Bibliography: Democracy (page 486 of 605)

This bibliography is selected and organized by the I'm with Jill website.  Some of the authors featured on this page include Darren Webb, Marianna Papastephanou, Simon Warren, Leora Cruddas, Klaus Nielsen, Tamara Chansa-Kabali, Jamie Audsley, Thomas Misco, Maughn Gregory, and Jeroen Bron.

Cruddas, Leora (2011). Rights-Based Education: Towards a Local Democratic Project, FORUM: for promoting 3-19 comprehensive education. This article offers a dialogic engagement with Fielding & Moss's "Radical Education and the Common School" (2011). First, the author puts forward a critical and reflective narrative on the process in the London Borough of Waltham Forest to create a strategic children and young people plan, which she cautiously proposes is an attempt to define a local democratic project–rights-based education. She then goes on to explore whether a local authority and a community or "commonwealth" of schools can act together–possibly in radical collegiality–to further democratic education locally.   [More]  Descriptors: Educational Philosophy, Democracy, Collegiality, Democratic Values

Misco, Thomas (2011). "Most Learn Almost Nothing": Building Democratic Citizenship by Engaging Controversial History through Inquiry in Post-Communist Europe, Education, Citizenship and Social Justice. This article addresses the challenges and pathways of Holocaust education in post-communist countries through two case studies. I first examine historiographical, institutional and cultural obstacles to deep and meaningful treatments of the Holocaust within Latvian and Romanian schools. Drawing upon the unique experiences both countries had with partial or full "dual occupation" of Nazi Germany and the Soviet Union, I present a rationale for constructing inquiry-based Holocaust education experiences. As Latvia, Romania and other countries have entered the European Union, the need for tolerant and open-minded citizens who have the ability to make informed and reasoned decisions for the common good has become more critical. Inquiry-oriented teaching of the Holocaust brings about essential democratic skills and dispositions, while simultaneously positioning students to investigate the complicated, nuanced and contested contours of the Holocaust, competing forms of propaganda and often spurious historiographical traditions. This kind of teaching is also responsive to the challenges these and other societies face when confronting other historical and contemporary controversial topics.   [More]  Descriptors: Foreign Countries, Jews, Death, War

Bron, Jeroen; Thijs, Annette (2011). Leaving It to the Schools: Citizenship, Diversity and Human Rights Education in the Netherlands, Educational Research. Background: The Netherlands traditionally has a strong civil society. This has had an impact on the education system through the relatively high degree of autonomy for schools on moral and didactical choices as well as on the curriculum. Such freedom provides ample room for citizenship to develop at a local level. The large degree of curricular autonomy allows schools to shape education according to their own vision and values in partnership with those in civil society. Purpose: This article explores how citizenship education, cultural diversity and human rights education are implemented within such a context. The main aim is to analyse how societal and political ideals are laid down at the policy level (intended curriculum), how they are implemented at the school level (implemented curriculum), and how they impact on student learning (attained curriculum). Sources of evidence: Formal educational policy documents are analysed to gain insight into the intended curriculum. Insights in the implemented and attained curriculum are gathered through analysis of research studies into classroom practice. Main argument: The article argues that although citizenship education, cultural diversity and human rights education are prominent themes in political and societal debates and expectations of schools' contribution to these themes are high, the intentions are formalised only briefly in the intended curriculum. The freedom of education is mentioned as the main reason for the lack of policy commitment. The article argues, however, that local empowerment cannot do without school leadership to develop a school-specific vision and approach, as well as a coherent long-term vision on the way forward at the macro level. Conclusions: This curriculum analysis shows that cross-curricular socialisation themes do not play a prominent role in curriculum policy and that implementation in classroom practice is varied, but generally limited. With ambiguity in educational policy and limited implementation support, it is a complex challenge for schools to make strategic choices in interaction with civil society and to set their own social agenda. Given the current political and societal context, with its focus on freedom of education, it is necessary, but not realistic, to expect more detailed curricular regulations on these curriculum domains. Moreover, the current emphasis on basic skills in literacy and numeracy also limits the room for these societal issues, in both curriculum policy and practice. The article concludes that schools need more support to make autonomous choices as well as more clarity on what is expected from them. Also more insight is needed about feasible and coherent approaches to incorporate citizenship education in a core curriculum that has a strong emphasis on the basic skills.   [More]  Descriptors: Curriculum Development, Core Curriculum, Citizenship, Freedom

