understanding," highlights the impact of former participants in the NCSS fellowship program to Japan on bringing about greater international awareness and understanding in North America and in Japan. In the fifth article, "Resources for Teaching about Japan," Linda S. Wojtan provides information on educational resources available on Japan. The final article by Jane Plenge and Nancy Stephan, "Building an Integrated Curriculum: The Japanese Festival," explains the process of developing an integrated curriculum. A list of New Jersey Council for the Social Studies board of directors for 1993-1994 concludes the issue.   [More]  Descriptors: Cultural Activities, Cultural Awareness, Cultural Interrelationships, Curriculum Development

Skutnabb-Kangas, Tove, Ed.; Phillipson, Robert, Ed. (1995). Linguistic Human Rights: Overcoming Linguistic Discrimination. A collection of essays on linguistic human rights includes: "Combining Immigrant and Autochthonous Language Rights: A Territorial Approach to Multilingualism" (Francois Grin); "On the Limits of Ethnolinguistic Democracy" (Joshua A. Fishman); "Linguistic Human Rights and Educational Policy in Russia" (Alexei A. Leontiev); "Linguistic Human Rights, Past and Present" (Tove Skutnabb-Kangas, Robert Phillipson); "Typology of Language Legislation" (Joseph-G. Turi); "Personal Names and Human Rights" (Bjorn H. Jernudd); "Language Policy in the United States: A History of Cultural Genocide" (Eduardo Hernandez-Chavez); "The Discourse of Disinformation: The Debate on Bilingual Education and Language Rights in the United States" (Jim Cummins); "Beyond Linguistic Policy: The Soviet Union versus Estonia" (Mart Rannut); "Maori Language Rights in New Zealand" (Timoti S. Karetu); "The Sami Language Act" (Ole Henrik Magga); "Australia's Language Policies and Minority Rights: A Core Value Perspective" (J. J. Smolicz); "Combating Educational Disadvantage Among Lebanese Australian Children" (John Gibbons, William White, Pauline Gibbons); "Indigenous Education in Latin America: Policies and Legal Frameworks" (Rainer Enrique Hamel); "Linguistic Rights for Amerindian Peoples in Latin America" (Hamel); "'Minority' Cultures and Their Communication Rights" (Lachman M. Khubchandani); "Kashmiri, a Majority-Minority Language: An Exploratory Essay" (Makhan L. Tickoo); "and "Killing a Mother Tongue–How the Kurds Are Deprived of Linguistic Human Rights" (Skutnabb-Kangas, Sertac Bucak).  Appended are extracts from selected United Nations and regional documents covering linguistic human rights. Contains a consolidated bibliography and an index. Descriptors: Bilingual Education, Civil Liberties, Classification, Democratic Values

Beyer, Landon E.; Liston, Daniel P. (1996). Curriculum in Conflict: Social Visions, Educational Agendas, and Progressive School Reform. The construction and reconstruction of public school and college curricula cannot be understood without an understanding of how they are intimately tied to larger social currents and cross-currents. This book attempts to provide a coherent yet inconclusive synthesis of the progressive tradition that challenges both the curricular status quo and the recent attempts at a conservative restoration. Chapter 1 presents an overview of the field of curriculum studies, examining the central epistemological assumptions and the overriding values that have governed past curriculum debates between the conservative and progressive traditions. The second chapter examines the educational agenda of the new right and the philosophical and normative assumptions that undergird it, with a focus on moral and multicultural education and classical liberal conceptions of the individual, market economics, moral deliberation, and the state. Chapter 3 outlines more progressive educational agendas, particularly those related to revised understandings of democracy and social justice, and their relationship to an altered form of modern liberal consciousness. The fourth chapter focuses on educational critiques motivated by neo-Marxist, feminist, and racial/ethnic scholarship. Central to the radical analysis is an examination of structures of domination in schools and the society at large. Chapter 5 highlights the central tenets of postmodern analyses and points out difficult paradoxes. The sixth chapter suggests alternative ways to conceptualize the nature of freedom, character, and community. It also offers alternative ways to think about work in the United States. Chapter 7 suggests strategies for the progressive renewal of schools and universities, focusing on curriculum debates and issues. An index is included. (Contains 322 references.) Descriptors: Capitalism, Conservatism, Controversial Issues (Course Content), Curriculum

