Author Archives: J

Bibliography: Democracy (page 498 of 605)

This annotated bibliography is curated specifically for the I'm with Jill website.  Some of the authors featured on this page include Mark A. Pike, Kristan A. Morrison, Allan Ornstein, Tom Deans, Thomas Alexander, David Mathews, Rani Rubdy, Elizabeth Meadows, William Gaudelli, and Katherine Blatchford.

Marri, Anand R. (2009). Creating Citizens: Lessons in Relationships, Personal Growth, and Community in One Secondary Social Studies Classroom, Multicultural Perspectives. This article presents findings from a study examining how a secondary social studies teacher used curriculum and pedagogy to help racially/ethnically diverse students from low socioeconomic backgrounds build community to become active citizens with the capacity for democratic living. In particular, the article discusses his emphasis on critical thinking, building of community, and thorough disciplinary content. The resulting pedagogy, Classroom-based Multicultural Democratic Education (CMDE), is a re-conceptualization of democratic education that has the potential to help teachers transform a racially/ethnically diverse politically disengaged student population into an active democratic citizenry.   [More]  Descriptors: Democracy, Social Studies, Citizenship Education, Multicultural Education

Deans, Tom (2009). Richard Rorty's Social Hope and Community Literacy, Community Literacy Journal. This essay explores how the philosophical tradition of American pragmatism, especially Richard Rorty's work on social hope late in his career, could be relevant to community literacy. Pragmatism does not prescribe a particular approach to community literacy but, unlike many kinds of critical pedagogy, affirms a role for patriotism and liberalism in social change movements. Pragmatists such as Rorty prefer cooperative participation and incremental reform to either idealism or ideological critique.   [More]  Descriptors: Critical Theory, Educational Philosophy, Social Justice, Patriotism

Goldberg, Merryl (2009). Solitary Confinement in Education, Arts Education Policy Review. Arts Education is, technically, core to the school curriculum according to federal mandates and certain state mandates. However, it is rarely made accessible to all students despite earnest advocating on the part of dedicated organizations and individuals. In order for a democratic society to function successfully, its members must be invested and participate. The arts and physical education are two curricula areas that have close ties to democratic practices and principles. The arts and physical education teach students much more than disciplinary content. They teach lessons that enable students to look at their world with a more complex lens by building critical thinking skills, and they engage students in learning how to play well together, to be team players, to be responsible, and to take risks. Unfortunately, they are also the two key curricular areas that are often cut back or eliminated from schools. Test taking and worksheet assignments are solitary activity, and teachers are devoting more and more of class time to this individual practice. In this article, the author contends that in order to revive the essence of education as preparation for an engaged citizenry, school leaders must begin to review how current practices such as attention to scoring well on tests have undermined rather than supported learning in the context of citizenry.   [More]  Descriptors: Art Education, Access to Education, Democratic Values, Citizenship Education

Scarlett, Michael H. (2009). Imagining a World beyond Genocide: Teaching about Transitional Justice, Social Studies. The study of the ways in which societies emerging from violent conflict and repressive regimes achieve peace and reconciliation through forms of transitional justice, such as truth commissions, tribunals, systems of reparations, and memorialization of the past, offers an opportunity for secondary social studies teachers to address issues of human rights in a positive and humanizing way. In this article, the author provides a rationale for including the study of transitional justice in the secondary social studies curriculum along with suggestions for teaching it. He argues that the study of transitional justice presents opportunities for students to become morally inclusive in their thinking, engage in global democratic citizenship, and study critically important current events unfolding in their world.   [More]  Descriptors: Current Events, Democracy, Death, Educational Opportunities

Pike, Mark A. (2009). Religious Freedom and Rendering to Caesar: Reading Democratic and Faith-Based Values in Curriculum, Pedagogy and Policy, Oxford Review of Education. In this article I synthesise and apply elements of political and reading theory to demonstrate how central themes in learners' lives (such as freedom, faith, autonomy, equality, rationality and rights) can be read and interpreted differently. I suggest that policy and pedagogy for citizenship and democratic education informed by research into reader response can shift the locus of control not simply from state to citizen but towards an understanding of the transaction between the two. To promote ethical participation I propose changes to the "text" of the curriculum and the "reading" stance of learners so that learners are liberated to bring legitimate moral and religious conviction to their readings of state-sponsored values. I conclude that young citizens are respected and freedom is protected when educational readings become more nuanced and move beyond the polarities of freedom and restraint, autonomy and heteronomy, public and private, aesthetic and efferent, faith and reason, secular and religious or even democratic and faith-based.   [More]  Descriptors: Role of Education, Citizenship Education, Reader Response, Educational Theories

Alexander, Thomas (2009). The Music in the Heart, the Way of Water, and the Light of a Thousand Suns: A Response to Richard Shusterman, Crispin Sartwell, and Scott Stroud, Journal of Aesthetic Education. This is a critical response to the papers by Shusterman, Sartwell, and Stroud. I claim that Shusterman has missed the inter-human moral aesthetics of Confucianism, that Sartwell has misunderstood Taoism's idea of "receptivity," confusing it with anarchist "passivity," and Stroud has not overcome the "Gita's" injunction to sacrifice the self, which vitiates the idea of using its worldview for personal aesthetic ends. In other words, all impose Western values and concepts on Asian philosophy. (Contains 47 notes.) [For referenced papers by Stroud, Shusterman, and Sartwell, see EJ825831, EJ825832 and EJ825833, respectively.]   [More]  Descriptors: Aesthetics, Moral Values, Social Values, Philosophy

Ornstein, Allan (2009). Class Counts: An Overview and Response to Mr. Cooper's Review, Education and Urban Society. This article presents Allan Ornstein's response to highly respected scholar, Bruce Cooper's review of Ornstein's 2007 book, "Class Counts: Education, Inequality and the Shrinking Middle Class." Here Ornstein attempts to elaborate on a few points that he felt Cooper missed in his review.   [More]  Descriptors: Middle Class, Social Class, Social Influences, Socioeconomic Status

Rubdy, Rani (2009). Reclaiming the Local in Teaching EIL, Language and Intercultural Communication. This article examines three critical issues relating to the role of culture in teaching English as an international language (EIL): Firstly, the way in which top-down processes of globalisation, accompanied by the widespread desire for English in many former colonial countries, have in general fostered the negative effects of dominance, divisiveness and difference in world social relations, resulting in the suppression and devaluation of local forms of knowledge and practice. Secondly, the way in which shifts of ownership and authority to non-native speakers and their varieties of English in combination more recently with global cultural flows, have created the need for reconceiving English as a pluralised global language, informed by local norms, functions and practices, reflecting a fluid and multiple cultural base. Lastly, it explores the way in which an ecological approach to English language teaching, which is oriented to "globalisation from below" (Appadurai, 2000; Canagarajah, 2005), and which opens up a dialogical relationship between the global and the local, might help speakers in ex-colonial settings to reclaim their local identity and voice and thus realise the potential of globalisation to construct more inclusive, democratic relationships.   [More]  Descriptors: Holistic Approach, Native Speakers, English (Second Language), Second Language Instruction

Morrison, Kristan A. (2009). Making Teacher Education More Democratic: Incorporating Student Voice and Choice, Part Two, Educational Horizons. This article describes an action-research project in which the author sought to enact her philosophy of democratic education. A brief discussion of this philosophy along with its pitfalls and promises is followed by details of the author's attempt to co-construct a graduate education course with her students. The article concludes with reflections on what the author would do differently in the future and why democratic and other models of education are so necessary in teacher education programs.   [More]  Descriptors: Graduate Study, Education Courses, Teacher Education Programs, Democracy

Gaudelli, William; Heilman, Elizabeth (2009). Reconceptualizing Geography as Democratic Global Citizenship Education, Teachers College Record. Background: Geography education typically appears in school curricula in a didactic or disciplinary manner. Yet, both the didactic and the disciplinary approach to geography education lack a serious engagement with society, politics, and power, or democratic theory. We suggest, from Dewey, that most students, the social studies, and indeed society are not well served by these approaches, particularly as we confront global challenges that demand geographic knowledge and insight. Purpose: We propose that geography can and should reflect the interests of students and society and thus be what Dewey calls psychologized through a democratic vision of global citizenship education (GCE). Toward that end, we develop a typology of global education to identify those types most congruent with democratic citizenship (cosmopolitan, environmental, and critical justice) and those less congruent (disciplinary, neoliberal, and human relations). Drawing on our typology, we show how GCE can be a point of synthesis in practice, bringing together global education and reconstituted geographic knowledge. Research Design: The method of this article is a secondary analysis of literature in democratic theory, global citizenship education, and geography education that synthesizes points of overlap. Conclusions: Based on this analysis, we recommend that geography curriculum should be remade within a vision similar to GCE so that space and place can be socially understood.   [More]  Descriptors: Geography Instruction, Global Education, Citizenship, Democracy

Robertson, Emily (2009). Teacher Education in a Democratic Society, Teacher Education and Practice. Members of a democratic polity should be prepared to participate in the practices of democratic governance if they are fully to enjoy their rights as citizens and discharge their civic responsibilities. This article highlights three fundamental practices of democratic life: (1) the capacity for deliberation with others about matters of public concern; (2) it must be granted that citizens do not always reach agreement, even given the best intentions; and (3) democratic citizens bear a special responsibility for promoting greater social justice. It also discusses the role of schooling in developing democratic practices and how teachers can be prepared to support the development of democratic practices in their classrooms. The author concludes that teachers must be prepared to establish a classroom culture in which students can acquire the knowledge, skills, and virtues required to participate in the practices of democratic life, which means that teachers themselves must acquire the capacities and commitments required for deliberation, negotiation, and social activism.   [More]  Descriptors: Citizen Participation, Citizenship Responsibility, Conflict Resolution, Democracy

Kim, Jiwon (2009). Dewey's Aesthetics and Today's Moral Education, Education and Culture. This article opens by raising a need to examine today's moral education for a new century. John Dewey insists that "arts are educative," so that "they open the door to an expansion of meaning and to an enlarged capacity to experience the world." This insight retains remarkable implications for today's moral education. Aesthetic experience is holistic, taking one to a deeper understanding and more enjoyable appreciation and investigation of everything that goes into human meaning making, regardless of whether it is artistic or not. For Dewey, education needs aesthetic elements such as responsiveness, an emotional reaction supplying a delicacy and quickness of recognition, sensitiveness, and susceptibility. Dewey also states that the individual has a natural tendency to react in such an emotional way, but this natural disposition requires cultivation, and aesthetic experience affords the training of an emotional reaction and responsiveness. First, the author explores Dewey's aesthetic theory in relation to moral education. Then, she addresses what difference the characteristics inherent to aesthetic experience–feelings and emotions, imagination, and embodiment–make in moral education for a new century.   [More]  Descriptors: Ethical Instruction, Aesthetics, Moral Values, Values Education

Meadows, Elizabeth; Blatchford, Katherine (2009). Achieving Widespread, Democratic Education in the United States Today: Dewey's Ideas Reconsidered, Education and Culture. Excellent, democratic education that furthers each person's potential, success and happiness for her own and others' well-being is not yet widespread in the U.S. today. Dewey's The Public and Its Problems has much to say about the possibilities and challenges of achieving this goal. This paper examines Dewey's ideas about how a public for widespread, excellent education can form through the development of sound public opinion based on widely disseminated, accurate and relevant information and through the restructuring of associations among people. The crucial role of the educator in the formation of a public emerges through this examination.   [More]  Descriptors: Democracy, Democratic Values, Social Change, Social Justice

Peng, Hongmei (2009). Toward Inclusion and Human Unity: Rethinking Dewey's Democratic Community, Education and Culture. In this article, the author digs into John Dewey's writings to explore his democratic community to better understand the meaning and the value of community. The author begins by considering the connotation of the concept "community," which is distinguished from the more popular term "society" used in ordinary language. Then the author transitions from the discussion of the term itself to the key principles that help sustain a democratic community followed by an examination of the issues of conflict, harmony, and power. The educational implications are explored at the end of the article. The author's discussion of community does not claim the sovereignty of community, which means communal goals take priority over individual goals. Rather, the author believes individuals and community are of equal importance and reflect two sides of the same reality. Dewey elaborates this inseparable and codependent human relationship in his "ethical postulate." In the pursuit of self-development, one needs to discard the split of private/public or individual/social. The author shares Dewey's position that self-development always involves a social medium, development of the social environment, and vice versa.   [More]  Descriptors: Democratic Values, Social Environment, Educational Philosophy, Democracy

Mathews, David (2009). Ships Passing in the Night?, Journal of Higher Education Outreach and Engagement. Marguerite Shaffer, director of American Studies at Miami University, is one of a surprisingly large number of faculty members who are at odds with an academic culture that isn't hospitable to their efforts to combine a public life with a scholarly career. She is concerned about what is happening in her field and about the world her two children will inherit. The Shaffers of academe are one of the forces driving a civic engagement movement on campuses across the country. Not so long ago, the civic education of college students was of little concern. Now, thanks to educators like Shaffer, that indifference is giving way. Leadership programs are common, and students are taught civic skills, including civil dialogue. Faculty, who were once "sages on the stage," have learned to be more effective in communities by being "guides on the side." All in all, there is much to admire in the civic engagement movement on campuses. Another civic engagement movement is occurring off campus. People at the Kettering Foundation have seen it clearly in communities on the Gulf Coast that are recovering from Hurricane Katrina. They have combined what they learned from several communities into a fictional composite in order to report from across the region. In this article, the author discusses this off-campus civic movement by illustrating the story of "Don" and his wife "Mary" and their neighbors in their goal of restoring their community and their way of life after the Hurricane Katrina disaster.   [More]  Descriptors: Natural Disasters, Citizenship Education, Faculty, Citizen Participation

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Bibliography: Democracy (page 497 of 605)

This annotated bibliography is reformatted and customized for the I'm with Jill website.  Some of the authors featured on this page include Kathy Bickmore, Mary Pat MacKinnon, Les Voakes, Sarah Barton, Willem H. Vanderburg, Richard Hatcher, Tonette S. Rocco, Arife Figen Ersoy, Ken Williams, and Christina Parker.

Ersoy, Arife Figen (2014). Active and Democratic Citizenship Education and Its Challenges in Social Studies Classrooms, Eurasian Journal of Educational Research. Problem Statement: Turkey's passive and task-oriented approach to citizenship education, which has endured since the Ottoman Empire period, has begun to change into more active and democratic citizenship education since Turkey joined the European Union. Identifying the practical problems as well as describing the challenges when practicing the Social Studies curriculum will contribute to citizenship education and its development, both in Turkey and in similar countries. Purpose of Study: The purpose of the present study is to explore the active and democratic citizenship education procedures in Social Studies course in Turkey and to determine the challenges encountered in active citizenship education. Methodology: The study was conducted using a holistic, multiple-case study design. Data were collected through interviews, classroom observations and documents. In this study, extreme or deviant case sampling was used. The study was conducted in two schools: a state school with a low socioeconomic background and a private school with high socioeconomic background. A total of six volunteer teachers and 30 students from both of the schools participated in the study. Findings: The study found that the citizenship perceptions, political views and educational backgrounds of the teachers had an effect on the citizenship education in their lessons. Furthermore, the age, maturity level, gender and social environment of the students had an effect on implementing citizenship education. Also, the test-centered educational system, traditional school organizations and culture, and the relevant legislations and regulations limited the ability of teachers to handle political issues and had negative effects on citizenship education. Discussion and Recommendation: The findings of the present study revealed that the students' task-based and passive perception of citizenship did not demonstrate any change at the beginning and end of the Social Studies course. The findings from this study suggest that, in general, citizenship education in Social Studies courses tends to offer, in part, a set of social moral values that focus more on theory and exams and lack opportunities for practice. At the end of this course, students are raised as apolitical citizens with low political literacy who lack effective thinking and participation skills. Therefore, teachers should be trained in active citizenship education, democratic school culture should be developed and the relevant legislations should be readjusted to provide teachers with more freedom in their academic concerns along with active citizenship education.   [More]  Descriptors: Foreign Countries, Citizenship Education, Democratic Values, Democracy

Berdahl, Robert M. (2009). Research Universities: Their Value to Society Extends Well Beyond Research, Association of American Universities. A recent ranking undertaken by Jiao Tong University in Shanghai shows 36 U.S universities among the top 50 universities in the world, with eight of the top 10 in the United States. Author Fareed Zakaria has declared: "[H]igher education is the United States' best industry. In no other field is the United States' advantage so overwhelming. Although China and India are opening new institutions, it is not that easy to create a world-class university out of whole cloth in a few decades." America's lead may be less secure than Zakaria suggests. Neither the University of California, San Diego (ranked 13th) nor the University of California, Santa Barbara (ranked 35th) existed 50 years ago. China, at least, is pouring substantial resources into building a number of world-class research universities, while oil-rich Saudi Arabia is intent on building a research university in the next few years to equal the best universities anywhere. The competitive advantage the United States currently enjoys is obvious, but retaining it cannot be taken for granted; the support from state governments for their "flagship" public universities and the partnership between research universities and the federal government must be renewed and enhanced if America's lead is to be sustained.   This paper attempts to describe the importance of research universities to education and science and to society more broadly.   [More]  Descriptors: Research Universities, College Role, Scientific Research, Public Policy

Farmer, Tod Allen (2009). Preparing Pluralistic Urban Superintendents, International Journal of Educational Leadership Preparation. The United Nations projects that the United States will have the highest migration rates of any nation in the world between 2000 and 2050. As American society becomes increasingly diverse, it is paramount that superintendent preparation programs produce pluralistic urban superintendents capable of synergistically energizing an increasingly heterogeneous work force. Inherent in this charge is the egalitarian approach to graduate program design. Pluralistic leadership development is premised upon egalitarian principles that transcend individual cultural norms. Graduate programs seeking to enhance pluralistic leadership development must permeate egalitarianism through the amalgamation of both acquiescence and expectation. Students must feel welcomed into the pluralistic professional learning community yet be simultaneously challenged by the high expectations of a progressive superintendent preparation program.   [More]  Descriptors: Urban Schools, Student Diversity, Cultural Pluralism, Superintendents

Ranson, Stewart (2008). The Changing Governance of Education, Educational Management Administration & Leadership. The 1988 Education Reform Act sought to deconstruct the framework of post-Second World War social democratic governance and replace the tacit rule of professional providers with mechanisms of choice and market competition, thus empowering parents and school leaders. Functions, powers and responsibilities were fundamentally reconstituted and have transformed the governance of education. New Labour, when it came to power in 1997, did not alter but extended the practices of this neo-liberal polity. Now, within the frame of this regime, a new re-constitution of the governance of education may be emerging: schools, colleges and agencies are encouraged not to compete, but to collaborate in creating a community of practice with families. Two modes of governance are developing in parallel. This article concludes that only a wider reconstituting of the public sphere, one that restricts the power that the advantaged are accruing from the education market place, can enable very different purposes of learning, and conditions necessary for a cosmopolitan civic society to emerge.   [More]  Descriptors: Democracy, Governance, Educational Change, Educational Legislation

Voakes, Les (2003). Listening to the Experts, New Directions for Evaluation. Describes a partnership of youth and adults in Ontario, Canada in the generative process of participatory evaluation as youth and adults jointly produced a conference as a participatory evaluation and worked as democratic equals toward a common goal. Descriptors: Adults, Democracy, Evaluation Methods, Program Evaluation