Audsley, Jamie; O'Connell, Jim (2011). A New Direction for Schools and Labour, FORUM: for promoting 3-19 comprehensive education. The authors argue that it is time to get radical about the Left's vision for education and develop a direction that communities can really own. The Labour Party being out of government for the first time in 13 years gives us a chance to consider what education means to the Left, and allows us to be innovative in how the Party can approach education both now and in anticipation of an eventual return to government. The authors consider the interaction between policy and citizen action in education, highlighting the importance of both and their complementary nature. It is argued, following some of the values and reasoning of the "Blue Labour" dialogue, that for schools to be both truly free and effective they need to be governed by alliances of parents and teachers and not by the state or the market. This requires a shift of trust on the part of the Left, and in particular a willingness to accept pluralism and diversity in education "contra" both the centralised prescriptions and target setting of the New Labour Government and its moves towards marketisation with the "choice" agenda. In particular, against the consumerist approach to education, they envisage an onus on parental agency beyond selecting the school–on being trusted to work continuously in collaboration with other school stakeholders and inculcating a sense of citizenship in children in order that they should do the same.   [More]  Descriptors: Equal Education, Political Attitudes, Educational Change, Politics of Education

Dreyer, L. M. (2011). Hope Anchored in Practice, South African Journal of Higher Education. In South Africa, the processes of democratisation and social restructuring are inextricably linked to the debate on inclusive education. Although the debate on inclusive education originated in the disability discourse, it is increasingly viewed broader as a reform that supports and welcomes diversity. While the constitution and policy framework in the new South Africa is internationally recognised as of the most progressive regarding human rights, research shows great concerns regarding the gap between policy and implementation thereof. From a human rights and social justice perspective, education is viewed as a basic human right and the foundation for a more just and equal society. In this article I will therefore draw on Paulo Freire's (1998) notion of "pedagogy of hope" and root my argument in his definition that hope is "an ontological need that should be 'anchored in practice' in order to become 'historical concreteness'".   [More]  Descriptors: Social Justice, Inclusion, Disabilities, Foreign Countries

Nielsen, Klaus; Dalgaard, Susanne; Madsen, Sarah (2011). Pastoral Techniques in the Modern Danish Educational System, International Journal of Qualitative Studies in Education (QSE). In recent years, therapeutic techniques have played an increasingly significant role in Danish educational thinking. One way in which this therapeutic thinking discloses itself is in the ever-growing use of educational-therapeutic games as part of the educational practice. Inspired by Foucault, we argue that educational-therapeutic games can be understood as a kind of confessional practice that introduces a pastoral power relationship between pupils and teachers. This paper offers an empirically based analysis of one of the frequently used therapeutic-educational games in Denmark, called "The Good Chair". In general, the technique of "The Good Chair" establishes a type of interaction that is characterized by a sense of togetherness, intimacy, and an instrumentality-problem orientation. The structure and regulation of the game cast the child as a psychological being by uncovering the child's true inner nature.   [More]  Descriptors: Educational Games, Educational Theories, Intimacy, Educational Practices

Israeli, Liora (2011). "The Other"–A Threat or a Resource? Polar Interpretations of Two Children's Stories: "The Ugly Duckling" by H. C. Andersen and "Raspberry Juice" by H. Shenhav, Journal of Peace Education. This article examines the educational work towards tolerance by analyzing two opposed social views in children's stories: "The ugly duckling" by H.C. Andersen and "Raspberry Juice" by H. Shenav. "The ugly duckling" depicts a social state based on the evolutional ladder, where the white entity is at the top, and the black one is at the bottom, concluding that multicultural society is an artificial order that is not recommended. "Raspberry Juice" describes a social order based on cultural relativism where each entity is on equal footing, concluding that diversity encourages cooperative intercultural relations, widens ones' horizons and promotes personal growth. The approach is interdisciplinary in scope, and, thus, it offers perspectives ranging from literary analysis, anthropological study and critical thinking skills. It provides teachers with the opportunity to develop social awareness in their classrooms and their students' critical thinking skills, necessities in a democratic society. Figure 5 can be regarded as a litmus test when choosing a social text/program/activity aimed at teaching democratic values.   [More]  Descriptors: Democracy, Literary Criticism, Democratic Values, Critical Thinking

Serpell, Robert; Mumba, Paul; Chansa-Kabali, Tamara (2011). Early Educational Foundations for the Development of Civic Responsibility: An African Experience, New Directions for Child and Adolescent Development. An innovative curriculum designed to foster the development of social responsibility among pre-adolescent children was introduced at a rural Zambian primary school. The curriculum invoked Child-to-Child principles focusing on health education, advancing a synthesis of Western psychological theories and African cultural traditions. The teacher sought to democratize the educational process through cooperative learning in mixed-gender, mixed-social-class, and mixed-ability study groups. Learners engaged in community service activities and contributed to the nurturant care of younger children. Young adults interviewed seventeen years after completing the program recalled their experience and reflected on how it had promoted their personal agency, cooperative disposition, and civic responsibility in early adulthood.   [More]  Descriptors: Health Education, Service Learning, Cooperative Learning, Elementary School Students

Gregory, Maughn (2011). Philosophy for Children and Its Critics: A Mendham Dialogue, Journal of Philosophy of Education. As conceived by founders Matthew Lipman and Ann Margaret Sharp, Philosophy for Children is a humanistic practice with roots in the Hellenistic tradition of philosophy as a way of life given to the search for meaning, in American pragmatism with its emphasis on qualitative experience, collaborative inquiry and democratic society, and in American and Soviet social learning theory. The programme has attracted overlapping and conflicting criticism from religious and social conservatives who don't want children to question traditional values, from educational psychologists who believe certain kinds of thinking are beyond children of certain ages, from philosophers who define their discipline as theoretical and exegetical, from critical theorists who see the programme as politically compliant, and from postmodernists who see it as scientistic and imperialist. The paper is written as a dialogue in order to illustrate the complex interactions among these normative positions. Rather than respond to particular criticisms in depth, I indicate the general nature of my position regarding them and provide references to published material where they have been made and responded to over the past 40 years.   [More]  Descriptors: Children, Philosophy, Humanism, Life Style

Seher, Rachel (2011). Forging Democratic Spaces: Teachers and Students Transforming Urban Public Schools from the Inside, Schools: Studies in Education. This article shows the process through which one teacher and a group of eleventh-graders worked to create spaces for democratic education in a hierarchically organized New York City public school that is heralded as a model of success under current reform initiatives. In response to student resistance to a required unit on Tim O'Brien's novel, The Things They Carried, the author reframed the unit so that students collaborated with professor of education and antiwar activist Bill Ayers to write and present personal war stories documenting injustices in the students' own lives, both inside and outside of school. In reframing the unit, the author drew heavily on the writings of critical education theorist Paulo Freire and the support of colleagues in a voluntary, self-directed, democratic teacher forum facilitated by the Critical Educator Network. By focusing on the experiences of one teacher and a group of students in a small New York City public school, this article shows the transformative potential of student-teacher collaboration concentrated on creating democratic spaces within individual classrooms in urban public schools under the current era of standardization and external accountability.   [More]  Descriptors: Urban Schools, Public Schools, Grade 11, School Culture

Lysaght, Georgia; Kell, Peter (2011). Building Future Sustainability and Democratic Practices: The Role of Adult Education in Post-Conflict Communities, International Journal of Training Research. This paper documents and analyses a range of literature and policy statements that identifies issues and looks at the role which adult education plays in building communities and peace in post-conflict states. This paper explores and documents these developments in countries in close proximity to Australia which have been viewed by the former Australian government as constituting an "arc of instability". This is a term which will be critically discussed in the paper for the way in which it positions the nations of the Pacific and Australia's foreign policy as well as its aid and development policy. This paper reviews existing orthodox approaches to the region and development and discusses the criticisms that have been levelled at the status quo.   [More]  Descriptors: Proximity, Democracy, Conflict, Adult Education

Lee, Moosung; Friedrich, Tom (2011). Continuously Reaffirmed, Subtly Accommodated, Obviously Missing and Fallaciously Critiqued: Ideologies in UNESCO's Lifelong Learning Policy, International Journal of Lifelong Education. Although the lifelong learning policy of the United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organisation (UNESCO) has had a unique impact on international discussions over the last four decades, little historical research has revealed the ideological influences at work within UNESCO's lifelong learning policy texts. With this in mind, this paper exposes the authoritative and marginal ideological influences within UNESCO's lifelong learning policy during the period between the 1990s and the early 2000s. Specifically, this research's analysis reveals that while social democratic liberalism as a dominant ideology was continuously reaffirmed in UNESCO's lifelong learning policy texts during the period, neoliberal stances were also subtly accommodated and radical social democrats' ideas missing in its recent lifelong learning policy texts. Furthermore, UNESCO's lifelong learning was fallaciously critiqued as being opposed to another global development agendum, education for all (EFA). Implications for realising good policy and global justice in conditions dominated by neoliberal capitalism are discussed in depth.   [More]  Descriptors: Ideology, Lifelong Learning, Educational Policy, Educational History

Papastephanou, Marianna (2011). Material Specters: International Conflicts, Disaster Management, and Educational Projects, Educational Theory. In this essay, Marianna Papastephanou discusses three books–Michalinos Zembylas's "The Politics of Trauma in Education"; Sigal Ben-Porath's "Citizenship Under Fire: Democratic Education in Times of Conflict"; and Kenneth Saltman's "Capitalizing on Disaster: Taking and Breaking Public Schools"–from the perspective of the material causality of conflict and of the significance this might have for conflict resolution and the role that education may play in it. Setting out from the Derridean standpoint of spectrality, Papastephanou explores divergences and convergences of Zembylas's critical emotional praxis, Ben-Porath's counterposition of belligerent and expansive citizenship education, and Saltman's critique of educational programs that capitalize on natural disasters and wars. Papastephanou examines various operations of ontology in an interplay with hauntology (to use Jacques Derrida's terminology) and thus puts forward a critical approach to the contribution of each perspective.   [More]  Descriptors: Politics of Education, Educational Theories, Democratic Values, Role of Education

Warren, Simon; Webb, Darren; Franklin, Anita; Bowers-Brown, Julian (2011). Trust Schools and the Politics of Persuasion and the Mobilisation of Interest, Journal of Education Policy. This paper sets out the theoretical and methodological approach of a study of the politics of persuasion and the mobilisation of interest in relation to the Trust schools initiative in England. Drawing on the discourse theoretical approach of Laclau and Mouffe the paper argues that the politics of consensus associated with New Labour reconfigures the field of politics, closing down legitimate democratic space. Building on this approach and that of policy sociology the paper outlines how the researchers seeks to address the following questions–if the space for legitimate democratic debate is so severely constrained then how does a social democratic government deal with the kind of opposition that Labour faced in relation to Trust schools? How do governments persuade dissident citizens to support unpopular policies? How are citizens mobilised to support such policies? This also raises questions about how, in such a restricted political space, do those questioning or resisting such policies, engage in the politics of persuasion and the mobilisation of interests? The reconfiguration of the field of politics and what this means for the constitution of legitimate democratic debate is the object of study of the research.   [More]  Descriptors: Foreign Countries, Educational Change, School Administration, Governance

McNiff, J. (2011). It Takes a Township, South African Journal of Higher Education. In this article I argue for higher education practitioners to take focused action to contribute to transforming their societies into open and democratically negotiated forms of living, and why they should do so. The need is especially urgent in South Africa, whose earlier revolutionary spirit led to massive social change. The kind of social transformation I have in mind is where all people are seen as equal in all domains, including capacity to do research and generate theory; especially significant given that social evolution is linked with knowledge creation. Drawing on personal stories of experience, I make a case for universities to create innovative professional pathways that will encourage the fulfilment of intellectual potential by all practitioners, not only elites, taking as a main criterion for judging the quality of practice whether one has contributed to the wellbeing of a township, however this may be construed.   [More]  Descriptors: Foreign Countries, Higher Education, Role of Education, College Faculty

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