Ladenburg, Thomas; Tegnell, Geoffrey (1990). From Hot to Cold War. SSEC American History Series. This unit for U.S. history classes provides students with the chance to learn about the historical roots of U.S. policy toward the Soviet Union in a lively, informative manner and from a variety of different perspectives. The unit enables students to use their own judgement in selecting, evaluating, and reflecting on the significance of U.S. policies toward the Soviet Union from the 1940s through 1990. The question is posed: under what circumstances should the United States become directly involved in European affairs? The unit begins by asking this question when the preponderance of power in post World War I Europe swung from the victorious Western democracies to dangerous dictatorships that arose in the 1920s and 30s to threaten the world's peace and security. The same question is broached in the context of the Munich Agreement and British requests for arms. Students learn about the major strategic campaigns of the United States and its allies during World War II in Europe, and are given the opportunity to simulate the negotiation of the Yalta Agreement. They use their understanding of those decisions to support traditionalist, revisionist, or conservative schools of thought on Yalta and the break up of the Grand Alliance. The unit next examines how the United States responded politically, socially, and militarily to Japanese actions in World War II. The unit includes information on post World War II Europe and how the balance of power was stabilized by 1950. The unit concludes by attempting to foresee the balance of power in the future. Descriptors: Citizenship Education, Foreign Countries, Foreign Policy, Historiography

Sweeney, Barbara (1984). The Marketplace of Ideas: An Economic Analogy for Freedom of Speech. Noting that the "marketplace of ideas" metaphor often used in the study of freedom of speech is drawn from classical economics, this paper cites J. Murray's definition of the concept as "the idea that citizens in a democracy are well served if opinions of all kinds, accurate or inaccurate, are freely circulated." The first section of the paper traces the historical development of the metaphor, beginning with an examination of the image of truth competing with falsehood that emerged in political argument in the Reformation and later became part of the political language of the American colonies. It then traces this image in the legal language of American courts, pointing out that it was first used in 1919 by a United States Supreme Court justice, who used it as an economic metaphor in a dissenting opinion. The second section of the paper examines the use of the economic metaphor in United States Supreme Court opinions, where it was held that when ideas compete for acceptance, free of regulation, audiences will accept the good (true) ideas and reject the bad (false) ones. The paper argues that Supreme Court justices have also used the metaphor to draw upon a whole structure of economic terms, concluding that although the image is composed of terms that suggest commitment to a laissez-faire principle, its expression as an economic analogy allows the justices to draw upon such concepts as fraud, regulated monopolies, and Gresham's law, which permits both flexibility in decision making and commitment to a shared value. Descriptors: Communication (Thought Transfer), Court Litigation, Economics, Freedom of Speech

Ervin, Gerard L., Ed.; And Others (1990). Realizing the Potential of Foreign Language Instruction. Selected Papers from the 1990 Central States Conference (22nd, St. Paul/Minneapolis, Minnesota, 1990). Selected papers from the conference on the future of second language teaching include: "Reasons for Shame, Reasons for Pride: Foreign Languages and Democracy in America" (Mary Hatwood Futrell); "Present's Tense but Future's Perfect: A Twenty-First Century Case for Foreign Language" (Alan Garfinkel, Holly Schrank); "Integrating a Foreign Language into the Pre-K through Grade 5 Program: The Baker Model" (Paula K. Strupeck, Ann P. Watson); "FLEX: A Golden Opportunity for Motivating Students for Foreign Language Study" (Aleidine J. Moeller); "Enhancing the Learning of Foreign Languages at the Middle School Level" (Keiko K. Samimy, Elizabeth B. Bernhardt); "Staff Development for the FLES Teacher: Networking to Make It Happen" (Audrey L. Heining-Boynton); "To Articulate or Not To Articulate: Is That the Question?" (O. Lynn Bolton, Diana E. Bartley, Anthony Ciccone, Karen Weiss); "The Practical Alternative: Testing the Reading Comprehension of Large Numbers of Students with a Multiple-Choice Proficiency Test" (Christine M. Campbell); "Global Assessment of Writing Proficiency" (Claus Reschke); "The Roman Empire from Cradle to Graves: Using 'I, Claudius' in the Latin Language or Roman Civilization Course" (Jeffrey L. Buller). Appended materials include the American Council on the Teaching of Foreign Languages (ACTFL) proficiency guidelines, the Interagency Language Roundtable language skill level descriptions, and a comparison of government and ACTFL rating scales.   [More]  Descriptors: Articulation (Education), Cultural Education, Democratic Values, Educational Improvement