Barton, Sarah; Hatcher, Richard (2014). The Consequences of the Trojan Horse Affair and a Possible Way Forward for Birmingham, FORUM: for promoting 3-19 comprehensive education. The UK government seized the opportunity of the Trojan Horse affair to launch a damaging Islamophobic attack, eagerly relayed by a racist press, on the Muslim community in Birmingham and beyond, abusing Ofsted and the Prevent strategy as blatant instruments of ideologically-driven policy. The various reports found no evidence of radicalisation or extremism but did find evidence of governance malpractice in some schools, informed by conservative Muslim views and enabled by the lack of local accountability of governing bodies as a result of the government's policies of academy autonomy and disempowered local authorities. The debate now is focused on moving forward, and this article ends by proposing that a Children's Zone approach offers a strategy which ensures that the community is centrally involved in a new democratic partnership.   [More]  Descriptors: Islamic Culture, Islam, Muslims, Evidence

Williams, Ken (2009). A Future of Leadership Development, Academy for Educational Development. Leadership and leadership development are popular topics today. Concurrent with the construction of leadership theory, leadership development has emerged as a practice, with programs, consultants, reports, and networking opportunities proliferating. Given the reality of limited resources, it is critical that investments in and approaches to leadership development are built on a foundation of knowledge, curiosity, empathy, and passion for meaningful change that is based on value. Ultimately, leadership development is about getting opportunities and resources to people who can contribute, in inspiring ways, to the success of organizations, communities, fields, nation, world, and species. It is an engaging process that blends both art and science with hope. In this essay the author talks about how leadership development is a way to catalyze personal growth and structural change, through a set of opportunities and challenges, a support system, and enriching companionship. When practiced with care, leadership development and its associated support are the gifts that keep on giving, when ideas and programs fall to the wayside, and the beauty of human dignity is cherished all the more. Appendices include: (1) Frameworks for Reflective Practices; and (2) Key Sources of Power. (Contains 36 endnotes.) [For the supplement report, "A Short Supplement to A Future of Leadership Development," see ED520169.]   [More]  Descriptors: Leadership Training, Human Dignity, Empathy, Leadership

Camicia, Steven P. (2009). Identifying Soft Democratic Education: Uncovering the Range of Civic and Cultural Choices in Instructional Materials, Social Studies. Although student deliberation of public issues is recognized as a vital component of democratic education, little research focuses on the range of perspectives available to students during such deliberation. Social justice and legitimacy demand a wide range of inclusion, choices, and perspectives during student deliberation. This article contrasts soft versus deliberative democratic education, where the range of perspectives is correspondingly narrow or broad. Unfortunately, research shows that social studies textbooks promote soft democratic education by privileging dominant cultural representations, ideologies, and metanarratives of American exceptionality. This article presents content analysis as a method for identifying the range of civic and cultural perspectives in curricula. Once these perspectives are identified, social studies educators can revise curricula to increase inclusion and strengthen student deliberation. To illustrate this method, the author examines two sets of instructional materials. While on opposite opposite sides of the ideological spectrum, the sets are similar in their narrow range of perspectives concerning controversial public issues.   [More]  Descriptors: Social Justice, Textbooks, Democracy, Citizenship Education

Bickmore, Kathy; Parker, Christina (2014). Constructive Conflict Talk in Classrooms: Divergent Approaches to Addressing Divergent Perspectives, Theory and Research in Social Education. Dialogue about social and political conflicts is a key element of democratic citizenship education that is frequently advocated in scholarship but rarely fully implemented, especially in classrooms populated by ethnically and economically heterogeneous students. Qualitative case studies describe the contrasting ways 2 primary and 2 middle-grade teachers in urban Canadian public schools infused conflict dialogue pedagogies into their implemented curricula. These lessons, introducing conflict communication skills and/or content knowledge embodying conflicting viewpoints as learning opportunities, actively engaged a wide range of students. At the same time, even these purposively selected teachers did "not" often facilitate sustained, inclusive, critical, and imaginative exchange or deliberation about heartfelt disagreements, nor did they probe the diversity and equity questions surrounding these issues. The case studies illustrate a democratic education dilemma: Even in the classrooms of skilled and committed teachers, opportunities for recognition of contrasting perspectives and discussion of social conflicts may not necessarily develop into sustained democratic dialogue nor interrupt prevailing patterns of disengagement and inequity.   [More]  Descriptors: Conflict, Democracy, Citizenship Education, Urban Schools

MacKinnon, Mary Pat (2008). Talking Politics, Practicing Citizenship, Education Canada. The message emerging from a recent research series on youth civic and political participation is clear: today's youth are not disengaged from associational and small "p" political life, but they are increasingly disenchanted with formal political institutions and practices. Generation Y (those born after 1979) has less formal political knowledge than previous generations and is highly suspicious of political spin and insincerity. Despite being the most educated generation in Canadian history, many of them don't grasp how governments and political institutions work nor do they understand the impact of politics on their everyday lives. The decline in formal political participation, including voting, is complex and cannot be explained by any single theory. The evidence points to an interconnected and overlapping web of factors, including generational effects, socio-economic circumstances, changes in socialization patterns, decline in deference, devaluing of the public sphere and "politics", disenchantment with political practices and institutions, failure of political institutions to reach out to youth and attend to their needs and expectations, the pervasive influence of Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) on all facets of youth life, low levels of political efficacy, and declining political literacy. This article focuses on one piece, albeit pivotal, of the civic and political health puzzle: the role of the education system in preparing young people for active citizenship. Civic (or citizenship as it is also called) education remains a singularly important and effective institution to address gaps and deficits in political knowledge and skills. It plays an important role in preparing youth to undertake the public responsibilities and rights associated with democratic citizenship.   [More]  Descriptors: Citizenship, Democracy, Citizenship Education, Politics

Korkmaz, H. Eylem; Erden, Münire (2014). A Delphi Study: The Characteristics of Democratic Schools, Journal of Educational Research. The authors aim to identify characteristics of democratic schools. The Delphi technique used in this study is based on attaining a consensus among a group of experts over 3 rounds with 22 experts from 9 countries participating in the first round. By the end of the third round, 339 items referring to democratic school characteristics were identified, categorized into values and philosophy, collaborative learning organization, founding process, decision-making model, policy forming, curriculum, learner, teaching staff, nonteaching staff, relations, physical properties, and financial resource management. The result shows that every single category bears importance in creating a democratic school.   [More]  Descriptors: Delphi Technique, Institutional Characteristics, Democracy, Democratic Values

Slater, Robert O. (2008). American Teachers: What Values Do They Hold?, Education Next. In a liberal-democratic society there is always a desire to separate the teaching of values from the teaching of reading, writing, and mathematics, the so-called value-neutral subjects. But teachers have learned–and every parent who has done homework with his child knows–that, like it or not, they teach values in the course of teaching these subjects. They teach, for example, the value of hard work, of doing things that you might not like, of persevering in the face of difficulty, of listening to and respecting the efforts of adults, of self-initiated effort, of postponement of gratification, and of meeting deadlines. All of these simple lessons are moral instruction, lessons about what is important and about what ought to be taken seriously. So even if what they teach is value-neutral, teachers' and parents' teaching–by the manner in which they do it and the nature of their interactions in the course of it–conveys messages to children about how they should regard themselves, consider others, and meet their obligations. During the course of the 2005-06 school year, each teacher spent upward of 1,260 hours working with the nation's 54 million elementary and secondary school students. It would seem useful to know something about the values they hold. Where do America's elementary and secondary school teachers stand on freedom of speech, family values, and economic inequality, for example? What do they believe about religion and human nature? The short answer to these questions is that no one knows. To get a better sense of teachers' values, one can turn to the National Opinion Research Center's (NORC) General Social Survey, one of the largest, most reliable, and frequently used data sets in the social sciences. It is an almost-annual, national sample of Americans in which one can find demographic information and information on teachers' values from 1972 to 2006.   [More]  Descriptors: Ethical Instruction, Freedom of Speech, Democracy, Social Sciences

Beaudoin, Nelson (2008). The Magic Is in the Students, Principal Leadership. Educators who search for ways to engage students often forget that the magic is really inside them–not educators themselves, as Keith Harvie's poem "Wizard" illustrates. After more than three decades of trying to improve the students' educational experience in the schools where the author has worked, he has come to believe that the answer lies within students. Elevating student voice and creating a democratic school pay off in student satisfaction and academic performance. When student input is encouraged and valued in a democratic environment, students are more involved, more satisfied, and more academically successful. Here, the author discusses how to foster student voice and to promote student relevance.   [More]  Descriptors: Student Attitudes, Educational Experience, Educational Change, High School Students

Mizzi, Robert C., Ed.; Rocco, Tonette S., Ed.; Shore, Sue, Ed. (2016). Disrupting Adult and Community Education: Teaching, Learning, and Working in the Periphery, SUNY Press. This groundbreaking book critiques the boundaries of where adult education takes place through a candid examination of teaching, learning, and working practices in the social periphery. Lives in this context are diverse and made through complex practices that take place in the shadows of formal systems: on streetscapes and farms, in vehicles and homes, and through underground networks. Educators may be family members, friends, or colleagues, and the curriculum may be based on needs, interests, histories, and cultural practices. The case studies presented here analyze adult education in the lives of sex workers, LGBTQ activists, undocumented migrants, disabled workers, homeless youth, immigrants, inmates, and others. Focusing on learning at the social margins, this book challenges readers to reconceptualize local, national, and transnational adult education practices in light of neoliberalism and globalization. Following the introduction, Starting Somewhere: Troubling Perspectives of Periphery and Center in Adult and Community Education (Robert C. Mizzi, Sue Shore, and Tonette S. Rocco), this book contains the following chapters: (1) Lifelong Learning as Critical Action for Sexual and Gender Minorities as a Constituency of the Learner Fringe (André P. Grace); (2) Youth Development in Context: Housing Instability, Homelessness, and Youth "Work" (Naomi Nichols); (3) A Synergy of Understanding: Intimidation Technologies and Situated Learning in United States and Jamaican Prisons (Joshua C. Collins, Lincoln D. Pettaway, Chaundra L. Whitehead, and Steve J. Rios); (4) Listen Carefully, Act Thoughtfully: Exploring Sex Work as an Adult Education Context (Shannon Deer and Dominique T. Chlup); (5) Using Democratic Deliberation in an Internationalization Effort in Higher Education (Hilary Landorf and Eric Feldman); (6) Beyond Death Threats, Hard Times, and Clandestine Work: Illuminating Sexual and Gender Minority Resources in a Global Context (Robert C. Mizzi, Robert Hill, and Kim Vance); (7) Invisible Women: Education, Employment, and Citizenship of Women with Disabilities in Bangladesh (Shuchi Karim); (8) Moving Beyond Employability Risks and Redundancies: New Microenterprise and Entrepreneurial Possibilities in Chile (Carlos A. Albornoz and Tonette S. Rocco); (9) Shopping at Pine Creek: Rethinking Both-Ways Education through the Context of Remote Aboriginal Australian Ranger Training (Matthew Campbell and Michael Christie); (10) Vocational Teacher Education in Australia and the Problem of Racialized Hope (Sue Shore); (11) Unauthorized Migrant Workers: (L)Earning a Life in Canada (Susan M. Brigham); (12) Shifting the Margins: Learning, Knowledge Production, and Social Action in Migrant and Immigrant Worker Organizing (Aziz Choudry); (13) Making the Invisible Visible: The Politics of Recognition in Recognizing Immigrant's International Credentials and Work Experience (Shibao Guo); (14) How Welcome Are We?: Immigrants as Targets of Uncivil Behavior (Fabiana Brunetta and Thomas G. Reio, Jr.); (15) The Sputnik Moment in the Twenty-First Century: America, China, and the Workforce of the Future (Peter Kell and Marilyn Kell); (16) Radical International Adult Education: A Pedagogy of Solidarity (Bob Boughton); (17) From Generation to Generation: Teaching Adults to Teach about the Holocaust (Mark J. Webber with Michael Brown); (18) Study Abroad Programs, International Students, and Global Citizenship: Colonial-Colonizer Relations in Global Higher Education (Korbla P. Puplampu and Lindsay Wodinski); and (19) Teaching, Learning, and Working in the Periphery: Provocations for Researchers and Practitioners (Sue Shore, Robert C. Mizzi, and Tonette S. Rocco). An index is included. [Foreword by John Field.]   [More]  Descriptors: Adult Education, Lifelong Learning, Sexuality, Occupations

Vanderburg, Willem H. (2009). The Antieconomy Hypothesis (Part 2): Theoretical Roots, Bulletin of Science, Technology & Society. The hypothesis of an antieconomy developed in part 1 is incommensurate with mainstream economics. This article explores three reasons for this situation: the limits of discipline-based scholarship in general and of mainstream economics in particular, the status of economists in contemporary societies, and the failure of economists to accept any responsibility for the consequences flowing from the application of their theories. Politicians are unable to resist their economic advisors who speak in the name of science, with the result that the democratic process in relation to economic issues is essentially paralyzed. [For Part 1, see EJ825551. For Part 3, see EJ825553.]   [More]  Descriptors: Economic Impact, Economic Factors, Economic Research, Democracy

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Bibliography: Democracy (page 496 of 605)

This annotated bibliography is curated specifically for the I'm with Jill website.  Some of the authors featured on this page include T. van Louw, Thom Brooks, Solveig Ostrem, Margit McGuire, Josef Jarab, Joseph Kahne, Martin Haigh, Jean-Louis Derouet, Ryan Wells, and John Waldman.

van Louw, T.; Waghid, Y. (2008). A Deliberative Democratic View of Mentorship, South African Journal of Higher Education. The article critically reflects on the positive portrayal of mentorship as a professional development strategy for educators. We argue that the conceptualisation of classical mentorship has been informed mainly by functionalist thinking. We contend that the supposedly beneficial nature of the mentorship relationship has been given such prominence that the possibility of learning from two highly problematic assumptions occupying a central position within a functionalist conceptualisation of mentorship, that is, the conceptualisation of learning as a unidirectional transmission process and, secondly, the strong authoritarian tendency deriving from a highly hierarchal mentor-mentee relationship where an experienced older person is the mentor and an inexperienced, younger person the mentee, is largely negated. Functionalist perspectives informed the highly authoritarian education system that was essential to maintain the oppressive political dispensation in South Africa. We argue therefore that, owing to the underlying assumption of an uncritical transmission of knowledge and management skills in a strong hierarchal relationship between mentor and mentee, mentorship conceptualised within the framework of functionalism is inherently conservative and poses a potential threat to the new education system in South Africa. The conceptualisation of mentorship within a radical humanistic perspective is pursued, especially because social justice, the learner as critical co-learner, and the critical analysis of power relations occupy a central position within this perspective.   [More]  Descriptors: Social Justice, Mentors, Foreign Countries, Democratic Values

Brooks, Thom (2008). Bringing the "Republic" to Life: Teaching Plato's "Republic" to First-Year Students, Education, Citizenship and Social Justice. I have taught Plato's "Republic" for several years although seminars on this text can be difficult and pose certain challenges, most especially with first year students new to university: the ancient Greeks seem a long way from the technocratic society we live in today. More importantly, the complexity of our relationship to each other as citizens and to the state has grown increasingly since the ancient world as well. Students find this revered book full of unfamiliar names, arguments, and styles of presentation and immediately become a bit frustrated. In this article, I provide a thorough, concrete example of how I have attempted to overcome this problem in my work using the seminar format. I have learned some useful tips for tackling this text and hope this article might be useful to others grappling with the teaching of abstract concepts and texts, opening the door for students to engage with a new civic awareness.   [More]  Descriptors: College Freshmen, Classical Literature, Seminars, College Instruction

Gough, Jim (2008). The Critical Evaluation of Bibliographic Web Sources, College Quarterly. With the rapid increase in information freely and easily accessible on the web to those who have access to a computer and the internet, there seems to be a corresponding decrease in critical evaluation of the sources of this information. All sources are taken to be sources of information and seem to be uncritically considered to contain reliable, credible, and authoritative information, which is relevant to any topic. However, many sources contain disputed and disputable information slanted to support one ideological belief over another. People use sources in their research bibliographies that are concurrently used to support claims in their research papers that are not in fact plausible. Students, as citizens, need to be critically informed to make good decisions in a democratic society that depends on their reliable, credible and authoritative sources of information used in decision making. In this article, the author offers a set of testing conditions to determine how to critically separate the acceptable sources from the implausible ones.   [More]  Descriptors: Research Papers (Students), Democracy, Criticism, Internet

Bali, Valentina A. (2008). The Passage of Education Citizen Initiatives: Evidence from California, Educational Policy. In recent years, many critical education policy reforms across the American states have been attempted through citizen ballots. This study examines citizens' voting behavior on three salient education initiatives proposed in California. Analyses of exit poll data indicate that voting on education initiatives is greatly influenced by ideological predispositions, self-interest, and racially based incentives. Local school districts' conditions become more influential once we examine voting separately across racial groups. These voting strategies suggest that the path of education reform through citizen initiatives will be much susceptible to ideological and demographic currents.   [More]  Descriptors: Voting, Educational Policy, School Districts, Bilingual Education

Haigh, Martin (2008). Internationalisation, Planetary Citizenship and Higher Education Inc, Compare: A Journal of Comparative Education. The internationalisation of higher education aims to produce "citizens that feel at home in the world" but the process is driven by both economic and educational motivations. Today, the international community aspires to promote Education for Sustainable Development (ESD) and Education for Democratic Citizenship (EDC), together planetary citizenship, and with them emphases on personal and ethical responsibilities to the environment and future that contrast with current competitive individualism. Driven by rising numbers of international students, curricula are already shifting toward more global assessments of society and environment. However, progress is being impeded by management systems that take commerce as their model. While instructors strive to ensure that learners consider their responsibilities through ESD and EDC, their message is being contradicted by their context. Since learners learn from their total environment, not just in classrooms, changes are required. Granting greater attention to sustainability issues and the empowerment of learners and teachers would allow a better constructive alignment between educational and economic imperatives.   [More]  Descriptors: Higher Education, Management Systems, Citizenship, Democracy

Haas, Claus (2008). Citizenship Education in Denmark: Reinventing the Nation and/or Conducting Multiculturalism(s)?, London Review of Education. In 2007 the concept of citizenship was officially incorporated into teacher education in Denmark, as part of a compulsory subject called "Christianity studies, life enlightenment, and citizenship". Thus, at least to some extent, the notion of citizenship is expected to find its way into the educational and political vocabulary of future teachers and pupils/students of the Danish educational system, and probably into the public discussions about the meaning of democratic education in general. The subject itself is only described in very general terms within the legal framework. In order to understand the meaning and purpose of the new subject it is necessary to position it within a broader discourse of citizenship education, as it has been launched by the Danish nation state since 1999. First, citizenship education seems to be exclusively about responding to cultural diversity; secondly, articulated as part of a nation state driven strategy of the sociocultural integration of foreigners, migrants and ethnic minorities. From this follow the questions: What does integration mean, and integration into what? I will make use of four different versions of multiculturalism as my analytical framework–assimilationism, cosmopolitanism, fragmented pluralism, interactive pluralism, and pointing to the fact that the first seems to be the hegemonic understanding of the purpose of citizenship education.   [More]  Descriptors: Citizenship, Democracy, Citizenship Education, Christianity

McGuire, Margit; Waldman, John (2008). Get Real: Teaching about the Presidential Election, Phi Delta Kappan. A paramount duty of education is to prepare young people for their role as citizens in a democratic society. Voting is one of the important responsibilities of a citizen but statistics indicate that young people often don't vote and don't believe they have a stake in the outcome of the presidential election. Storypath is a teaching strategy that can be used to create powerful lessons about the presidential election. Students create parties, write platforms, and play the roles of campaign workers and candidates. Through this, they experience the election process from beginning to end and learn the importance of being informed voters.   [More]  Descriptors: Democracy, Elections, Political Campaigns, Teaching Methods

Magno, Cathryn (2008). Refuge from Crisis: Refugee Women Build Political Capital, Globalisation, Societies and Education. For women who have escaped political crises, NGOs can provide a healing space. This study explores nonformal and informal educational processes that occur in NGOs founded and staffed by refugee women who have resettled in the United States. Interviews and documents demonstrate that the refugee women gain knowledge and skills through participation in the NGO, find their voices through the supportive environment of the NGO and networking with others, and take opportunities to make social change. The results of this research indicate that women gain political capital through NGO participation and that increased support of NGOs can therefore result in increased democratisation.   [More]  Descriptors: Nonformal Education, Females, Social Change, Learning Processes

Wells, Ryan (2008). The Effect of Education on Democratisation: A Review of Past Literature and Suggestions for a Globalised Context, Globalisation, Societies and Education. Democratisation is an important component of current globalisation trends, and education is commonly thought to lead to greater democratisation. Thus, education holds a prestigious place in political development discourses. Are policies that promote this belief grounded in research-based evidence, or simply the propagation of institutionalized myths? This study reviews the literature concerning education's effect on democratisation. Ultimately, the evidence is inconclusive, and cannot justifiably be used to support an education-democratisation link at the national level. Therefore, this review concludes with a call for a revitalized research effort concerning education and democratisation that uses new approaches to account for a newly globalised context.   [More]  Descriptors: Educational Change, Democracy, Democratic Values, Global Approach

Derouet, Jean-Louis (2008). Extending the Schooling Period or Recommending Lifelong Training?: The Place of Higher Education at a Time of Revamped Conceptions of Justice and State Forms in France, European Education. Until the mid-1990s, French educational policy was in line with the traditional model of democratization, which aimed to extend the schooling period. However, this age-old process came to a halt in the late twentieth century. The 1975 Haby Reform, the law modernizing the French educational system, established the creation of comprehensive schools in lower secondary education. The movement then gained upper secondary education, with the target of bringing 80 percent of each age group to the baccalaureate level and then to the universities. In the 1970s, a new model that mixes instruction and work periods was developed. The state guarantees a common core of knowledge and competencies to all fifteen- or sixteen-year-old students. Individuals then develop their own career paths and fit into networks in which training courses are part of larger dynamics. The objective of a longer schooling period for all is replaced by a "Europeanized" access to higher education for the elite only. This article considers the crisis of the former democratization model as well as the shifts of French policy between the 1989 and the 2005 education acts. Next, it reviews the challenged model and attempts to elaborate on the converging principles behind the new organization. Finally, the author discusses the positioning of higher education at a time of reshaped conceptions of justice and state forms in France.   [More]  Descriptors: Higher Education, Secondary Education, Foreign Countries, Educational Policy

Ostrem, Solveig (2008). The Public/Private Dichotomy: A Threat to Children's Fellow Citizenship?, International Journal of Early Childhood. When child-raising involves violence, a conflict of values arises between the parents' autonomy and the children's right to equal participation in a democratic society. In this article I discuss, from the perspective of discourse analysis, how a dichotomous understanding of the public versus private sphere can constitute a threat to children's fellow citizenship. One of the questions I dwell upon is if there is a contradictory relationship between, on the one side, a type of thought that identifies the child with the family and private sphere and, on the other hand, the understanding of the child as active participant in a democratic society.   [More]  Descriptors: Children, Citizenship, Democracy, Family (Sociological Unit)

Kahne, Joseph; Middaugh, Ellen (2008). High Quality Civic Education: What Is It and Who Gets It?, Social Education. In this article, the authors review the state of civic education in schools. They point out that students typically "take only one semester-long course on American government"–unlike the situation in the 1960s, when it was common "for students to take multiple courses in civics covering not only the structure of American government, but also the role of citizens and the issues they and the government face." Here, the authors pose the question, "What is high quality civic education and who gets it?" and conclude that students have inadequate opportunities at school to develop civic commitments and capacities, and that minority students are the group most likely to be deprived of a good civics education.   [More]  Descriptors: Citizenship Education, Civics, Minority Groups, Educational Quality

Evans, Ronald W. (2008). The Rugg Prototype for Democratic Education, International Journal of Social Education. Harold O. Rugg was one of a small group of leaders of the Progressive Education Movement centered at Teachers College, Columbia University, and a leader among the Social Frontier group that emerged in the 1930s to argue that schools should play a stronger role in helping to reconstruct the society. He was the author of an innovative and best selling series of social studies textbooks which ultimately came under attack from "patriotic" and business groups in the prelude to the United States involvement in World War II. The story of his rise and fall encapsulates a significant and central story in the history of American education. The Rugg story reveals a great deal about the direction of schooling in American life, the many alternative roads not taken, and possibilities for the future. This article focuses primarily on the examination and discussion of Rugg's social studies ideas. Revisiting Rugg's vision will underline several of the main themes of his work and highlight the fact that Rugg was instrumental, a seminal thinker in the world of social studies theory and practice. A full understanding requires a brief examination of the origins of his ideas, his developing theory, his critique of the standard practices in schools, the key principles and explicit rationale under-girding his social science program, and the controversy he inspired.   [More]  Descriptors: Schools of Education, Textbooks, Science Programs, Democracy

Jarab, Josef (2008). Reforming Systems and Institutions of Higher Learning: Towards the Creation of a European and Global Higher Education Area, Education, Citizenship and Social Justice. Before Europe–as a continent–could seriously think of creating a common European Higher Education Area grave differences between the former West and East had to be dealt with. The fall of the Iron Curtain in 1989 made it possible to start reforming totalitarian educational systems and introduce principles of democratization and academic liberties. The transition period was not an easy one but neither did the process of harmonization and integration of higher learning in the freer part of the continent proceed without hindrances. The drafting and signing of the Bologna Magna Charta Universitatum, the declaration and launching of the Bologna Process, the activities and resolutions of the Council of Europe, UNESCO, the OECD and the European Union have proved decisive catalyzers in the process, which has progressed considerably, but has still to face some challenges before it achieves its full potential and a functional common higher education area in Europe and in the global context is created.   [More]  Descriptors: Higher Education, Foreign Countries, Educational Cooperation, Educational Change

Shields, Carolyn M.; Mohan, Erica J. (2008). High-Quality Education for All Students: Putting Social Justice at Its Heart, Teacher Development. Despite decades of reform and school improvement initiatives, large numbers of students are still underachieving, failing, or being pushed out of school. Clearly, a distinctly new approach is needed–one that takes into account the global diaspora and increasing school demographic diversity. Unless educators begin to take account of differences in students' material realities and lived experiences, ongoing lack of school success for many students will continue to inhibit their life chances, and ultimately negatively affect our democratic society. The authors argue that teaching in socially just ways is not only a prerequisite for students' intellectual growth and improved outcomes, but for educating citizens who will become agents of change for themselves and others in the quest for a more just society.   [More]  Descriptors: Social Justice, Democracy, Educational Quality, Educational Change

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Bibliography: Democracy (page 495 of 605)

This annotated bibliography is compiled and customized for the I'm with Jill website.  Some of the authors featured on this page include Janice McMillan, Tonic L. Maruatona, Christopher G. Robbins, Anna Magnea Hreinsdottir, Sarah Elwood, Tairou Goura, Keri Facer, Lauren P. Saenz, Sonwabo V. Ngcelwane, and Michael A. Peters.

Favish, Judith; McMillan, Janice; Ngcelwane, Sonwabo V. (2012). Developing a Strategic Approach to Social Responsiveness at the University of Cape Town, South Africa, Journal of Higher Education Outreach and Engagement. Collaborative community-engaged scholarship has roots in many parts of the world, and engaged practitioners and researchers are increasingly finding each other and sharing resources globally. This article focuses on a "social responsiveness" initiative at the University of Cape Town. Its story, told here by three University of Cape Town colleagues, illustrates the possibilities and complexities of this work in southern Africa. While strongly contextualized there, it also illustrates how the University of Cape Town has both benefited from and contributed to the broader international discussions taking place through TRUCEN (The Research University Civic Engagement Network), the Talloires Network, and other means.   [More]  Descriptors: Foreign Countries, Municipalities, Grants, Awards

Facer, Keri (2012). Taking the 21st Century Seriously: Young People, Education and Socio-Technical Futures, Oxford Review of Education. Rhetoric about young people's "ownership" of future socio-technical change is a familiar part of much educational and political discourse. This does not, however, translate in practice into a meaningful dialogue with young people about the sorts of futures they might wish to see emerge. This paper argues that a number of social and technological developments currently being envisaged by researchers, developers, industry and politicians bring with them a responsibility to rethink the relationship between young people, education and socio-technical futures. It focuses specifically on trends in the areas of personal augmentation, digital working practices and intergenerational spaces and discusses the implications of projected developments in these areas for young people's educational, economic and democratic futures. It argues that schools need to be cognisant of these future possibilities and need to create spaces and practices that enable young people together to understand and explore these issues. The school also is not immune to socio-technical change. The potential growth of online learning communities, the emergence of a body of adults able to participate as informal educators and the development of networked publics, in particular, have the potential to change the relationship between school, young people and society. These changes have the potential either to erode or to radically reinvigorate the capacity of schools to act as public spaces within which young people can be supported to negotiate and explore future socio-technical change.   [More]  Descriptors: Youth, Young Adults, Education Work Relationship, Social Change

Peters, Michael A. (2012). Education, Philosophy and Politics: The Selected Works of Michael A. Peters. World Library of Educationalists, Routledge, Taylor & Francis Group. In the World Library of Educationalists series, international experts themselves compile career-long collections of what they judge to be their finest pieces–extracts from books, key articles, salient research findings, major theoretical and/practical contributions–so the world can read them in a single manageable volume. Michael A. Peters has spent the last 30 years researching, thinking and writing about some of the key and enduring issues in education. He has contributed over 60 books (authored, co-authored and edited) and 500 articles to the field. In "Education, Philosophy and Politics", Michael A. Peters brings together 15 of his key writings in one place, including chapters from his best-selling books and articles from leading journals. Starting with a specially written Introduction, which gives an overview of Michael's career and contextualises his selection, the essays are then arranged thematically to create a pathway of a way of thinking in philosophy of education which is forward looking but takes account of tradition and the past. The subjects of the chapters include: (1) Wittgenstein Studies; (2) Philosophical Critique of Modernity; (3) French Poststructuralism; (4) Jean-Francois Lyotard; (5) Foucault & Deleuze; (6) Derrida; (7) American Pragmatism; (8) Rorty; (9) Cavell; and (10) Philosophy and racism. Through this book, readers can follow the themes and strands that Michael A. Peters has written about for over three decades and clearly see his important contribution to the field of education.   [More]  Descriptors: Foreign Countries, Educational Philosophy, Politics of Education, Racial Relations

Morris, Ronald Vaughan (2012). History and Imagination: Reenactments for Elementary Social Studies, Rowman & Littlefield Education. In "History and Imagination," elementary school social studies teachers will learn how to help their students break down the walls of their schools, more personally engage with history, and define democratic citizenship. By collaborating together in meaningful investigations into the past and reenacting history, students will become experts who interpret their findings, teach their peers, and relate their experiences to those of older students, neighbors, parents, and grandparents. The byproduct of this collaborative, intergenerational learning is that schools become community learning centers, just like museums and libraries, where families can go together in order to find out more about the topics that interest them. There is an incredible value in the shared and lived experiences of reenacting the past, of meeting people from different places and times: an authority and reality that textbooks cannot rival. By engaging elementary social studies students in living history, whether in the classroom, after school, or in partnership with local historical institutions, teachers are guaranteed to impress upon the students a special, desired understanding of place and time. The following chapters are contained in this book: (1) Historical Reenactment for Children; (2) How Teachers Can Conduct Historical Reenactments in Their Own Schools; (3) Contrasting the French with the British in North America: Establishing Community within a Fifth Grade Historical Reenactment; (4) Pioneer Diversity and Dissenters Day; (5) Community Celebrations and History Participation; (6) Learning from a Community Festival or Reenactment; (7) Historical Reenactment at a Living History Site; (8) Extra-Curricular Social Studies at the Conner Prairie Interpretive Park; (9) Huddleston Farmhouse 1860 Victorian Life Day Camp; (10) Integrating Music and Social Studies in an Extra-Curricular Activity: The Voyageur Ancient Fife and Drum Corps; and (11) Conclusions.   [More]  Descriptors: Foreign Countries, Elementary School Curriculum, Citizenship Education, History Instruction

Maruatona, Tonic L. (2012). Delivering Lifelong Learning for Sustainable Development in Southern Africa: Problems and Prospects, International Journal of Lifelong Education. Southern African Development Community (SADC) nations in principle endorse lifelong learning (LLL) as a useful framework for sustainable development. However, in spite of the rhetoric, only a few member states such as South Africa, Botswana and Namibia have officially endorsed LLL in their educational policies. The sub-region is plagued by social atrocities such as HIV/AIDS, capacity poverty, low quality education, global marginalization, ineffective pedagogical and civil society agencies. The paper argues that since 1994, SADC has transited from being preoccupied with fighting Apartheid to focus on regional development, it experienced structural adjustment policies and is currently playing a critical role in pursuit of African renaissance. The region faces challenges such as centralization of educational planning, lack of a concerted culture of democratic participation, failure to recognize cultural diversity, and poor civil society engagement. The paper contends that LLL would help SADC countries to decentralize educational decision-making, engage communities in democratic discourses, train facilitators to reflective practitioners and engage the civil society in facilitating the attainment of regional sustainable development agenda.   [More]  Descriptors: Lifelong Learning, Foreign Countries, Sustainable Development, Educational Policy

Goura, Tairou (2012). Globalization, Critical Post-Colonialism and Career and Technical Education in Africa: Challenges and Possibilities, ProQuest LLC. In Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), technical and vocational education and training (TVET) is central to political discourses and educational concerns as a means for economic development, poverty alleviation, youth employment, and social mobility. Yet, there is an intriguing contradiction between this consideration and the real attention dedicated to TVET. Research on African TVET is varied, but tends to be narrowly focused on issues of policies, economic strategies, cost-efficiency, curriculum contents, and outdated equipment. Offering an alternative inquiry, the purpose of this conceptual dissertation was to use critical education theory and post-colonial insights to explore the macro and micro challenges SSA TVET systems are facing in a global context. Indeed, in the era of economic and cultural globalization, the African continent has the opportunity to make its way toward socioeconomic development. Still, rich countries are getting richer and the poor poorer. The African continent is rich in natural, mineral, agricultural, human, and intellectual resources. Thus, there are opportunities for well-being and educational prosperity. However, all statistics show that Africans are the poorest in the world. I argue that this poverty is socially constructed and not an inevitable condition for Africans. Unemployment is a tough reality in SSA. The number of students enrolling in TVET is increasing. From the critical and post-colonial conceptual framework I illustrate structural and systematic concerns to show how SSA TVET systems involve oppression, exploitation, marginalization, prejudice, stereotypes, gender discrimination, reproduction, hegemony, and subalternity. Through the concept of democratic education Dewey and Freire offer, I envision, idealistically and realistically, a holistic and emancipatory TVET where the main concern would not just be to train hands but also heads. In so doing, SSA TVET could develop students' critical awareness about citizenship, self-determination, and problem-solving in order to create social cohesion, peace, and stability in Africa. [The dissertation citations contained here are published with the permission of ProQuest LLC. Further reproduction is prohibited without permission. Copies of dissertations may be obtained by Telephone (800) 1-800-521-0600. Web page:   [More]  Descriptors: Foreign Countries, Technical Education, Vocational Education, Global Approach

Roy, Carole (2012). "Why Don't They Show Those on TV?": Documentary Film Festivals, Media and Community, International Journal of Lifelong Education. The importance of alternative forms of information is undeniable in a democratic society. Yet mass media often ignore important issues as well as grassroots struggles and victories. Over the past two decades, citizens of one small Canadian town have initiated a documentary film festival as a means to learn about diverse problems and/or share stories of successful community development and victorious social movements around the world. This sparked a series of documentary film festivals in other small Canadian towns. This article examines a study of two of these documentary film festivals and the learning reported by members of the audience.   [More]  Descriptors: Mass Media, Access to Information, Information Sources, Information Dissemination

Kolsto, Stein Dankert (2008). Science Education for Democratic Citizenship through the Use of the History of Science, Science & Education. Scholars have argued that the history of science might facilitate an understanding of processes of science. Focusing on science education for citizenship and active involvement in debates on socioscientific issues, one might argue that today's post-academic science differs from academic science in the past, making the history of academic science irrelevant. However, this article argues that, under certain conditions, cases from the history of science should be included in science curricula for democratic participation. One condition is that the concept of processes is broadened to include science-society interactions in a politically sensitive sense. The scope of possibilities of using historical case studies to prepare for citizenship is illustrated by the use of a well-known case from the history of science: Millikan's and Ehrenhaft's "Battle over the electron".   [More]  Descriptors: Science History, Citizenship, Democracy, Democratic Values

Mitchell, Katharyne; Elwood, Sarah (2012). From Redlining to Benevolent Societies: The Emancipatory Power of Spatial Thinking, Theory and Research in Social Education. This study highlights the power of place, and reconceptualizes geography education as integral to the larger project of teaching for democratic citizenship. Using an interactive web platform, the researchers asked 29 seventh grade girls to research and map significant cultural and historical places associated with an ethnic group, or women, in the city of Seattle. The students worked in teams and commented frequently on each other's contributions. Adopting a participatory action research method, the researchers studied the multiple ways in which a greater understanding of spatial production, such as processes of exclusion and inclusion, or mapping and counter-mapping, can give students the knowledge and will to challenge prevailing norms about the "naturalness" of a segregated urban landscape, or the inequitable allocation of resources. This approach follows recent feminist, anti-racist, and internationalist articulations of citizenship education, which advocate a social justice or emancipatory component to teaching and learning.   [More]  Descriptors: Social Justice, Action Research, Resource Allocation, Teaching Methods

Coffield, Frank (2012). Why the McKinsey Reports Will Not Improve School Systems, Journal of Education Policy. In the last four years McKinsey and Company have produced two highly influential reports on how to improve school systems. The first McKinsey report "How the world's best-performing school systems come out on top" has since its publication in 2007 been used to justify change in educational policy and practice in England and many other countries. The second "How the world's most improved school systems keep getting better," released in late 2010, is a more substantial tome which is likely to have an even greater impact. This article subjects both reports to a close examination and finds them deficient in 10 respects. The detailed critique is preceded by a few general remarks about their reception, influence and main arguments.   [More]  Descriptors: Foreign Countries, Educational Policy, Educational Change, Public Education

Moses, Michele S.; Saenz, Lauren P. (2012). When the Majority Rules: Ballot Initiatives, Race-Conscious Education Policy, and the Public Good, Review of Research in Education. This chapter examines the following central question: How do direct democratic ballot initiatives affect the public good? A second, related question is this: When voters collectively make policy decisions, what responsibilities do researchers have to contribute to informing public deliberation about the relevant issues? In an attempt to answer these questions, the authors investigate how the direct democratic ballot initiative process, increasingly–and controversially–used to allow citizens to make education policy decisions, may serve to enhance or constrain the public good. The education policies affected by ballot initiatives, such as affirmative action and bilingual education, often concern issues of race, civil rights, and equality of educational opportunity. This analysis relies on political philosophy through the lens of deliberative democratic theory, relying in particular on the work of Amy Gutmann and Iris Marion Young. The more theoretical analyses are grounded in data from a recent empirical study on whether deliberative community dialogues on race-conscious policy issues serve to inform the dialogue participants. The aims of this chapter are to provide greater understanding of the education-policy-by-ballot-initiative phenomenon, bring to light the possibilities of "tyranny of the majority" when policies having to do with civil rights are left up to popular vote, and make the case that researchers ought to use their expertise in the service of public information and deliberation and, ultimately, the public good.   [More]  Descriptors: Politics of Education, Voting, Participative Decision Making, Democracy

Pitman, Tim (2012). Selling Visions for Education: What Do Australian Politicians Believe in, Who Are They Trying to Convince and How?, Australian Journal of Education. This article analyses the educational visions put forward by Australian federal politicians in their maiden (first) speeches to Parliament. The theoretical approach was a Habermasian-based analysis of the communication strategies adopted by the politicians, meaning that it was not only the content of the speeches but also the delivery that was the focus of the analysis. The findings reveal bipartisan agreement on the importance of education to personal and national economic prosperity, and the importance of quality in education. There were ideologically opposed beliefs in the importance of personal choice and responsibility in education on the one hand, and the need for a democratic and equitable education system on the other. Communicatively, politicians from both sides preferred axiomatic "truths" as a strategic tool to support their various positions, as opposed to strategies of "sincerity" or "rightness".   [More]  Descriptors: Speeches, Foreign Countries, Educational Change, Communication Strategies

Hreinsdottir, Anna Magnea; Davidsdottir, Sigurlina (2012). Deliberative Democratic Evaluation in Preschools, Scandinavian Journal of Educational Research. In this study, the merit of using deliberative democratic evaluations is studied in light of ten questions asked by House and Howe, which defined the approach and raise issues of interests, representation, and choice of stakeholders, power balances and procedures for controlling them, participation, reflection and deliberation. Suggestions by Clark and Moss for using a mosaic approach were followed. This indicates, when listening to children, many fragments integrate into a whole picture. The emphasis here was on listening to children's views and defining values and evaluation criteria so that they reflect our definition of childhood and quality of childcare. Children had other priorities than parents and staff in some instances, for example regarding length of stay and autonomy. Greene's issues of power, core matters, and biases were utilized for reflection on issues.   [More]  Descriptors: Evaluation Criteria, Stakeholders, Democracy, Evaluation Methods

Letseka, Moeketsi (2012). In Defence of Ubuntu, Studies in Philosophy and Education. The article defends ubuntu against the assault by Enslin and Horsthemke ("Comp Educ" 40(4):545-558, 2004). It challenges claims that the Africanist/Afrocentrist project, in which the philosophy of ubuntu is central, faces numerous problems, involves substantial political, moral, epistemological and educational errors, and should therefore not be the basis for education for democratic citizenship in the South African context. The article finds coincidence between some of the values implicit in ubuntu and some of the values that are enshrined in the constitution of South Africa and that on that basis argues that ubuntu has the potential to serve as a moral theory and a public policy. The educational upshot of this article's argument is that South Africa's educational policy framework not only places a high premium on ubuntu, which it conceives as human dignity, but it also requires the schooling system to promote ubuntu-oriented attributes and dispositions among the learners. The article finds similarities between ubuntu and bildung, whose key advocates, among others was German scholar and intellectual Wilhelm von Humboldt. It argues that it would be ethnocentric, and indeed silly to suggest that the ubuntu ethic of caring and sharing is uniquely African when some of the values which it seeks to promote can also be traced in various Eurasian philosophies.   [More]  Descriptors: Foreign Countries, Caring, Democracy, Citizenship Education

Robbins, Christopher G. (2008). "Emergency!" or How to Learn to Live with Neoliberal Globalization, Policy Futures in Education. The author explores the cultural politics of neoliberal globalization, its deformations of critical facets of public culture as it has returned home, and he explores the politics of emergency. Rather than seeing the politics of emergency as something indicative of an emerging "emergency regime" attendant to the terror war, he argues that the current politics of emergency is rooted in neoliberal globalization more generally, especially in terms of the need for powerbrokers to institutionalize insecurity and anxiety as central facets of a "new normal." He then turns to the criminalization and militarization of schools as examples of how the process of institutionalizing insecurity has unfolded in the last decade, suggesting that public schools are an ostensible and crucial site (being the one of the last sites to be precaritized) because the types of subjects and agents required for neoliberal globalization must learn how to live (in fear) with neoliberal globalization. Without an understanding of how schools are being leveraged to produce a "new normal," strategies for engaging schools as democratic public spheres will be potentially under-developed or mis-directed.   [More]  Descriptors: Security (Psychology), Global Approach, Educational Environment, School Role

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Bibliography: Democracy (page 494 of 605)

This annotated bibliography is reformatted and customized for the I'm with Jill website.  Some of the authors featured on this page include Claes Malmberg, Manuel Espinoza, Jeremy Stoddard, Heribert Hinzen, Thomas Misco, Anne Lewis, Orit Ichilov, Christopher L. Doyle, Dennis L. Carlson, and Andrew Delbanco.

Stoddard, Jeremy (2012). Want to Teach about SuperPACs? What We Can Learn from Stephen Colbert, AASA Journal of Scholarship & Practice. The emergence of the SuperPACs in American politics is a major issue in the current election. SuperPACs, and the media campaigns they fund, also present a major challenge for media and democratic education. This article explores the issues surrounding SuperPACs and the rise of media in elections and politics in general, and presents some starting points for addressing these challenges in K-12 school curriculum and policy. Key areas addressed include: the need for more issues–centered and deliberative curriculum that engage students in examining the complexities of contemporary issues; a focus on media literacy in the social studies curriculum; and the potential for using popular culture, such as Stephen Colbert's segments on SuperPACs, to engage students in current debates.   [More]  Descriptors: Media Literacy, Curriculum Development, Popular Culture, Democracy

Burkhalter, Nancy; Shegebayev, Maganat R. (2012). Critical Thinking as Culture: Teaching Post-Soviet Teachers in Kazakhstan, International Review of Education. This paper explores the question of whether critical thinking can eventually become part of the cultural fabric in Kazakhstan, a country whose Soviet educational system not only trained teachers to memorise, lecture and intimidate students but also created a culture in educational institutions fraught with many fear-based behaviours engendering competitiveness, intolerance and other hostile behaviours antithetical to critical thinking and an open, democratic society. While educational reform can have profound effects on a nation, education is but one system in a complex network of governmental and cultural systems, and change must be borne by many. This paper reviews literature and presents qualitative data gathered through interviews with Soviet-trained teachers. The authors recommend that teachers should embrace student-centred techniques and critical thinking methodologies, as well as shift from a fear-based, authoritarian, top-down system of relating to students and colleagues to one of cooperation, openness and fairness. Such a reform will take repetitive, intensive and experiential training as well as regular assessments of progress.   [More]  Descriptors: Democracy, Social Change, Social Systems, Educational Change

Carlson, Dennis L. (2012). The Education of Eros: A History of Education and the Problem of Adolescent Sexuality. Studies in Curriculum Theory Series, Routledge, Taylor & Francis Group. "The Education of Eros: is the first and only comprehensive history of sexuality education and the "problem" of adolescent sexuality from the mid-20th century to the beginning of the 21st. It explores how professional health educators, policy makers, and social and religious conservatives differed in their approaches, and battled over what gets taught about sexuality in schools, but all shared a common understanding of the adolescent body and adolescent desire as a problem that required a regulatory and disciplinary education. It also looks at the rise of new social movements in civil society and the academy in the last half of the 20th century that began to re-frame the "problem" of adolescent sexuality in a language of rights, equity, and social justice. Situated within critical social theories of sexuality, this book offers a tool for re-framing the conversation about adolescent sexuality and reconstructing the meaning of sexuality education in a democratic society.   [More]  Descriptors: Social Justice, Sex Education, Democracy, Sexuality

Delbanco, Andrew (2012). College: What It Was, Is, and Should Be, Princeton University Press. As the commercialization of American higher education accelerates, more and more students are coming to college with the narrow aim of obtaining a preprofessional credential. The traditional four-year college experience–an exploratory time for students to discover their passions and test ideas and values with the help of teachers and peers–is in danger of becoming a thing of the past. In "College", prominent cultural critic Andrew Delbanco offers a trenchant defense of such an education, and warns that it is becoming a privilege reserved for the relatively rich. In arguing for what a true college education should be, he demonstrates why making it available to as many young people as possible remains central to America's democratic promise. In a brisk and vivid historical narrative, Delbanco explains how the idea of college arose in the colonial period from the Puritan idea of the gathered church, how it struggled to survive in the nineteenth century in the shadow of the new research universities, and how, in the twentieth century, it slowly opened its doors to women, minorities, and students from low-income families. He describes the unique strengths of America's colleges in our era of globalization and, while recognizing the growing centrality of science, technology, and vocational subjects in the curriculum, he mounts a vigorous defense of a broadly humanistic education for all. Acknowledging the serious financial, intellectual, and ethical challenges that all colleges face today, Delbanco considers what is at stake in the urgent effort to protect these venerable institutions for future generations.   [More]  Descriptors: Commercialization, Humanistic Education, United States History, Global Approach

Sanelli, Maria, Ed.; Rodriquez, Louis, Ed. (2012). Teaching about Frederick Douglass: A Resource Guide for Teachers of Cultural Diversity. Counterpoints: Studies in the Postmodern Theory of Education. Volume 406, Peter Lang New York. "Teaching about Frederick Douglass" will stimulate conversation among liberal arts and education professionals as well as inform public school teachers about the life and times of Frederick Douglass. Tension exists at many institutions of higher education between liberal arts faculties who do not completely understand the function of education professors and school of education faculties who feel that there is a misunderstanding about what a teacher candidate needs to learn before entering the teaching profession. This book facilitates conversation, addressing the liberal arts professor's concern with content and the education professor's concern with pedagogy. By providing both current scholarship and lesson plans for elementary, middle school, and secondary school classes, this book serves as a vital resource for scholars on multicultural issues and provides classroom ideas for public school teachers. Contents include: (1) Black Ink: Writing Black Power with the Words of David Walker, Ida B. Wells, and Malcolm X (Ellesia Blaque); (2) Frederick Douglass, Digital Initiatives, and the Democratization of Research (Marietta Dooley and Louis Rodriquez); (3) Literacy and Social Equity (Linda McMillan and MaryAnn O'Neil); (4) Of Swimming, Computers, and Race: Lessons Learned from the History of Swimming and the Relevance to Computing and Computer Science (Randy Kaplan); (5) Religion, Race, and American History (Meredith Holladay); (6) Frederick Douglass's Spirituality (C. James Trotman); (7) Frederick Douglass and Latino Immigration (Louis Rodriquez); (8) Aspects of Sisterhood and Slavery: Transatlantic Anti-slavery Activism and Women's Rights (S. Pascale Dewey); (9) Frederick Douglass, Supporter of Equal Rights for All People (Denise Darrah); (10) Linguistics and Social Justice in Public Schools (Carol Watson); and (11) Frederick Douglass: Words of Wisdom for All Centuries (Maria Sanelli and Nathaniel Williams).   [More]  Descriptors: Social Justice, United States History, Teaching (Occupation), Public Schools

Lewis, Anne (2012). The Evolution of the Center on Education Policy: From an Idea to a Major Influence, Center on Education Policy. During hearings in the late 1980s on education legislation, the frustrated chairman of the Education and Labor Committee of the U.S. House of Representatives, Rep. Gus Hawkins (D-CA), would sometimes lean over to his chief counsel and ask: "Why can't these people agree on the facts? If they did that, we could solve these problems quickly." That question planted an idea in the counsel, John (Jack) Jennings, which took him into a second long career as founder and CEO of a unique fact-gathering initiative, the Center on Education Policy (CEP). Launched in January 1995, CEP began with ambitious, if somewhat unformed, intentions and little money. Its first forays into educating the public about public education were modest and almost totally grassroots. Seventeen years later, a December 2011 report on Adequate Yearly Progress under the No Child Left Behind Act reached millions of listeners and readers through media channels that stretched from Maine to Alaska, from the "New York Times" to the local newspaper for San Francisco's Russian community. This paper describes the beginning and the development of the Center on Education Policy from 1995 to 2012. Appended are: (1) CEP Board Members; and (2) List of foundations providing support.   [More]  Descriptors: Educational Policy, Role of Education, Information Centers, Organizations (Groups)

Neumann, Richard (2012). Teaching the Great Recession, Social Studies. This article presents an overview of major factors contributing to the Great Recession of 2007-2009. Descriptions of teaching resources and ideas for lesson plans are provided.   [More]  Descriptors: Social Studies, Critical Theory, Economics Education, High School Students

Doyle, Christopher L. (2012). Invisible Wars: Iraq, Afghanistan, and Teaching Insurgencies in Public Schools, American Educator. This author contends that contemporary issues classes no longer have currency, as standardized test results are the litmus test for education. In many schools, students are isolated from firsthand accounts and formal study of events that textbooks will one day proclaim as defining experiences of their generation. According to Doyle, schools tend not to teach many, perhaps most, headline-making problems: climate change, debt crises, the national and international polarization of wealth, revolutions in the Middle East, and oil dependence. Students can graduate from many, perhaps most, high schools today and remain tragically naive about the public history of their own times. Convinced that it is important for schools to reflect the history-making events of modern times, Doyle, feeling a bit like an "insurgent," slips these lessons into his classes "covertly," so as not to raise accusations about deviating from the official curricular script. He states his belief that it would be a mistake to reduce education merely to test success, job training, or the pursuit of high-status college admission. Schools must connect with life beyond the classroom, and public education properly done has to prepare students for citizenship in a democratic society. But with the national fixation on standards and test scores, massive teacher layoffs, and a growing preference for merit pay based on test results, the author contends that teaching about current events, specifically today's wars, demands furtiveness.   [More]  Descriptors: Merit Pay, Test Results, Citizenship, Democracy

Ideland, Malin; Malmberg, Claes (2012). Body Talk: Students' Identity Construction while Discussing a Socioscientific Issue, Cultural Studies of Science Education. Vision II school science is often stated to be a democratic and inclusive form of science education. But what characterizes the subject who fits into the Vision II school science? Who is the desirable student and who is constructed as ill-fitting? This article explores discourses that structure the Vision II science classroom, and how different students construct their identities inside these discourses. In the article we consider school science as an order of discourses which restricts and enables what is possible to think and say and what subject-positions those are available and non-available. The results show that students' talk about a SSI about body and health is constituted by several discourses. We have analyzed how school science discourse, body discourse and general school discourse are structuring the discussions. But these discourses are used in different ways depending on how the students construct their identities in relation to available subject positions, which are dependent on how students at the same time are "doing" gender and social class. As an example, middle class girls show resistance against SSI-work since the practice is threatening their identity as "successful students". This article uses a sociopolitical perspective in its discussions on inclusion and exclusion in the practice of Vision II. It raises critical issues about the inherited complexity of SSI with meetings and/or collisions between discourses. Even if the empirical results from this qualitative study are situated in specific cultural contexts, they contribute with new questions to ask concerning SSI and Vision II school science.   [More]  Descriptors: Middle Class, Science Education, Health, Human Body

Ichilov, Orit (2012). Privatization and Commercialization of Public Education: Consequences for Citizenship and Citizenship Education, Urban Review: Issues and Ideas in Public Education. My purpose is to examine and evaluate the implementation of market ideology and practices in education through the prism of both modern democratic theory and the discourse of rights. I examine the essence and defining characteristics of public schooling in modern democratic theory, explore the democratic purposes of education, and the unique mission of public schools. I also analyze the vision of public schooling that surfaces from the discourse of human rights and children's rights, examining relevant UN declarations and conventions. I then proceed to discuss some major manifestations of markets in education, question their congruence with the democratic vision of public schooling, and examine their consequences for both citizenship and citizenship education. My conclusion is that markets in education, and the formulation of education policies and practices through decision-making processes dominated by business and parents, are not necessarily fashioned in the best interest of a democratic society.   [More]  Descriptors: Public Education, Citizenship Education, Privatization, Commercialization

Misco, Thomas (2012). The Importance of Context for Teaching Controversial Issues in International Settings, International Education. This article explores the underlying and epiphenomenal manifestations of milieus and contexts that serve to control and undermine, or provide pathways to, the discussion of controversial issues in classrooms. Given the importance of teaching and discussing controversial issues, as an essential lever for democratic citizenship education, I draw on two empirical case studies in Korea and Latvia. These cases suggest a variety of implications for teacher education programs and education policy makers, both domestically and abroad, including the need for teachers to develop a clear rationale for teaching controversial issues; understand their role as mediator of the larger normative mandate of citizenship education in their school and the reality of their particular context; and reflect upon their pivotal role as curricularist, gatekeeper, and professional within context and, in some cases, change the epistemological cultures of their classrooms and schools to foster free expression of ideas within an open and inviting classroom climate.   [More]  Descriptors: Teacher Education Programs, Classroom Environment, Foreign Countries, Educational Change

Duke, Chris; Hinzen, Heribert (2012). Adult Education and Lifelong Learning within UNESCO: CONFINTEA, Education for All, and beyond, Adult Learning. There can no longer be any doubt that adult education within lifelong learning is a key factor for economic and social development, as well as being a human right. New policies for adult education must now result in coherent forms of laws and legislation clearly spelling out ways and means for financing adult education. These must involve the public, private, and non-governmental organization (NGO) sectors, social partners, and individuals. As studies for CONFINTEA VI demonstrate, change in most countries is slow and not far-reaching enough, especially because of too low a public sector investment in human resources. In the current global financial crisis things are getting worse, and the gaps between those with and those without are widening at all levels. The need to reverse this trend is urgent. In this article, the authors discuss what the key international body UNESCO (United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization) does about it. They also discuss adult education and lifelong learning within UNESCO.   [More]  Descriptors: Adult Education, Lifelong Learning, Public Sector, Human Resources

Friedman, Ken (2012). Models of Design: Envisioning a Future Design Education, Visible Language. This article offers a large-scale view of how design fits in the world economy today, and the role of design education in preparing designers for their economic and professional role. The current context of design involves broad-based historical changes including a major redistribution of geopolitical and industrial power from the West to the East. A model of six global economies delineates the challenge and opportunity for design practice and education. While the six economies developed over time, all fit together now and design creates value in different ways across them. Understanding the economic context of design education gives clarity to the educational mission, differentiating it from other forms of education. The author argues that design professionals now require a broad range of analytical, conceptual and creative skills related to the social and economic context of design along with advanced skills in a design specialty. A taxonomic chart of design knowledge delineates the range of skills and knowledge domains involved.   [More]  Descriptors: Design, College Instruction, Futures (of Society), Economic Climate

Knoester, Matthew, Ed. (2012). International Struggles for Critical Democratic Education. Counterpoints: Studies in the Postmodern Theory of Education. Volume 427, Peter Lang New York. Drawing from rich data, "International Struggles for Critical Democratic Education" profiles teachers, students, and schools struggling to interrupt the reproduction of social inequalities from one generation to the next. International in its nature, the work collected here illustrates how forces of globalization create greater inequalities, and carefully describes and evaluates efforts to democratize educational opportunities. This text will be useful in undergraduate and graduate courses on diversity and multicultural education, international comparisons, educational studies, as well as graduate courses in sociology of education, critical educational studies, international comparisons, foundations of education, multicultural education, and qualitative research methods. [Foreword by Michael W. Apple.]   [More]  Descriptors: Qualitative Research, Multicultural Education, Educational Sociology, Democracy

Cabieses, Baltica; Espinoza, Manuel (2012). The Power of Chameleonic Ideas in the Policy Decision-Making Process: The Case of the "Students' Revolution" in Chile, Journal of Education for Teaching: International Research and Pedagogy. Chile is facing a major intellectual revolution: organised college students are arguing for the most significant educational reform since the period of dictatorship (1973-1990). Thousands of high-school and university students have refused to go to lessons since early June 2011, calling for better and more affordable education and an end to a two-tier system that offers a few wealthy, elite colleges amid many underfunded public ones. This phenomenon is, with the exception of a very few violent situations, a peaceful revolution based on the power of sound, evidence-based, clear and robust ideas. There is much that can be learned from this phenomenon. First, it represents the existence of a well-informed and empowered civil society in Chile, possibly a partial consequence of the country's socioeconomic instability and democratic development in the past three decades. Second, it illustrates how new generations are not prepared to live in the sort of "culture of fear" that has been well reported in other Latin American countries (for example Mexico, Colombia, Venezuela) in recent years. Third, and of particular interest, it provides evidence of the enormous power of robust and chameleonic ideas in the policy decision-making process. This discussion will briefly develop the idea that, along with civil empowerment and informed community participation through extensive communication and institutional channels, a crucial factor determining the success of the current students' educational revolution in Chile is the existence and use of chameleonic ideas that act as vehicles for successful infiltration of the political agenda. This reflection might shed some light on how to promote research activity into political action in an effective fashion.   [More]  Descriptors: Latin Americans, Conflict, Foreign Countries, Educational Change

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Bibliography: Democracy (page 493 of 605)

This bibliography is independently curated for the I'm with Jill website.  Some of the authors featured on this page include Philip A. Woods, Ross VeLure Roholt, Elizabeth A. Anderson, Crain Soudien, James L. Gibson, Michelle Reidel, William Gaudelli, Michael Singh, Carol P. Richardson, and Michael Fielding.

Miller-Lane, Jonathan; Howard, Tyrone C.; Halagao, Patricia Espiritu (2007). Civic Multicultural Competence: Searching for Common Ground in Democratic Education, Theory and Research in Social Education. During the past several decades, multicultural education has become an integral part of the social studies as a means to authentically prepare students for living in an inclusive and democratic society. Topics traditionally omitted, such as race, ethnicity, culture, social class, and gender, are now included. Yet, while multicultural education has helped to bring such topics into the social studies discourse, social studies has generally fallen short of taking a more critical approach to the preparation of citizens. In this work we review the professional literature in multicultural education and social studies education to clarify the distinctions between the fields. Then, we investigate the nexus between the two where we find reason for hope in a time when national political discussion is often polarized. We propose the notion of civic multicultural competence as a concept that challenges scholars and educators to move forward towards better preparing students for life in a multicultural, global society.   [More]  Descriptors: Social Class, Multicultural Education, Democracy, Social Studies

Waghid, Yusef (2007). Against "Smart" Thinking: A Response to Venitha Pillay, Perspectives in Education. In this response I argue that smart thinking would not necessarily engender democratic justice in our South African society. I contend that we need to cultivate responsible thinkers and that universities are favourably positioned to do so.   [More]  Descriptors: Democratic Values, Foreign Countries, Higher Education, Role of Education

Sawyer, Wayne; Singh, Michael; Woodrow, Christine; Downes, Toni; Johnston, Christine; Whitton, Diana (2007). Robust Hope and Teacher Education Policy, Asia-Pacific Journal of Teacher Education. The research question for this paper is: How can we mobilise robust hope in the analysis of teacher education policy? Specifically, this paper asks how a robust hope framework might speak to the "Top of the Class," a report into teacher education by the Australian House of Representatives Standing Committee on Education and Vocational Training.   [More]  Descriptors: Educational Policy, Foreign Countries, Teacher Education, Guidelines

Roholt, Ross VeLure; Hildreth, R. W.; Baizerman, Michael (2007). Chapter 11: Civic Youth Work, Child & Youth Services. We propose civic youth work as a new craft orientation in the family of child and youth care, education, social work, recreation and other relevant semi-to-full professions. We envision this practice as based in the philosophies and practical sciences of pedagogy, politics, and human development. The ideal-type civic youth worker will have a skilled praxis in understanding young people and working with them in democratic, inclusive, just and nonviolent ways in small groups on issues meaningful to them. The goals of such work are individual human development, strengthening of democratic institutions and practices, mastery of relevant knowledge and skills by young people, and positive, public change in this meaningful issue. The philosophical and praxis basis of this practitioner role are enumerated and examples given.   [More]  Descriptors: Youth Programs, Young Adults, Citizen Participation, Youth

Fielding, Michael (2007). The Human Cost and Intellectual Poverty of High Performance Schooling: Radical Philosophy, John Macmurray and the Remaking of Person-Centred Education, Journal of Education Policy. In order to address some of the key underlying issues currently distorting dominant approaches to schooling it is necessary to acknowledge and engage with our broad intellectual and cultural responsibilities currently shunned by contemporary policy. Philosophy has a key role to play here, in terms of both deconstruction and recommendation. Drawing on the Scottish philosopher John Macmurray, this article argues for the need to situate our work within an historical context that requires judgement about matters of significance and purpose, not mere efficiency and effectiveness. It further argues for the provision of a convincing account of the relational nature of the self that will, in turn, provide the basis of a framework for organisational and communal analysis. The particular framework offered names the dangers of a new totalitarianism exemplified by high performance models of schooling currently preoccupying contemporary practice, advocacy and aspiration. In seeking to reclaim the centrality of human being and becoming in any future education policy it also proposes a person-centred alternative that transforms and transcends the hegemony of insistent instrumentalism in favour of an inclusive, creative community as a more fitting aspiration for education in a democratic society.   [More]  Descriptors: History, Democracy, Educational Objectives, Educational Policy

Salinas, Cinthia S.; Reidel, Michelle (2007). The Cultural Politics of the Texas Educational Reform Agenda: Examining Who Gets What, When, and How, Anthropology & Education Quarterly. This critical policy examination of the economistic discourses that control Texas's accountability reforms explores how over the last three decades Texas business elite utilized the policy process, power relationships, and educational value conflicts that promote accountability as the paradigm for education reform. Attention on "who gets what, when, and how" finds the balance of educational values is distorted on behalf of the business-power elites and undermines the democratic authority of accountability reforms.   [More]  Descriptors: Politics of Education, Accountability, Educational Change, Educational Policy

Woods, Philip A. (2007). Authenticity in the Bureau-Enterprise Culture: The Struggle for Authentic Meaning, Educational Management Administration & Leadership. This article emphasizes the extent to which conceptions of authenticity are forged through social interaction and socially mediated identities and how, in turn, authentic leadership involves the transformation of the organizational, social or cultural order in which leadership is situated. The overarching context for this exploration of authentic leadership is the loss of authentic meaning inherent in modern times and the importance of developing a fulfilled identity as a way of developing the possibility of meaning. An analytical distinction is made between three dimensions of authenticity (personal, ideal, social) before turning to the specific social context constituted by the contemporary modern era. This context–the enhancement of entrepreneurialism in public sector organisations which gives rise to bureau-enterprise culture–is outlined and, building on sociological work by the author, the nature of social authenticity and identities, and how they interlink with the other dimensions in this culture, are explored. The task for educational leadership concerned with authenticity is, it is proposed, to take a strategic approach to searching out and maximising the democratic potential within contemporary trends towards the bureau-enterprise culture.   [More]  Descriptors: Democracy, Instructional Leadership, Entrepreneurship, Context Effect

Gaudelli, William (2007). Global Courts, Global Judges, and a Multicitizen Curriculum, Theory and Research in Social Education. Transjudicialism is a phenomenon where precedents derived beyond a particular venue, such as global, regional, and national courts, serve as legal rationale within sovereign jurisdictions. Transjudicialism is part of a broader trend towards judicial globalization where legal discourses transcend national jurisdictions and supra-national bodies render binding and non-binding decisions. This article sketches the broad contours of a nascent global legal system to demonstrate how judicial discourse has increasingly become globally oriented. I focus on transjudicialism as an example of that phenomenon, specifically, how it has occurred among appellate courts in the U.S. and in other nations. I suggest that the circumstances of judicial globalization illustrate at least one way that people are multicitizens, or those who have rights and responsibilities with regard to various publics from local to global. I argue that teaching about and for multicitizenship in social studies should draw on well-developed practices of democratic citizenship education, including inquiry and deliberation, along with an under-attended area in the field, that of forecasting, or future study.   [More]  Descriptors: Courts, Judges, Global Approach, Crime

Wingo, Ajume (2007). To Love Your Country as Your Mother: Patriotism after 9/11, Theory and Research in Education. The practical power of appeals to patriotism implies that patriotism in one form or another is here to stay. As such, arguments for the repudiation of patriotism cannot avoid seeming a bit utopian or ethereal. Practically speaking, we cannot repudiate patriotism and still have effective functioning states. To that end, political philosophers should concern themselves with finding legitimate uses of the potent tool that is patriotism. This article is one part of this project, and in it I consider one small but critical aspect of patriotism: specifically, the legitimate uses of patriotic capital–who should use it and when? Can one be a patriot–a state requiring at least some degree of chauvinism or parochialism–and a good liberal democrat at the same time? My answer is a categorical yes.   [More]  Descriptors: Patriotism, Democratic Values, Terrorism, Social Capital

Gibson, James L. (2007). "Truth" and "Reconciliation" as Social Indicators, Social Indicators Research. Countries throughout the world are trying to move toward a more democratic future through truth and reconciliation processes, under the assumption that truth causes reconciliation and that reconciliation contributes to democratization. But are "truth" and "reconciliation" concepts that can be measured rigorously and reliably? I present evidence in this article that each can be measured as an attribute of individuals, based on a large survey conducted in South Africa. My findings indicate that truth does indeed contribute to reconciliation. But because reconciliation is quite capable of changing (and likely to change) over time, efforts must be made to track levels of reconciliation as an important social indicator. Many countries in transition would profit greatly from implementing a Reconciliation Barometer to measure movement toward or away from the consolidation of democratic reform.   [More]  Descriptors: Democracy, Social Indicators, Foreign Countries, Social Change

Richardson, Carol P. (2007). Engaging the World: Music Education and the Big Ideas, Music Education Research. In this paper I address the distance between our practices as music educators and the democratic issues of equity, social justice and social consciousness. I first explore issues of elitism, identity politics, and our natural aversion to change. I then propose several approaches that we as university faculty may take through our curricula and classroom practices to bridge the gap between our democratic claims and our actual practices. These include macro-level, university-wide efforts, such as using the arts as a way to engage local communities in sustained reciprocal partnerships focused on societal issues, as well as micro-level approaches to democratizing classroom interactions by teaching students to examine their thinking using Paul and Elder's template for critical thinking.   [More]  Descriptors: Ideology, Music, Music Teachers, Justice

Anderson, Elizabeth A. (2007). "They Are the Priests": The Role of the Moldovan Historian and Its Implications for Civic Education, Compare: A Journal of Comparative Education. In present-day Moldova there is a perpetuation and continuity of Soviet academic culture, in which history is viewed as "a science" and not subject to a multiplicity of interpretations. A relatively small and interconnected group of historians dominate the academy and subsequently the textbook writing. They wield a great deal of power in socializing national subjects. The special place of historians in society creates an obstacle for effective civic education in the Moldovan classroom because it creates educational hierarchy, which is detrimental to the development of those skills and virtues that are considered essential for democratic society.   [More]  Descriptors: Foreign Countries, Textbook Preparation, Historians, Democracy

Soudien, Crain (2007). The Asymmetries of Contact: An Assessment of 30 Years of School Integration in South Africa, Race, Ethnicity and Education. The essential argument made in this paper is that contact in the South African school is structured around fundamentally asymmetric relations of "knowing" between groups. Three distinct periods are delineated, the first of which (1976-1990) contained the most substantial ideas and contributions to debates and actual steps taken with respect to social difference. The subsequent two periods (1990-1994 and 1994-present) failed to draw on the experience acquired during the first period. The impact of these developments has been to draw politically and culturally weaker groups into the world of the dominant, but in a consistently subordinate position. Significantly, however, distinct repertoires of "knowing," shaped by the political and social conjuncture, developed at different times. The discussion draws attention to problems with the appropriation of hegemonic forms of multiculturalism–assimilation–for explaining how contact and "knowing" are managed in the South African school.   [More]  Descriptors: School Desegregation, Social Differences, Cultural Pluralism, Foreign Countries

Jenkins, Elwyn R. (2007). Visual Design in Collections of Writing by South African Children, Children's Literature in Education. Visual aspects of 12 collections of children's writing that were published in South Africa between 1986 and 2003 are considered. The covers, illustrations, facsimiles of original writing and artwork, fonts, colours and author credits create images of childhood and youth and provide clues to the purposes for which the collections were made and published. Spanning the period from the last days of apartheid to today's modern, democratic country, they provide an unusual insight into the changing place of the young in South African society.   [More]  Descriptors: Foreign Countries, Color, Childrens Writing, Racial Segregation

Resnik, Julia (2007). Discourse Structuration in Israel, Democratization of Education and the Impact of the Global Education Network, Journal of Education Policy. The 1968 structural reform of the education system in Israel was part both of a global process of democratization of education launched after the Second World War and of a larger modernization project in which the social sciences played a crucial role. This dynamic was an expression of a conjunction of interests, in which political forces used research on educational matters in order to advance their socio-political agendas, while researchers used the state's interest in their work and in the "social problems" they elaborated in order to receive public funding and to obtain state recognition of their scientific contribution. This article traces the reformist discourse structuration–the process of institutionalization of the different social science discourses in state institutions, such as universities and national institutes–in order to disclose the social sciences/politics linkage in Israel. It also puts forward the argument that in order to understand discourse structuration at a national level, it is essential to consider an additional factor: global education networks. Global networks adopted a discourse inspired by the American school model that tended to be adopted by scholars in different countries. The article focuses on the processes in Israel whereby knowledge producers elaborated the "inequality of opportunity" and "ethnic gap" social problems, and proffered the 1968 structural reform as the solution.   [More]  Descriptors: Foreign Countries, Democracy, Social Problems, War

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Bibliography: Democracy (page 492 of 605)

This annotated bibliography is compiled and customized for the I'm with Jill website.  Some of the authors featured on this page include Mariela Chyrikins, John Annette, Arathi Sriprakash, Ingrid Schoon, Janis Bulgren, Thea Renda Abu El-Haj, Sarah McMonagle, Helen Cheng, Catharine R. Gale, and Tristan McCowan.

Muhr, Thomas (2010). Counter-Hegemonic Regionalism and Higher Education for All: Venezuela and the ALBA, Globalisation, Societies and Education. This paper employs new regionalism theory and regulatory regionalism theory in its analysis and theorisation of the Bolivarian Alliance for the Peoples of Our America (ALBA) as a counter-hegemonic Latin American and Caribbean (LAC) regionalism. As (initially) the regionalisation of Venezuela's Bolivarian Revolution, ALBA is centred around the idea of a twenty-first century socialism that replaces the "competitive advantage" with the "cooperative advantage". ALBA, as a set of multi-dimensional inter- and trans-national processes, operates within and across a range of sectors and scales whilst the structural transformations are driven by the interplay of state and non-state actors. The Venezuelan government's Higher Education For All (HEFA) policy, which is being regionalised within an emergent ALBA education space, assumes a key role in the direct democratic and participatory democratic processes upon which a bottom-up construction of counter-hegemony depends. HEFA challenges the globalised neoliberal higher education agenda of commoditisation, privatisation and elitism. Rather than producing enterprising subjects fashioned for global capitalism, HEFA seeks to form subjectivities along the moral values of solidarity and cooperation.   [More]  Descriptors: Higher Education, Ideology, Foreign Countries, Moral Values

Sriprakash, Arathi (2010). Child-Centred Education and the Promise of Democratic Learning: Pedagogic Messages in Rural Indian Primary Schools, International Journal of Educational Development. Global and national agendas to achieve universal primary education and improve the "quality" of school provision in developing countries have identified the need to reform classroom pedagogy. Since the 1990s, child-centred ideas in particular have been utilised in teacher-training programmes and school reforms across many parts of Africa and Asia with the intention of creating more child-friendly, democratic learning environments. Analysing episodes from classroom observations conducted in a rural Indian primary school, this paper reveals the tensions experienced by one teacher in handing over greater classroom control to pupils. It provides insight into the complex processes of pedagogic interaction, and sheds light on some of the possibilities and conditions for achieving child-centred pedagogic change in such development contexts.   [More]  Descriptors: Elementary Education, Educational Change, Foreign Countries, Rural Areas

Roholt, Ross VeLure; Hildreth, R. W.; Baizerman, Michael (2007). Chapter 7: Learning and Youth Civic Engagement, Child & Youth Services. Young people say that participation in civic youth work provides a rich experience. From the official perspective, learning is the focus, and most programs call themselves a form of experiential education. Young people do learn something from these initiatives but not always in ways experiential education theory suggests. Data from a study of the Youth Science Center, Public Achievement, and Youth-in-Government provide a more complete picture of the educational impact.   [More]  Descriptors: Young Adults, Service Learning, Citizen Participation, Democracy

Ciardiello, A. Vincent (2010). "Talking Walls": Presenting a Case for Social Justice Poetry in Literacy Education, Reading Teacher. This paper presents a case for reading and writing social justice poetry in the childhood educational curriculum. Social justice poetry uses verse to protest unfair and unjust living conditions in society. An historical case study shows how social justice poetry was used to combat social injustice in the United States. Specifically, it shows how young Chinese immigrants protested their incarceration at the Angel Island detention center in San Francisco Bay during the early decades of the 20th century. This case study is used as a model for implementing social justice poetry in the childhood education curriculum. Guidelines are suggested for the creation of other topics in which social justice poetry can be used for the development of democratic citizenship.   [More]  Descriptors: Social Justice, Literacy Education, Chinese Americans, Immigrants

Bulgren, Janis; Deshler, Donald D.; Lenz, B. Keith (2007). Engaging Adolescents with LD in Higher Order Thinking about History Concepts Using Integrated Content Enhancement Routines, Journal of Learning Disabilities. The understanding and use of historical concepts specified in national history standards pose many challenges to students. These challenges include both the acquisition of content knowledge and the use of that knowledge in ways that require higher order thinking. All students, including adolescents with learning disabilities (LD), are expected to understand and use concepts of history to pass high-stakes assessments and to participate meaningfully in a democratic society. This article describes "Content Enhancement Routines" (CERs) to illustrate instructional planning, teaching, and assessing for higher order thinking with examples from an American history unit. Research on the individual components of Content Enhancement Routines will be illustrated with data from 1 of the routines. The potential use of integrated sets of materials and procedures across grade levels and content areas will be discussed.   [More]  Descriptors: United States History, Instructional Development, Adolescents, National Standards

McMonagle, Sarah (2010). Deliberating the Irish Language in Northern Ireland: From Conflict to Multiculturalism?, Journal of Multilingual and Multicultural Development. The Belfast Agreement (1998) contains a clause on respect and tolerance for linguistic diversity in Northern Ireland (NI). It is unsurprising that this clause was included given the role of Irish–and Ulster Scots–in identity politics in the region. The call for respect for NI's languages can therefore be seen as a type of conflict management. Renewed powersharing through consociational arrangements points to a relatively successful peace process, while inward migration has greatly increased in recent years. NI's sociocultural landscape has diversified to such a degree that respect for linguistic diversity should no longer be viewed solely as a means of reconciliation between just two communities; it can be treated as a move towards overall multiculturalism in the region. Yet language issues remain divisive, recently highlighted by the rejection of legislative protection for the Irish language. This article examines current attitudes towards linguistic diversity in NI, with reference to the comprehensive Northern Ireland Languages Strategy and the ongoing dispute over Irish. Viewed through the prism of linguistic diversity, it suggests that the basic consociational arrangements be re-thought to include a deliberative democratic model for language planning, in the long-term path from conflict management to multiculturalism.   [More]  Descriptors: Language Planning, Multilingualism, Conflict, Cultural Pluralism

Chyrikins, Mariela; Vieyra, Magdalena (2010). Making the Past Relevant to Future Generations. The Work of the Anne Frank House in Latin America, Intercultural Education. This paper provides the context and outlines the barriers and opportunities for developing promising Holocaust education programmes in Latin America, especially working with diverse communities and societies. In particular, the conflictual history of Latin American and recent democratization processes present opportunities for educational work. It is argued that teaching about the history of the Holocaust through a human rights and anti-racism lens can be an especially effective tool. The authors take the work of the Anne Frank House in Latin America as a case study of how Holocaust education can be connected to human rights education in an attempt to help young people in Latin America confront their past as well as their present situation. The insights gained from such work in Latin America can help educators to develop future programmes in various Latin American countries, as well as in other post-conflict societies.   [More]  Descriptors: Civil Rights, Foreign Countries, Latin Americans, Death

Annette, John (2010). The Challenge of Developing Civic Engagement in Higher Education in England, British Journal of Educational Studies. This paper explores how civic engagement as an important dimension of public engagement in higher education has been slow to develop in the UK, despite an important history dating from the "civic universities" in the nineteenth century. I specifically consider the development of "service learning" as an important way in which the values and practices of democratic citizenship can be embedded in the curriculum of higher education. Finally, I examine how the decline of the ideal of "public service" in the UK provides some significant barriers to the re-development of the civic university.   [More]  Descriptors: Higher Education, Democracy, Service Learning, Foreign Countries

Ferber, Paul; Foltz, Franz; Pugliese, Rudy (2007). Cyberdemocracy and Online Politics: A New Model of Interactivity, Bulletin of Science, Technology & Society. Building on McMillan's two-way model of interactivity, this study presents a three-way model of interactive communication, which is used to assess political Web sites' progress toward the ideals of cyberdemocracy and the fostering of public deliberation. Results of a 3-year study of state legislature Web sites, an analysis of the community networks, and a review of purely political sites such as,, and are reported. Little deliberation was found on the legislature sites, but opportunities for such were greater on the other types of sites.   [More]  Descriptors: Internet, Democracy, Web Sites, State Government

Zhao, Guoping (2007). Behind the Pedagogy: Classroom Discourse and the Construction of the Self, Teaching Education. This paper critically examines contemporary American classroom discourses and tries to understand the effects of the larger social and cultural meanings that have penetrated the discourses. The central question of this article is why the seemingly justified, admirable, and inspiring ideas of child-centeredness and democratic education often result in poor educational outcomes. I suggest that the unique American construction of the self has helped generate the type of classroom practices that render the educational outcomes inconsistent with their intent.   [More]  Descriptors: Democracy, Outcomes of Education, Cultural Differences, Discourse Analysis

Brandao, Caius (2007). Children Have the Right to Have Rights, Exchange: The Early Childhood Leaders' Magazine Since 1978. The United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC) has forged a fundamental shift of paradigm in program and public policy design. Whereas in most countries the needs-based approach has historically guided services and policies for children, the CRC sets out a new perspective based on the human rights of all children. This perspective requires the active participation of children and families, which has been proved to be a key success factor in program and policy design, implementation, and evaluation. Furthermore, it allows children and families to become subjects of their own lives and aware of their rights-holders condition. Thus, they no longer expect favors. On the contrary, they are empowered to demand their rights. Changing from the needs-based to the rights-based approach in program and policy development is not an easy task, but the CRC has become a powerful instrument for children's rights advocates.   [More]  Descriptors: Public Policy, Advocacy, Childrens Rights, Civil Rights

McCowan, Tristan (2010). School Democratization in Prefigurative Form: Two Brazilian Experiences, Education, Citizenship and Social Justice. Recent moves towards greater pupil participation in school decision-making have in part been based on instrumental rationales, such as increases in test scores and improvements in behaviour. This article assesses a different approach–that of the "prefigurative"–through which the school embodies the democratic society it aims to create. Two examples of prefigurative initiatives in Brazil are assessed: the Landless Movement, a social movement for agrarian reform that runs a large network of schools in its rural communities, and the Plural School, a framework of social inclusion in the municipal education system of Belo Horizonte. Qualitative case studies of the two showed significant enhancement of the democratic culture of the schools and changes in the teacher-student relationship. However, a number of problematic issues were also raised, including the difficulties in extending participation to the whole student body, and the tensions with teachers when students began to exert greater influence in school. Finally, the implications of these prefigurative cases for an understanding of education for democratic citizenship are drawn out.   [More]  Descriptors: Democracy, Educational Change, Rural Areas, Foreign Countries

Schoon, Ingrid; Cheng, Helen; Gale, Catharine R.; Batty, G. David; Deary, Ian J. (2010). Social Status, Cognitive Ability, and Educational Attainment as Predictors of Liberal Social Attitudes and Political Trust, Intelligence. We examined the prospective associations between family socio-economic background, childhood intelligence ("g") at age 11, educational and occupational attainment, and social attitudes at age 33 in a large (N = 8804), representative sample of the British population born in 1958. Structural equation Modeling identified a latent trait of "liberal social attitudes" underlying attitude factors that are antiracist, socially liberal, and in support of gender equality. Another attitude factor–"political trust"–was relatively independent from the latent attitude trait and has somewhat different pathways in relation to the other variables included in the analysis. There was a direct association between higher "g" at age 11 and more liberal social attitudes and political trust at age 33. For both men and women the association between "g" and liberal social attitudes was partly mediated via educational qualifications, and to a much lesser extent via adult occupational attainment. For women the association between "g" and political trust was partly mediated through both educational qualification and occupational attainment, and for men it was mediated mainly via occupational attainment. Men and women who had higher educational qualifications and higher occupational status tend to be more socially liberal and more trusting of the democratic political system. In terms of socio-economic background, people from less privileged families showed less political trust, but did not differ much in liberal social attitudes from those born into relatively more privileged circumstances. This study shows that social background, cognitive ability, education, and own social status influence perceptions of society.   [More]  Descriptors: Social Status, Employment Level, Trust (Psychology), Social Attitudes

El-Haj, Thea Renda Abu (2007). "I Was Born Here, but My Home, It's Not Here": Educating for Democratic Citizenship in an Era of Transnational Migration and Global Conflict, Harvard Educational Review. In this article, Thea Renda Abu El-Haj shares her research on how a group of Palestinian American high school youth understand themselves as members of the U.S. community, of the Palestinian American community, and of communities in Palestine. She argues that, for these youth, coming to terms with who they are has a great deal to do both with how they view themselves and how Palestinian Americans are viewed in the imagined community of the United States, especially after September 11, 2001. Her research reports on the tensions these youth face as they deal with school issues, like pledging allegiance to the U.S. flag, teacher harassment, and disciplinary sanctions related to being framed as "terrorists," that affect how they think about citizenship and belonging. Given the complex way these and other youth experience belonging, Abu El-Haj ends with a call for a greater commitment to, and a more nuanced understanding of, citizenship education.   [More]  Descriptors: Sanctions, Citizenship, Democracy, Citizenship Education

Gambescia, Stephen F. (2007). 2007 SOPHE Presidential Address: Discovering a Philosophy of Health Education, Health Education & Behavior. While we have several hallmarks of a mature profession, does this include a well-articulated "Philosophy of Health Education?" High-order questions should be important to both practitioners and researchers in health education. This address outlines why it is important for us to have a philosophy of health education, an approach that we could take in such a project, and brief illustrations of how one's philosophy of health education impacts our work. Studying philosophy is a discipline unto itself. The suggestion is made for us to take a systematic look at fundamental questions about who we are, what areas of the human condition we choose to affect, why (and in what way) we do the things we do, and what difference we are making. If using a traditional philosophical framework of inquiry, three major and important areas of questioning would be examined, falling in the areas of epistemology, ethical and moral discourse, and governance and justice. Discovering a philosophy of health education understandably could be far a field from one's research agenda. However, if the profound statement that, of all the functions that a public health department provides, health education quite possibly could be the most essential service in a democratic society is true, then it is important for us, on balance, to get it right, thus giving a strong rationale for us to discover our own brand, as opposed to a borrowed, philosophy of health education.   [More]  Descriptors: Health Education, Health Promotion, Democracy, Public Health

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Bibliography: Democracy (page 491 of 605)

This annotated bibliography is curated specifically for the I'm with Jill website.  Some of the authors featured on this page include Kathy Fredrick, Jean Webb, Clyde Chitty, Janice M. Walker, Susan V. Iverson, Stephen Bigger, Maria Westvall, Konai Helu Thaman, Carol Anne Spreen, and Deirdre M. Kelly.

Walker, Janice M. (2010). "It Takes at Least Two to Tangle", Journal of Cases in Educational Leadership. Despite past lessons, book-banning continues to exist at all levels within our democratic society. This case presents a realistic scenario when the school district, facing a book challenge by a concerned parent, responds by removing the book from the library. On the basis of a true story, the study features a parent of an elementary child challenging a school library book for inappropriate content. The case undergirds issues surrounding First Amendment rights and may also be used to discuss same-sex relationships and topics dealing with social justice such as homosexuality. The case study may be used with courses within Educational Leadership curriculum specifically educational leadership, curriculum design and development, educational law, community relationship, and supervision.   [More]  Descriptors: School Libraries, Books, Censorship, Parent School Relationship

Kelly, Deirdre M. (2010). A Critical Inquiry and Antioppressive Approach to Teacher Education, Teacher Education and Practice. A concern for social justice in teacher education raises questions about the ways that schooling has failed to serve many students from diverse backgrounds. Who gets how much schooling is still an important issue. Equally vital is the kind of education that children and youth receive–and who decides. A focus on social and historical context reveals multiple inequalities that influence access to, treatment in, and outcomes of schooling. Teachers alone cannot solve these injustices and inequities. But teaching is an inherently moral enterprise, and teachers' daily actions do matter in the effort to build a more just, caring, and democratic society. Preparing teachers to engage in this intellectually and politically demanding work is therefore of utmost importance. Taking diversity seriously–diversity of teacher, student, and community populations, including global immigration flows–is essential to preparing teachers for the 21st century. In this article, the author discusses a critical inquiry and antioppressive approach to teacher education. A critical inquiry and antioppressive approach to teacher education demands that educators think beyond and attempt to counter still-prevalent deficit notions of school-age children as well as classroom teachers.   [More]  Descriptors: Social Justice, Democracy, Educational Change, Student Diversity

Burruss, Jennifer R. (2010). Democratic versus Capitalistic: A Case Study Analysis of One Community College Mission, ProQuest LLC. The purpose of this study was to analyze the mission of a community college regarding a change from democratic to capitalistic. A case study methodology was employed by converging on one North Carolina community college. Data were gathered by conducting 4 individual interviews, 3 focus groups, and document analyses. Documents examined included mission statements, both current and past; long range goals; service reviews from the Continuing Education office; past statements of purpose and objectives; and college catalogs. Data were coded into 30 categories that generated 3 major themes and 3 minor themes. Each theme was related to each original research question through mission alignment, business and industry collaboration, and curriculum. All data sources yielded a great deal of information that supported both the democratic and capitalistic approach. The results showed evidence of both the capitalistic and democratic missions coexisting on this campus.   [The dissertation citations contained here are published with the permission of ProQuest LLC. Further reproduction is prohibited without permission. Copies of dissertations may be obtained by Telephone (800) 1-800-521-0600. Web page:   [More]  Descriptors: Community Colleges, Focus Groups, Interviews, Institutional Mission

Spreen, Carol Anne; Vally, Salim (2010). Prospects and Pitfalls: A Review of Post-Apartheid Education Policy Research and Analysis in South Africa, Comparative Education. The 10-year anniversary of the first democratic elections in South Africa in 2004 provoked much reflection and fuelled new policy debates on both the progress and failures of educational reform. While a myriad of achievements have been touted and are well-known to international audiences, a swelling critique from inside South Africa shows that much work remains to be done. By glancing backward as a way to understand how to move forward, we review several important recently published books on post-apartheid education policy to learn how policies were conceived, what went well and what went seriously wrong. In engaging this extended analysis we provide a glimpse into the unique set of circumstances and challenges faced by the South African government over the last 15 years (namely the tensions between equity and redress and global competitiveness), while offering a sustained critique of the resulting policy outcomes through a social justice lens.   [More]  Descriptors: Social Justice, Racial Segregation, Elections, Audiences

Iverson, Susan V.; James, Jennifer H. (2010). Becoming "Effective" Citizens? Change-Oriented Service in a Teacher Education Program, Innovative Higher Education. The authors investigated the impact of 22 pre-service teachers' participation in a change-oriented service-learning project on their conceptions of citizenship as civic actors and civic educators. The goal of this project was to push students toward adopting more critically conscious and activist conceptions of citizenship as aligned with the needs of a democratic society. Using Eyler and Giles' (1999) typology of effective citizenship as an analytic framework, we describe how students' participation in this project led to demonstrated growth along all five dimensions of effective citizenship. Yet, analysis revealed that, despite the project's change-orientation, students' conceptions of citizenship failed to move beyond personal responsibility to include enhanced social consciousness and the importance of collective action. Thus, we raise critical questions about what constitutes "effective citizenship" in a democratic society and the role of higher education in preparing teachers to embody and enact such a vision.   [More]  Descriptors: Preservice Teacher Education, Citizenship, Democracy, Service Learning

Alvarado, Felix (2010). AED and Education in Contexts of Fragility: Providing Support to Education over the Long Haul, Academy for Educational Development. The purpose of this document is to describe AED's extensive experience in six countries that have undergone periods of violent conflict or natural disaster followed by extended and complex periods of increasing resilience, and if possible extract lessons learned from it. The focus is on what we have learned about effectively and sustainably restoring education in a context of development. This paper is timely for two reasons. First, the number of low-income countries experiencing crises, especially war, continues to escalate (Collier 2009). Second, there is a growing consensus among countries and donors that restoring education systems should begin as soon as the security of teachers and students can be assured and not wait until the termination of relief efforts. Education should be part of the solution from the beginning of the rebuilding process. It is hoped that this paper will facilitate that work in the future. This paper begins by reviewing AED's work over the last two decades in six countries on two continents (El Salvador,Guatemala, Honduras, and Nicaragua in Latin America, and Ethiopia and Namibia in sub-Saharan Africa), considering their history and education sector as they move from fragility and attempt to consolidate education reform. This section seeks to extract lessons concerning the actual relationship between the education sector and fragility or resilience and what this has meant for AED's role promoting change in the education sector through its interactions with governments and donors. A second section takes the findings and underlines the interaction between donor, recipient, and implementer. A final section suggests paths for conceptual and operational development to better integrate assistance in crises with assistance for development in the education sector, and considers how this may be related to the degree of fragility or resilience, and how this may be further examined.   [More]  Descriptors: Educational Change, Foreign Countries, Donors, Low Income

Georgii-Hemming, Eva; Westvall, Maria (2010). Music Education–A Personal Matter? Examining the Current Discourses of Music Education in Sweden, British Journal of Music Education. The embedding of informal practices in music education in school relates to significant issues concerning students' engagement, participation, inclusion and the role of the teacher. This article addresses these issues by presenting and discussing current music education in compulsory comprehensive schooling in Sweden. It does so by drawing upon music pedagogical research, music education studies conducted during the last 10 years and national evaluations. Examples of practice from upper secondary schools are also used to clarify and illustrate the issues under consideration. It has been said that Swedish music education has gone from "School Music" to "Music in School". This development has been characterised by greater influence of students on curriculum content resulting in increased use of popular music, and, consequently, teaching strategies acquired from informal music playing contexts. The curriculum states that the core of the subject is practical music playing, through which personal development can occur–both musically and socially. Music education in several other countries is developing a more practical approach, and the role of popular music in schools, and what is sometimes called informal learning, is featured in international music pedagogy debates. This article considers the musical, pedagogical and democratic consequences of this pedagogy from a Swedish perspective. As a result of a sharp focus on personal social development and individual students' musical interests, music education in Sweden has become relatively limited in terms of repertoire, content and teaching methods. Recent evaluations and studies also demonstrate that music education lacks direction, and is short of creative engagement with music. The role of the teacher is unclear and sometimes lacks validity in a practical music education situation. Viewed from an international perspective, the kind of music education that has developed in Sweden is unique. Thus, when the possibilities and limitations of music education in Sweden are discussed, it has the potential to be of interest to international music education research.   [More]  Descriptors: Music Education, Informal Education, Music, Foreign Countries

Fredrick, Kathy (2010). In the Driver's Seat: Learning and Library 2.0 Tools, School Library Monthly. It is important for educators to find the appropriate tool to unlock learning possibilities for students. A first step toward using the appropriate tool is for school librarians to review the course of study. They need to look at the units and projects taught in the past. They then need to think about how to integrate Web 2.0 applications to extend student learning and create compelling interactive learning. The world of library 2.0 is rich–and bewildering–in all its choices. School librarians can use the organizing concepts of AASL's "Standards for the 21st-Century Learner" to get started and think about the possibilities. The author discusses four AASL's "Standards for the 21st-Century Learner": (1) Inquire, think critically, and gain knowledge; (2) Draw conclusions, make informed decisions, apply knowledge to new situations, and create new knowledge; (3) Share knowledge and participate ethically and productively as members of a democratic society; and (4) Pursue personal and aesthetic growth.   [More]  Descriptors: Democracy, Librarians, School Libraries, Computer Uses in Education

Thaman, Konai Helu (2010). Teacher Capacities for Working towards Peace and Sustainable Development, International Journal of Sustainability in Higher Education. Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to highlight the importance of values and beliefs rooted in "non-Western" cultures in implementing global education initiatives such as education for sustainable development (ESD) at the regional and local levels. This is because many of these initiatives are often derived from "Western" cultures and values. Also to reaffirm the importance for educators to respect and use local and indigenous ways of life and knowledge systems in order to make teaching and learning more relevant and meaningful for Pacific students; and to advocate for the development of teachers' capacities to better contextualize their teaching and create more culturally inclusive learning environments. Design/methodology/approach: Informed by the findings of her research on cultural values, educational ideas and teachers' role perception in Tonga, plus her work as the UNESCO Chair in Teacher Education and Culture at the University of South Pacific, the author presents her reflections on the need to further enhance teachers and teacher educators in the Pacific region. Findings: The findings suggests that teacher education programmes that are designed to cultivate teachers' cultural competence may better contribute to making Pacific education more relevant and effective. Originality/value: The ESD discourse often attaches importance to traditional and indigenous knowledge, but there is limited literature discussing how and for what purposes indigenous ways of knowing should be integrated into teacher education. This paper challenges the neglect of teachers in the international education reform discourses; points out the vital role of teachers in facilitating educational reforms, and contributes understanding of the types of teacher capacities higher education needs to foster for peace and sustainability through the case of the Pacific region.   [More]  Descriptors: Teacher Education, Indigenous Knowledge, International Education, Role Perception

Gainer, Jesse S. (2010). Critical Media Literacy in Middle School: Exploring the Politics of Representation, Journal of Adolescent & Adult Literacy. This article explores issues of critical media literacy with middle school students in an urban setting in the United States. The author focuses on data from a qualitative study engaging students in the reading and writing of video texts. The article examines intersections of issues relating to the "crisis of representation" in social science research and critical media literacy pedagogy. The middle school participants involved in this media literacy project proved to be quite articulate in regard to their critique of mainstream media. In addition, the students resisted teacher-centered approaches to critical media literacy that would have them creating counternarratives based on the "politics of the mundane." The author argues for the importance of a critical media literacy pedagogy that is careful to make curricular space for students' discussions and explorations of issues of representation in media texts.   [More]  Descriptors: Social Science Research, Social Sciences, Media Literacy, Middle School Students

Torres, Myriam N. (2010). Challenges in Engaging Communities in Bottom-Up Literacies for Democratic Citizenship, Education, Citizenship and Social Justice. The purpose of this article is to examine the authors' experiences while trying to enter and engage local communities in bottom-up literacies through participatory action research (PAR) toward the community's own collective self-development. In trying to enter five different communities, I have found several challenges and roadblocks such as mistrust of "university people": legacy of the conventional outside-in and top-down research procedures for working in communities; power struggles with community "gatekeepers", including "building keepers"; and bureaucratized project-driven community work. I consider that under the current neoliberal educational policies that are plaguing the world, for example, No Child Left Behind in the USA, self-development projects promoted through PAR can be viable ways to defy these policies and their fatalist thinking. School children's parents and their communities are nowadays in a better position than teachers to fight for reclaiming local control of curriculum, pedagogy and assessment.   [More]  Descriptors: Action Research, Federal Legislation, Democracy, Citizenship

Chitty, Clyde (2010). Educating for Political Activity, Educational Review. The term "political activity" can be interpreted in a myriad of different ways, but in this paper, it is taken to mean involvement in a variety of campaigns around issues affecting the way we live and the sort of society we want to live in. At a time when support for the main political parties has never been weaker, it is essential that teachers aim to combat cynicism and apathy among their young students by encouraging them to take an interest in all manner of social and political causes. It is, of course, true that teachers who do this are open to the charge of indoctrination, but this should not deter them from bringing relevant political issues into the curriculum. It is argued that this can best be done through such subjects as English, history, geography and religious education, rather than through a distinct and separate articulation of citizenship.   [More]  Descriptors: Foreign Countries, Politics, Political Issues, Activism

Wildemeersch, Danny; Vandenabeele, Joke (2010). Issues of Citizenship: Coming-into-Presence and Preserving the Difference, International Journal of Lifelong Education. This paper explores how the report "Learning through Life" exemplifies the dominant policy discourse on lifelong learning emphasizing strongly individual social mobility. The paper explores further how this functionalist and reductionist turn in (adult) education has come about and how concepts of democratic citizenship and education may create new perspectives on how to deal with important challenges of society today.   [More]  Descriptors: Lifelong Learning, Role of Education, Futures (of Society), Citizenship

Noonan, James M. (2010). Re-Imagining Teacher Professional Development and Citizenship Education: Lessons for Import from Colombia, Online Submission. This paper examines the role of teachers in the implementation of citizenship education in Colombia. Consistent with its highly-decentralized school system, Colombia's National Program of Citizenship Competencies was developed with the participation of many local, national, and international partners. Among the most involved and most critical participants were the primary implementers of the reform: teachers. Teacher training is important to student achievement, but in a context that also seeks to teach democratic citizenship, training must be attentive to reciprocal learning and shared leadership. This paper highlights the impact of teacher training in one rural department and how a cross-cultural collaboration between Colombian and US-based educators benefited practitioners on both sides. Four key lessons on the design and delivery of professional development on citizenship education (and more broadly) are offered for educators and policymakers: the use of democratic pedagogy; the promotion and extension of teachers' self-awareness; the cross-pollination of perspectives across all levels; and a humble and inclusive expertise.   [More]  Descriptors: Citizenship, Democracy, Citizenship Education, Educational Change

Bigger, Stephen; Webb, Jean (2010). Developing Environmental Agency and Engagement through Young People's Fiction, Environmental Education Research. This article explores the extent to which stories for young people encourage environmental engagement and a sense of agency. Our discussion is informed by the work of Paul Ricoeur (on hermeneutics and narrative), John Dewey (on primacy of experience) and John Macmurray (on personal agency in society). We understand fiction reading about place as hermeneutical, that is, interpreting understanding by combining what is read with what is experienced. We investigate this view through examples of four children's writers: Ernest Thompson Seton, Kenneth Grahame, Michelle Paver and Philip Pullman. We draw attention to notions of critical dialogue and active democratic citizenship. With a focus on the educational potential of this material for environmental discussions that lead to deeper understandings of place and environment, we examine whether the examples consistently encourage the belief that young people can become agents for change. We also consider whether the concept of "heroic resister" might encourage young people to overcome peer pressure and peer cultures that marginalize environmental activism. We conclude by recommending the focused discussion of fiction to promote environmental learning; and for writers to engage more with themes of environmental responsibility and agency.   [More]  Descriptors: Environmental Education, Democracy, Young Adults, Peer Influence

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Bibliography: Democracy (page 490 of 605)

This annotated bibliography is reformatted and customized for the I'm with Jill website.  Some of the authors featured on this page include Ann Norton, Michael Fielding, V. Karongo, Donalyn Heise, S. Y. Ampofo, Peggy F. Hopper, Daniel Perlstein, Ellen Middaugh, Leslie McClain, and Jim Garrison.

Norton, Ann; Wilson, Kristin (2015). A Longitudinal View of the Liberal Arts Curriculum a Decade after Merger: A Multiple Case Study of Community Colleges in Connecticut, Kentucky, and Louisiana, Community College Journal of Research and Practice. This study is an examination of the state of the liberal arts curriculum in community colleges in three geographic regions of the United States. From a constructivist paradigm and using globalization theory as a theoretical framework, this multiple case study examined faculty work life and administrative processes related to curriculum change in merged community and technical colleges. Through an examination of research on globalization, mergers, and trends in the general education and liberal arts curriculum, a gap in the literature emerged in the studies of community college curriculums after merger. This study considers whether the focus on workforce development and decrease in the transfer mission has diminished the liberal arts courses in the college curriculum. Research on liberal arts courses identified them as courses that emphasize higher order thinking and the development of intellectual skills needed to engage in a democratic society. If students are not exposed to these skills, it may have a detrimental effect on a democratic society. Study findings suggested that the English and communication curriculums are narrowing and the mission is more toward workforce skill preparation. Also, the changing demographics of today's community college students, as well as the ongoing budget constraints, create challenges and frustrations for faculty members.   [More]  Descriptors: Community Colleges, Liberal Arts, Constructivism (Learning), Global Approach

Rosas, Marisela (2010). College Student Activism: An Exploration of Learning Outcomes, ProQuest LLC. Researchers, politicians, and the public have criticized colleges and universities for not effectively preparing college students to be active participants in their communities and within a democratic society. Institutional initiatives on civic engagement have focused on community service and service-learning initiatives to meet this demand. The existing literature, therefore, focuses on these civic engagement involvements and the outcomes associated with involvement. Little research is conducted on another form of civic engagement, activism. This study address the gap in the literature related to activism. Specifically, the purpose of this study was to identify the learning outcomes associated with student participation in activism.   Data from the Higher Education Research Institute's surveys, the 1999 Student Information Form (SIF) and the 2003 College Student Survey (CSS), were used in this study. The theoretical framework for this study was Astin's Theory of Student Involvement and the conceptual framework for this study was influenced by Pascarella's General Model for Assessing Change and Astin's Input-Environment-Output Model. The statistical analyses conducted in order to answer the research questions were multiple regression and logistic regression.   The results of this study provide some noteworthy findings that improve our understanding of activism and its effect on the learning outcomes of undergraduate students. First, students involved in activism or not involved in activism were no different when comparing demographic descriptive data (gender, modal age, college grades, etc.). Students differed in their academic course selection and out-of-class involvements. Secondly, characteristics positively predicting involvement in activism were male, African-American or Latino, involved in leadership training and racial/ethnic student organizations, who experienced high faculty support, and who enrolled in ethnic and women's studies' courses. Thirdly, student with high socio-political influence scores were associated with positive growth in all four of the learning outcomes, while student involvement in demonstrations was associated with positive growth in only two of the learning outcomes: humanitarianism and knowledge acquisition and application. Finally, the conditional analysis conducted to determine if different students (e.g., female and male, and White and Latino, African American, etc.) experience differently the effects of involvement in activism on the learning outcomes found: (a) conditional effects existed for males and females for the learning outcome humanitarianism and (b) no conditional effects existed for students of different racial/ethnic groups.   This examination of specific learning outcomes associated with activism offers student affairs professionals and higher education scholars and policy-makers a better understanding of what students gain from their activism. In addition, the results of this study contribute to the body of knowledge on the role of college involvements in developing an action-oriented citizen.   [The dissertation citations contained here are published with the permission of ProQuest LLC. Further reproduction is prohibited without permission. Copies of dissertations may be obtained by Telephone (800) 1-800-521-0600. Web page:   [More]  Descriptors: Undergraduate Students, Activism, Democracy, Ethnic Groups

McClain, Leslie; Ylimaki, Rose; Ford, Michael P. (2010). Wisdom and Compassion in Democratic Leadership: Perceptions of the Bodhisattva Ideal, Journal of School Leadership. At the heart of democratic leadership rests a deep respect for what it means to be human, the cultivation of the common good, and the need to act according to one's own direction. If democratic leadership aims to create an environment in which people are encouraged and supported in "aspiring to truths about the world" (Woods, 2005, p. xvi), then wisdom and compassion must be critical components of such leadership. Through qualitative study, we interviewed administrators and teachers for their perceptions about wisdom and compassion as related to democratic leadership in schools. Such expressions have not been characterized and discussed in the mainstream educational leadership literature; however, they have been documented for centuries across philosophies and religions, including the Mahayana Buddhist teachings of the six virtues of the Bodhisattva, the awakened spiritual leader. The purpose of this article is to explore, through extant literature and empirical research findings, administrators' and teacher leaders' perceptions of wisdom and compassion as being relevant and essential to democratic educational leadership.   [More]  Descriptors: Humanism, Individualism, Democracy, Leadership

Williams, Leslie; Cate, Jean; O'Hair, Mary John (2009). The Boundary-Spanning Role of Democratic Learning Communities: Implementing the IDEALS, Educational Management Administration & Leadership. This multi-case study investigates characteristics and practices in schools that expand the traditional boundaries of school leadership and transform schools into democratic learning communities based on the level of implementation of the IDEALS framework. This investigation serves as a modus to illuminate democratic processes that change schools and address the needs of the students, not the needs of the adults in the system. A sample of five purposefully selected high schools, from the Midwest USA, was utilized. The schools serve Grade 9-12 students, but vary in size, residential area and socioeconomic status of the students. This study illuminates some of the challenges and strategies that facilitate or impede the process of creating more democratic schools that expand the boundaries of inquiry and discourse to include a broader range of community stakeholders and that respect and embrace issues of equity.   [More]  Descriptors: Educational Change, High Schools, Instructional Leadership, Institutional Characteristics

Tshabangu, Icarbord (2009). The Challenge of Researching Violent Societies: Navigating Complexities in Ethnography, Issues in Educational Research. Through use of a recent study researching democratic education and citizenship in Zimbabwe, this paper examines the methodological dilemmas and challenges faced by an ethnographer, particularly by a research student in a violent context. The article posits a bricolage strategy to navigate some of the dangers and methodological dilemmas inherent so as to bring about rigour in an environment empty of convention and lacking the rule of law. To navigate such societies ridden with violence and conflict, the bricolage strategy used a multidisciplinary approach, part of which included triangulation, mixed methods, distance and insider status. These research strategies are discussed in this paper and recommendations posited.   [More]  Descriptors: Research Problems, Democracy, Research Methodology, Interdisciplinary Approach

Ampofo, S. Y.; Bizimana, B.; Ndayambaje, I.; Karongo, V.; Lawrence, K. Lyn; Orodho, J. A. (2015). Social and Spill-Over Benefits as Motivating Factors to Investment in Formal Education in Africa: A Reflection around Ghanaian, Kenyan and Rwandan Contexts, Journal of Education and Practice. This study examined the social and spill-over benefits as motivating factors to investment in formal education in selected countries in Africa. The paper had three objectives, namely) to profile the key statistics of formal schooling; ii) examine the formal education and iii) link national goals of education with expectations in Ghana, Kenya and Rwanda. The major contention of the paper is that investment in education is not a matter of random choice but rather an imperative led by the fact that education holds returns and externalities to the largest society. Authors reviewed theory of human capital, local and international publications on social and spill over benefits of education focusing on Ghana, Kenya and Rwanda. The analysis of government policies and other publications from these three African nations have shown that education is considered as a key sector in these developing nations. Nevertheless, the researchers found out that mostly only primary and secondary education are distinctively accorded considerable public financial resources which might be associated with the countries limited financial ability, competitive needs, national and global trends. However, the fact that Ghana, Kenya and Rwanda strive to become democratic, self-reliant and middle income nations by conquering long terms set visions in which caliber manpower, welfare, self-employment, reduced social inequalities, increase in average income, knowledge based society, ICT driven and sustainable economy are key characteristics; it is imperative to invest substantially in TVET and higher education. It is also recommended that Ghana, Kenya and Rwanda put in place strong institutions that objectively, effectively and rationally ensure the efficient use of all available resources towards maximum educational outputs.   [More]  Descriptors: Foreign Countries, Social Influences, Motivation, Role of Education

Pryor, Caroline R. (2010). How Democratic Practitioners Can Address School Bullying: An Imperative for Educational Leaders, Scholar-Practitioner Quarterly. There are various ideas about the root causes of bullying, such as the bully's prior victimization or perception of a student's position in a perceived popular peer group. Remediation suggestions include using various types of literature to help students gain interpersonal perspective from the lives of others. Some research notes that parental and community involvement in school problems can help change a culture of school bullying. Less discussed in the literature about bullying are calls to provide K-12 teachers "a deep structure" of the principles foundational to the ways in which people communicate cultural expectations for participation in American democratic society. Studies of teacher beliefs indicate that knowledge of democratic ideals is a strong predictor of teacher integration of these ideals into their classroom practices. In this brief essay the author posits that administrators as educational leaders are central to communicating the importance of teachers understanding the principles of a democratic society, and teaching the ideals of liberty, justice, and equal opportunity.   [More]   [More]  Descriptors: Bullying, Elementary Secondary Education, Democracy, Community Involvement

Heise, Donalyn (2010). Folk Art in the Urban Artroom, Art Education. This article provides a rationale for integrating folk art in an urban K-12 art classroom to provide meaningful instruction for all students. The integration of folk art can provide a safe, nurturing environment for all students to learn by acknowledging the value of art in the community. It can prepare students for participation in a democratic society by recognizing the richness of multiple perspectives found in individual and community creations. It can provide access to art for students who may have never viewed art in a museum or gallery setting. Rather than promoting an approach to art education that reduces art to a commodity, or simply teaching a technique, integrating folk art embraces a concept of teaching that celebrates the uniqueness in each person, and encourages them to think globally using universal themes. This article provides lesson examples and resources for integrating folk art in the art curriculum. This information may provide insight for art teachers using folk art to empower youth who are often labeled as at-risk by societal institutions.   [More]  Descriptors: Elementary Secondary Education, Democracy, Art Education, Art Teachers

Zoeller, Geoffrey W., Jr. (2010). The Censor, the Computer, and the Textbook, ProQuest LLC. Education in a free society requires that students are provided with a provocative and thoughtful curriculum and learning materials that will prepare them to function as productive adult citizens in a diverse and changing world. Textbooks and curricular materials that engage the rising generation in the study of social ideas, problems, and issues are often targets for censorship. Advocates of the "new" media apply pressure to have computer-based instructional (CBI) materials utilized in schools, and make claims of CBI's superiority over other materials and forms of instruction.   Despite the extravagant claims made for computer-based instruction pointing to its alleged superiority over other instructional media, a study of the research and documented cases of censorship demonstrates that there are no censorship incidents directed at computer programs, whereas the censorship of school textbooks, school library books, and other "conventional" curriculum materials is epidemic. This raises fundamental questions about the limitations and realistic uses of computer-based instruction in the schools of a democratic society.   Policy makers and administrators who are responsible for making decisions about the curriculum in public schools are often under pressure to implement new technology-based instructional programs, with the hope that computer technology will somehow improve the educational process at reduced cost and greater efficiency. With the advent 30 years ago of relatively inexpensive microcomputers, there has been a dramatic increase in the accessibility to and use of CBI materials in America's schools.   Textbooks, anthologies, literary works of fiction and non-fiction, and other print materials have been the traditional materials used for classroom instruction, and those that have been developed to inform and challenge students with the social problems that confront our world have often been targeted for censorship. Extravagant claims have been made that the computer is a more effective and efficient instructional tool than traditional print materials and might even be able to replace the teacher. Yet these claims have not been substantiated in the research literature.   This study investigates why computer-based instruction has been virtually immune from the eyes and arms of the censor, whereas censorship continues to impact the textbook and other print media with the exception of the workbook and worksheet. Is the computer being used predominantly as an electronic workbook? This question raises profound implications for the schools in a free society.   The study finds that over the past 30 years there has not been a single documented case of censorship directed at computer-based instructional materials, while censorship targeting other instructional materials continues unabated, with hundreds of censorship attempts recorded in the professional literature each year. The study also reveals virtually no mention of censorship in professional research studies, journals, and research handbooks. This lack of research underscores the disturbing avoidance by educational professionals and researchers to engage those who would censor instructional materials for the nation's students. Perhaps the true import of this study is as a "call to arms" for those who are willing to see the significant implications to a free society posed by censorship and the long-term dilution of the curriculum provided to our country's children.   [The dissertation citations contained here are published with the permission of ProQuest LLC. Further reproduction is prohibited without permission. Copies of dissertations may be obtained by Telephone (800) 1-800-521-0600. Web page:   [More]  Descriptors: Social Problems, Textbooks, Printed Materials, Democracy

Middaugh, Ellen; Perlstein, Daniel (2005). Thinking and Teaching in a Democratic Way: Hilda Taba and the Ethos of Brown, Journal of Curriculum and Supervision. In the middle decades of the 20th century, Hilda Taba played a prominent role in efforts to help American schoolchildren develop the cognitive skills and values necessary to think democratically. Drawing on the principles of progressive education and on social psychological and cognitive developmental theory, Taba directed Intergroup Education in Cooperating Schools, an anti-prejudice project involving scores of cities in the United States. She then adapted the Cooperating Schools program for K-8 social studies. Throughout, Taba sought to inculcate shared democratic beliefs while encouraging the individual, autonomous thinking necessary for self-representation, and to foster empathy toward the perspectives of different cultures while developing critical intelligence and common, democratic values. In her simultaneous attentiveness to classroom social relations and to pedagogy and curriculum, Taba created a powerful theoretical and practical framework for democratic education.   [More]  Descriptors: Administrators, Educational History, Consciousness Raising, Democracy

Foley, Jean Ann; Morris, Doug; Gounari, Panayota; Agostinone-Wilson, Faith (2015). Critical Education, Critical Pedagogies, Marxist Education in the United States, Journal for Critical Education Policy Studies. As critical pedagogy becomes more mainstream on the educational landscape in the United States, it is important to revisit the original tenets of critical pedagogy and explore their current manifestations. Since the beginning of "criticalism" from the theoretical/foundational work of the Frankfurt School of Critical Social Theory, critical theory challenges traditional theory steeped in positivism and calls out for justice and liberation. This article traces the paths of critical education, critical pedagogies, and Marxist education in the United States by examining the tenets of critical pedagogy from a Marxist point of view while providing a historical context. In addition, this piece presents familiar challenges and critiques lodged against the practice of critical pedagogy in the United States. Examples of revolutionary/Marxist critical pedagogy-in-practice in various K-adult contexts are described and questions about vitality or the ability of critical pedagogy to endure in the face of intensified capitalism are also explored.   [More]  Descriptors: Marxian Analysis, Critical Theory, Social Theories, Social Justice

Kushner, Saville (2005). Democratic Theorizing: From Noun to Participle, American Journal of Evaluation. What is the relationship between theory and design in evaluation pretending to be "democratic?" When do we feel able to relinquish elements of intellectual control over evaluation? If not in qualitative versus quantitative tendencies, where lie key value divisions in evaluation? To elicit the views of two leading United Kingdom-based theorists of evaluation, Ray Pawson and Nigel Norris, Saville Kushner penned a brief argument positing the democratic imperative of ceding theoretical control to participants. Pawson, coauthor of "Realistic Evaluation", has intellectual preferences for (contextualized) causal reasoning; Norris, a close associate of Barry MacDonald, is a long-standing advocate of democratic evaluation. Although not necessarily diametrically opposed, their approaches to evaluation theorizing are distinct. In his "Aunt Sally" opener, Kushner argues that choosing or not to cede or share theoretical control of an evaluation with participants better characterizes differences between value positions in evaluation than more conventional bipolarities such as qualitative-quantitative or "strong" and "weak" designs. Norris and Pawson move this simple argument further and explore its more complex dimensions.   [More]  Descriptors: Evaluation Methods, Democracy, Theories, Evaluators

Burroughs, Susie; Brocato, Kay; Hopper, Peggy F.; Sanders, Angela (2009). Media Literacy: A Central Component of Democratic Citizenship, Educational Forum. Educators from Europe, Latin America, and the United States convened to explore issues inherent in democratic citizenship. Media literacy, a central component of democratic citizenship, was studied in depth. Data from the camp were examined for evidence of the participants' understandings of media literacy and how it might be taught. Results revealed that the camp participants developed a deeper understanding of media literacy, the importance of its teaching, and ways to teach it.   [More]  Descriptors: Foreign Countries, Citizenship Education, Media Literacy, Citizenship

Fielding, Michael (2009). Public Space and Educational Leadership: Reclaiming and Renewing Our Radical Traditions, Educational Management Administration & Leadership. Among the most important features of a democratic way of life is public space within which we collectively make meaning of our work and lives together and take shared responsibility for past action and future intentions. This article looks briefly at the argument for democratic public space within political and educational theory before focusing on its central importance for contemporary school leadership. In seeking to ground the enormous potential of democratic public space in schools it then looks to the radical traditions of state education for compelling exemplification in the pioneering work of Alex Bloom, headteacher at St George-in-the-East Secondary School, Stepney, London. The article concludes with a three-fold analytic nexus of interrelated practices and orientations that support the development of inclusive public spaces in 21st-century schools.   [More]  Descriptors: Instructional Leadership, Democracy, Educational Theories, Politics

Garrison, Jim (2005). Curriculum, Critical Common-Sensism, Scholasticism, and the Growth of Democratic Character, Studies in Philosophy and Education. My paper concentrates on Peirce's late essay, "Issues of Pragmaticism," which identifies "critical common-sensism" and Scotistic realism as the two primary products of pragmaticism. I argue that the doctrines of Peirce's critical common-sensism provide a host of commendable curricular objectives for democratic "Bildung". The second half of my paper explores Peirce's Scotistic realism. I argue that Peirce eventually returned to Aristotelian intuitions that led him to a more robust realism. I focus on the development of signs from the vague and indeterminate to the determinate and universal. The primary example will be the evolution of the very idea of number. I believe we will never arrive at the end of number history because we can never fully contain creativity. I draw similar conclusions for the idea of curriculum. Whether or not there is an end to the evolution of signs in Peirce is a matter of debate. I incline toward the opinion there is not, though I am unsure. I conclude by arguing that rationality itself is but the form and structure of poetic creation and that we should embrace paradox and even contradiction rather that become caught in totalizing and totalitarian end of history stories.   [More]  Descriptors: Curriculum Development, Realism, Democratic Values, Democracy

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Bibliography: Democracy (page 489 of 605)

This bibliography is independently curated for the I'm with Jill website.  Some of the authors featured on this page include James S. Berkman, Kai Horsthemke, Ellen Quintelier, Lynn A. Kelley, Cedric Linder, John P. Myers, Lisa A. W. Kensler, Susan Printy, Dennis W. Sunal, and Robert Asen.

Mayer, Susan Jean (2009). Conceptualizing Interpretive Authority in Practical Terms, Language and Education. While educational theorists have long debated the pedagogical value of granting students the authority to construct certain of their own understandings in collaboration with their peers, a lack of empirical markers of student "interpretive authority" has constrained comparative study of the pedagogical tradeoffs at stake. Yet the thoughtful nurture of collaborative knowledge construction processes must represent an essential aim of democratic schools, which are charged with the responsibility of adequately preparing students to participate fully in democratic life. This paper offers a conceptualization of interpretive authority based on an extrapolation of the traditional initiation/response/feedback coding sequence and other reliable discourse measures. The discourse patterns of six pedagogically diverse preparatory school classrooms in the United States are employed to illustrate a range of authority balances within respected classroom practices. A five-part frame for the practical characterization of interpretive authority within classrooms is proposed.   [More]  Descriptors: Feedback (Response), Cooperative Learning, Comparative Analysis, Democracy

Neelands, Jonothan (2009). Acting Together: Ensemble as a Democratic Process in Art and Life, Research in Drama Education. Traditionally drama in schools has been seen either as a learning medium with a wide range of curricular uses or as a subject in its own right. This paper argues that the importance of drama in schools is in the processes of social and artistic engagement and experiencing of drama rather than in its outcomes. The paper contrasts the pro-social emphasis in the ensemble model of drama with the pro-technical and limited range of learning in subject-based approaches which foreground technical knowledge of periods, plays, styles and genres. The ensemble-based approach is positioned in the context of professional theatre understandings of ensemble artistry and in the context of revolutionary shifts from the pro-technical to the pro-social in educational and cultural policy making in England. Using ideas drawn from McGrath and Castoriadis, the paper claims that the ensemble approach provides young people with a model of democratic living.   [More]  Descriptors: Foreign Countries, Educational Policy, Theater Arts, Teaching Models

Myers, John P. (2009). Learning in Politics: Teachers' Political Experiences as a Pedagogical Resource, International Journal of Educational Research. The suggestion that teaching is a political act has been a divisive issue among educators. However, there has been little analysis of the ways that teachers draw on their political experiences as pedagogical resources. Using a case study of seven teachers in Porto Alegre, Brazil who were involved in politics, this article explores the relationship between political experiences and teaching citizenship. The data consisted of interviews with the teachers, observations of their teaching, and classroom materials. This research shows that politics played an important role in their efforts to teach democratic citizenship. Through the teachers' diverse political experiences and ideologies, they developed different understandings of the relationship of politics with citizenship education that promote democratization and social change.   [More]  Descriptors: Case Studies, Citizenship, Democracy, Citizenship Education

Quintelier, Ellen; Hooghe, Marc (2013). The Relationship between Political Participation Intentions of Adolescents and a Participatory Democratic Climate at School in 35 Countries, Oxford Review of Education. In the literature it is expected that a participatory democratic climate is associated with civic and political engagement intentions of adolescents. In this paper we use a three level multilevel analysis to explore these relations: the individual, school and country level. Using data from the International Civic and Citizenship Education Study (2009) from 35 countries, we find that the individual student perception of a participatory democratic climate, especially openness in classroom discussions at the individual level, is positively associated with intended political participation. The teachers' and principals' perception of the participatory climate, on the other hand, were not related to the intention to participate. In this discussion we offer some ideas on how this individual level effect might be explained.   [More]  Descriptors: Foreign Countries, Citizen Participation, Student Participation, Student Interests

Sunal, Cynthia Szymanski; Kelley, Lynn A.; Sunal, Dennis W. (2009). Citizenship Education in the Elementary Classroom: Teacher Candidates Photograph and Describe Their Perceptions, Journal of Social Studies Research. How elementary pre-service teacher candidates with considerable experience in clinical field placements identified, photographed, discussed, and categorized samples of what they construed as democratic citizenship education occurring within elementary classrooms was explored in this study. Candidates discussed an initial set of captioned photos taken in their classroom placements and categorized them into consensually determined categories, repeating the process after instruction on citizenship education in a social studies methods course. Criteria emerged in their discussions as essential in characterizing democratic citizenship education; the ability of the event photographed to facilitate the individual student's meaningful understanding of an action taken, and the event's active involvement of students in the community. This investigation suggests that elementary teacher candidates' views of the democratic citizenship education their students are experiencing are accessible through the photographs they take.   [More]  Descriptors: Methods Courses, Photography, Teacher Education Curriculum, Citizenship

Social Education (2009). Powerful and Purposeful Teaching and Learning in Elementary School Social Studies. If American young learners are to become effective participants in a democratic society, then social studies must be an essential part of the curriculum in each of the elementary years. The purpose of elementary school social studies is to enable students to understand, participate in, and make informed decisions about their world. Social studies content allows young learners to explain relationships with other people, to institutions, and to the environment, and equips them with knowledge and understanding of the past. It provides them with skills for productive problem solving and decision making as well as for assessing issues and making thoughtful value judgments. Above all, it integrates these skills and understandings into a framework for responsible citizen participation locally, nationally, and globally. Teaching and learning in the elementary classroom should be meaningful, integrative, value-based, challenging, and active. These qualities of powerful social studies learning are foundational to the development of children's knowledge, skills, and dispositions as participating citizens. Effective elementary social studies instruction requires continuous support for student learning. Teachers need adequate preparation and professional development, daily instructional time, ample resources, and assistance at the local, state, and national levels. The democratic tradition of this country deserves an equal place in the elementary classroom.   [More]  Descriptors: Democracy, Citizen Participation, Social Studies, Elementary School Curriculum

Kensler, Lisa A. W.; Caskie, Grace I. L.; Barber, Margaret E.; White, George P. (2009). The Ecology of Democratic Learning Communities: Faculty Trust and Continuous Learning in Public Middle Schools, Journal of School Leadership. This cross-sectional explanatory study integrated three complex social processes–democratic community, faculty trust, and organizational learning–into a single testable model. The review of literature demonstrated substantial evidence for the proposed model. The data sources for the study included approximately 3,000 teachers from 79 public middle schools in Pennsylvania and New Jersey. Teachers from each school completed one of three surveys measuring democratic community, faculty trust, or continuous and team learning. Structural equation modeling was the primary method of analysis, with teacher responses aggregated to the school level. The data adequately fit the proposed model. Faculty trust was found to mediate the relationship between democratic community and continuous and team learning. Further research, including data collection over time, is necessary to fully understand the pattern of causal relationships among democratic community, faculty trust, and continuous and team learning.   [More]  Descriptors: Middle Schools, Structural Equation Models, Trust (Psychology), Case Studies

Kang, Young Taek; Printy, Susan (2009). Leadership to Build a Democratic Community within School: A Case Study of Two Korean High Schools, Asia Pacific Education Review. This article aims to explore how democratic community is manifest in schools in Korea. It also tries to examine how leadership, specifically transformational leadership, functions in shaping a democratic community within a school. Toward this aim, we have conducted a case study of two religious high schools in Korea. Based on the findings from the schools, we have discussed five aspects related to democratic community and transformational leadership. When school principals' leadership has transformational characteristics and consistency over the years, the leaders' mission and vision become shared values among the school members. The shared vision and cultural values make democratic systems work effectively. This article includes implications for educational policy and practice.   [More]  Descriptors: High Schools, Foreign Countries, Values, Transformational Leadership

Souto-Otero, Manuel (2013). Is "Better Regulation" Possible? Formal and Substantive Quality in the Impact Assessments in Education and Culture of the European Commission, Evidence & Policy: A Journal of Research, Debate and Practice. This article explores the initial results produced by the European Commission's "better regulation agenda", which aims to stimulate productivity and employment, on the use of evidence and its potential to enhance democratic governance. The article finds that implausible rational models of policy making dictate the ways in which the Commission is expected to conceive its programmes, and these models are adopted to legitimise rather than inform decisions. This negatively affects the processes by which interventions are designed and their social credibility. These processes are illustrated through an analysis of EU regulatory impact assessments in lifelong learning, culture, youth and citizenship during 2002-07.   [More]  Descriptors: Foreign Countries, Public Policy, Educational Policy, Federal Regulation

Lack, Brian (2009). No Excuses: A Critique of the Knowledge Is Power Program (KIPP) within Charter Schools in the USA, Journal for Critical Education Policy Studies. The purpose of this paper is to proffer a critical perspective about a specific brand of American schools within the larger charter school movement: the Knowledge Is Power Program (KIPP). KIPP is currently receiving wholesale acclaim as a radical alternative to public schooling "that works." While KIPP schools ostensibly claim that college acceptance for all students is their primary goal, the principles and practices that undergird their mission are founded upon capitalistic and militaristic ideals that run counter to the ideals of democratic education. I argue that KIPP schools merely preserve the status quo by asking students to overcome overwhelming disparities through "hard work" and "motivation," instead of addressing the structural sources of poverty and poor academic achievement–i.e., the unequal distribution of resources in schools and society. By subscribing to a dictum of no excuses, KIPP essentially puts the onus on the victims of poverty and institutional racism. This clearly conveys the fallacy to urban students that failure in this society will solely be a reflection of not working long and hard enough, or simply not complying with rules set by those with authority.   [More]  Descriptors: Urban Schools, Charter Schools, Poverty, Democracy

Asen, Robert (2004). A Discourse Theory of Citizenship, Quarterly Journal of Speech. This essay calls for a reorientation in scholarly approaches to civic engagement from asking questions of what to asking questions of how. I advance a discourse theory of citizenship as a mode of public engagement. Attending to modalities of citizenship recognizes its fluid and quotidian enactment and considers action that is purposeful, potentially uncontrollable and unruly, multiple, and supportive of radical but achievable democratic practices. Citizenship engagement may be approached through potential foci of generativity, risk, commitment, creativity, and sociability. A discourse theory reformulates the relationship between citizenship and citizen, reveals differences in enactments of citizenship, and calls attention to hybrid cases of citizenship.   [More]  Descriptors: Civics, Citizen Participation, Citizen Role, Democracy

Berkman, James S. (2009). Mann's Democratic Vision and School Choice, Schools: Studies in Education. While attending the Klingenstein Center's Heads of Schools Program at Teachers College, Columbia University, fellows studied Horace Mann's nineteenth-century vision for a "common school" that would unite all citizens; they considered whether this model is still best suited to serve a democratic society and questioned how current "school choice" between competing school models–including their own–might better serve the increasingly complex needs of students in the twenty-first century.   [More]  Descriptors: Democracy, School Choice, Principals, Role of Education

Lindahl, Mats Gunnar; Linder, Cedric (2013). Students' Ontological Security and Agency in Science Education–An Example from Reasoning about the Use of Gene Technology, International Journal of Science Education. This paper reports on a study of how students' reasoning about socioscientific issues is framed by three dynamics: societal structures, agency and how trust and security issues are handled. Examples from gene technology were used as the forum for interviews with 13 Swedish high-school students (year 11, age 17-18). A grid based on modalities from the societal structures described by Giddens was used to structure the analysis. The results illustrate how the participating students used both modalities for "Legitimation" and "Domination" to justify positions that accept or reject new technology. The analysis also showed how norms and knowledge can be used to justify opposing positions in relation to building trust in science and technology, or in democratic decisions expected to favour personal norms. Here, students accepted or rejected the authority of experts based on perceptions of the knowledge base that the authority was seen to be anchored in. Difficulty in discerning between material risks (reduced safety) and immaterial risks (loss of norms) was also found. These outcomes are used to draw attention to the educational challenges associated with students' using knowledge claims (Domination) to support norms (Legitimation) and how this is related to the development of a sense of agency in terms of sharing norms with experts or with laymen.   [More]  Descriptors: Foreign Countries, High School Students, Logical Thinking, Science and Society

Lukenchuk, Anotonina (2009). Living the Ethics of Responsibility through University Service and Service-Learning: "Phronesis" and "Praxis" Reconsidered, Philosophical Studies in Education. This article considers the notion of service-learning (SL) as essentially different from other similar activities, such as philanthropy, charity, voluntarism, or a single act of kindness which are "one-way" socially engaged activities. Service-learning is different because it necessarily entails reciprocity and mutuality which are "two-way" relationships. SL is about serving "and" learning–learning by doing, acting, affecting, intervening, problem-solving, reflecting, and acting again. The author's preoccupation with what constitutes meaningful university service, how much of it can suffice, and how it is justified has led this article to reconsider the nature of service with regard to its relationality. The author contends that service-learning should be taken into consideration as one, or even perhaps the most meaningful way to meet professional service requirements. Faculty service-learning engagement can certainly contribute to elevating the status of service in the education profession, and put it on a par with teaching and research. The author further contends that service-learning pedagogy models critical democratic praxis rooted in "practical wisdom" ("phronesis"), as opposed to "true knowledge" ("episteme") or "scientific knowledge" ("techne"). With regard to phronetic deliberations, the author examines service and service-learning by extension through the lens of Hannah Arendt's typology of fundamental human activities (labor, work, and action). The author argues that service-learning conceived as "vita activa," in Arend's terms, is an expression of plurality, people's collective social and political engagement, and an embodiment of critical democratic aspirations and practices. By juxtaposing service and service-learning, the author extends the arguments to the sphere of ethics by employing Levinas's "first philosophy."   [More]  Descriptors: Altruism, Service Learning, Professional Services, Private Financial Support

Horsthemke, Kai (2009). The South African Higher Education Transformation Debate: Culture, Identity and "African Ways of Knowing", London Review of Education. Following the first democratic election in South Africa in 1994, there has been a strong drive towards democratising education at all levels, primary, secondary and tertiary. The present paper examines some of the key ideas in the debate around transformation in higher education in South Africa, namely the notions of an African essence, culture and identity, as well as African knowledge systems. It contends that neither the idea of the "essence of Africa" nor an emphasis on "African culture and identity" constitutes an appropriate theoretical framework for conceptualising change in higher educational thought and practice in South Africa, the major problems turning on issues around essentialism and cultural relativism. Similarly, the post-colonialist and anti-discrimination discourse underpinning "African ways of knowing" is unfortunately riddled with problems, logical and epistemological. While the present contribution is sympathetic to the basic concerns articulated in the respective debates, especially around the significance of indigenous languages, it offers both conceptual clarification as well as a critical (re-)evaluation of the pertinent issues. Thus, "African knowledge" is argued to be a misnomer that raises more problems than it can conceivably solve. What its proponents hope to achieve is arguably better achieved by an emphasis on restorative justice that locates the principle of reconciliation within a basic framework of human rights.   [More]  Descriptors: Higher Education, African Culture, Academic Achievement, Foreign Countries

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