GAUERKE, WARREN E.; GREEN, DONALD R. (1959). IF THE SCHOOLS ARE CLOSED, A CRITICAL ANALYSIS OF THE PRIVATE SCHOOL PLAN. UNDERLYING THE DISCUSSION OF SHIFTING FROM A PUBLIC TO A PRIVATE SCHOOL BASE IN AN EFFORT TO AVOID DESEGREGATION ARE CERTAIN VALUES AND PRINCIPLES–MORAL, POLITICAL, AND EDUCATIONAL. THE FIRST PRINCIPLE IS THAT, IN A DEMOCRACY, THERE ARE NO SUPERIOR PERSONS DUE TO CLASS OR ETHNIC DISTINCTIONS. THE SECOND IS THAT THE CONSTITUTION OF THE UNITED STATES AS INTERPRETED BY THE COURTS IS THE LAW OF THE LAND AND MUST BE RESPECTED. THIRD, IT IS ASSUMED THAT THE STATE IS THE KEY TO EDUCATIONAL DEVELOPMENT IN AMERICA, EDUCATION IS BASICALLY A STATE RESPONSIBILITY RATHER THAN A LOCAL OBLIGATION. THE KEY TO THE SYSTEM OF PUBLIC EDUCATION IS THE RIGHT TO TAX FOR PUBLIC SCHOOLS AND TO COMPEL CITIZENS TO PAY TAXES. FINALLY, PUBLIC FUNDS AND PROPERTY MUST BE APPROPRIATED OR USED SOLELY FOR THE BENEFIT OF PUBLIC SCHOOLS, NOT FOR THE AID OF ANY PRIVATE, PAROCHIAL, OR SECTARIAN SCHOOL. THIS CONSIDERATION INVOLVES THE PRINCIPLE OF SEPARATION OF CHURCH AND STATE. THE FACTS DEMONSTRATE THAT A SYSTEM OF PRIVATE SCHOOLS, IN A MIXED SOCIETY SUCH AS EXISTS IN MUCH OF THE SOUTH, IS UNWORKABLE–LEGALLY, SOCIALLY, AND ECONOMICALLY. AMONG THE PRACTICAL OBSTACLES TO A TUITION GRANT PROGRAM FOR PRIVATE SCHOOLS ARE–FINANCIAL DIFFICULTIES ARISING FROM LOSS OF FEDERAL FUNDS AND FUNDS FROM MANY OTHER SOURCES, LOSS OF VARIETY IN THE PROGRAMS OFFERED STUDENTS, THE PROBLEM OF ACCREDITATION STANDARDS, THE PROBLEM OF DECIDING WHERE RESPONSIBILITY REGARDING SCHOOL POLICIES WILL LIE, AND THE UNAVAILABILITY OF PROFESSIONAL HELP OF STATE EDUCATION DEPARTMENTS TO SOLVE PROBLEMS OF SCHOOL ORGANIZATION. IF A TUITION-GRANT SYSTEM REPLACES PUBLIC EDUCATION, THE COST OF EDUCATION WILL INCREASE TREMENDOUSLY. AT PRESENT SCHOOL BUDGETS, THOUSANDS OF CHILDREN WOULD BE DENIED SCHOOLING. ALL BUT A FEW WOULD GET MARKEDLY INFERIOR EDUCATION. Descriptors: Educational Finance, Educational Problems, Equal Education, Private Schools

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *