Monthly Archives: October 2017

Bibliography: Democracy (page 508 of 605)

This annotated bibliography is reformatted and customized for the I'm with Jill website.  Some of the authors featured on this page include Perry M. Marker, Ja Oek Gu, Raphael Cohen-Almagor, Theresa Richardson, Kerry Krutilla, Gregory E. Hamot, Fred Barton, Rene W. Aubourg, Mohsen Shokoohi-Yekta, and Peggy Petrzelka.

Lo, William Yat Wai; Gu, Ja Oek (2008). Reforming School Governance in Taiwan and South Korea: Empowerment and Autonomization in School-Based Management, International Journal of Educational Management. Purpose: The article aims to use the globalization theory and the implications of democratization for social policy to analyze the school governance reforms in Taiwan and South Korea. Design/methodology/approach: The article describes the main features of decentralization policy in the school sectors in the two societies with a historical review of their democratic transition and educational reforms during the 1990s. It then classifies decentralization into two categories, namely managerial decentralization and societal decentralization, by conceptualizing their context, rationales and policy instruments. It closes by considering the implications of Taiwan's and South Korea's experiences for educational decentralization and education reforms. Findings: It is found that in Taiwan there is a comprehensive and institutionalized empowerment of teachers and parents but full institutionalization of involvement of the school community is still in progress in South Korea. Originality/value: This article reviews and compares the development and major changes of school governance in Taiwan and South Korea.   [More]  Descriptors: Educational History, School Based Management, Global Approach, Governance

Ross, E. Wayne; Marker, Perry M. (2005). Social Studies: Wrong, Right, or Left? A Critical Response to the Fordham Institute's where Did Social Studies Go Wrong?, Social Studies. The history of social studies in the twentieth century is the story of a field of study not yet coming of age. As is true in most emerging fields, the first one hundred years of social studies has been marked by confusion, competing visions, inconsistency, incoherence, and intolerance. Many have considered the social studies' first century as problematic–consisting of wars, factions, and contradictions. However, it might be argued that the coming of age of the social studies is part of a developmental process that marks social studies as a field that is alive; constantly changing and evolving. This process, so far, has resulted in debates that focus on the irreconcilable differences as to what the social studies is and what it ought to be. Descriptors: Social Studies, Educational History, Intellectual Disciplines, Democracy

Paniagua, Freddy A. (2005). Some Thoughts on the "Staircase to Terrorism", American Psychologist. Comments on F. M. Moghaddam's article (see record 2005-01817-002) which uses the metaphor of a narrowing staircase "to provide a more in-depth understanding of terrorism." In the article, "staircase to terrorism," a person will become a terrorist because he or she experiences "injustice and the feelings of frustration and shame" on "the ground floor." If this situation does not change on higher floors, particularly on the fourth and fifth floors, this person will realize that terrorism is the only way to have a "democratic participation in addressing perceived justices." Therefore, the prevention and end of terrorism will be achieved "only by reforming conditions on the ground floor." People who perceive injustices and unfairness in a given political system may, indeed, try to destroy that system with terrorism. But this is political terrorism, not the form of Islamic fundamentalist terrorism or messianic terrorism directed by Osama bin Laden and Abu Musad al-Zarqawi. The author concludes that the metaphor may explain the origin of political terrorism but not the origin of Islamic fundamentalist or messianic terrorism.   [More]  Descriptors: Terrorism, Political Attitudes, Figurative Language, Justice

Gunter, Helen (2005). Putting Education Back into Leadership, FORUM: for promoting 3-19 comprehensive education. Leadership must always be suspect in a radical tradition, not because it is unnecessary or unimportant, but because it too readily re-enforces the status quo, even when it tries hard not to. Helen Gunter argues that leadership needs to re-engage with learning, not merely focus on performance, and that we need to have the courage to exercise judgement. Educational leadership is not just the must of delivering efficient and effective organisations, but is also about challenging the power structures and cultures that are inherited and can act as barriers to democratic development. It is about the central importance of reengaging with the specifically "public" nature of what education and schooling should be in a democratic society.   [More]  Descriptors: School Administration, Administrator Role, Learning, Instructional Leadership

Aubourg, Rene W.; Good, David H.; Krutilla, Kerry (2008). Debt, Democratization, and Development in Latin America: How Policy Can Affect Global Warming, Journal of Policy Analysis and Management. The environmental Kuznets curve (EKC) hypothesis conjectures a nonlinear relationship between pollution and economic growth, such that pollution per capita initially increases as countries economically develop, but then reaches a maximum point before ultimately declining. Much of the EKC literature has focused on testing this basic hypothesis and, in studies that find evidence of an EKC, estimating the "turning point" level of development at which the per capita pollution-growth relationship changes sign. This approach has not emphasized the policy relevance of specification issues or the potential role of policy variables. This research explores a modified EKC specification which conditions the pollution-growth relationship on a country's level of debt and degree of democratization. These variables turn out to be significant, implying that different political and economic contexts can shift EKCs and their turning points. These findings suggest that policies to relieve debt burdens and institute political reform, in addition to their usual justifications, also could be used as a strategy to reduce carbon emissions from developing countries.   [More]  Descriptors: Economic Progress, Social Action, Debt (Financial), Foreign Countries

Hyslop-Margison, Emery J.; Richardson, Theresa (2005). Rethinking Progressivism and the Crisis of Liberal Humanism: Historical and Contemporary Perspectives on Education for Democratic Citizenship, International Journal of Progressive Education. In this paper, we examine the current siege on progressivism in light of these dual tendencies from both an historical and contemporary perspective. We defend the democratic objectives of progressive education from various contemporary attacks that view student-centered learning as academically inefficacious. With the assistance of Dewey's arguments, we argue that public schools should produce students prepared to assume their democratic citizenship responsibilities by pursuing the liberal humanistic strand of progressive education. We believe that progressive education approaches that emphasize student centered learning and conjoint decision-making afford an indispensable element to achieve that critically important objective.   [More]  Descriptors: Progressive Education, Humanism, Democracy, Citizenship Education

Cohen-Almagor, Raphael (2008). Hate in the Classroom: Free Expression, Holocaust Denial, and Liberal Education, American Journal of Education. This article is concerned with a specific type of hate speech: Holocaust denial.  It is concerned with the expression of this idea by educators. Should we allow Holocaust deniers to teach in schools? This article attempts to answer this question through a close look at the Canadian experience. First, I will establish that Holocaust denial is a form of hate speech. Next, I will lay down the main premises of the argument and make some constructive distinctions that will guide our treatment of teachers who are Holocaust deniers. Finally, I will probe three cases–James Keegstra, Malcolm Ross, and Paul Fromm–and argue that hatemongers cannot assume the role of educators.   [More]  Descriptors: Teacher Role, Ethnicity, Case Studies, Defense Mechanisms

Hamot, Gregory E.; Shokoohi-Yekta, Mohsen; Sasso, Gary M. (2005). Civic Competencies and Students with Disabilities, Journal of Social Studies Research. Increasing numbers of students with disabilities receive a majority of their formal education in general education settings where they must be taught the knowledge, skills, and attitudes necessary to lead fully equitable and participatory lives in a democratic society. Given the need for all students to acquire civic understanding, the purpose of this study was to explore and describe knowledge of selected civic competencies as found in students of inclusive social studies classes and how they acquired this knowledge. Quantitative methods were used to explore whether or not the level of understanding these competencies was significantly similar between students with disabilities and general education students in inclusive classrooms, thus supporting or questioning the philosophical underpinnings of inclusion in a democratic society. Additionally, qualitative methods were used to describe the sources responsible for student understanding of selected civic competencies with the goal of determining similarities and differences in these students' knowledge bases.   [More]  Descriptors: Disabilities, Democracy, Citizenship Education, Inclusive Schools

Stanley, William B. (2005). Social Studies and the Social Order: Transmission or Transformation?, Social Education. In this article, the author brings a historical perspective to the perennial question, "Should social studies teachers work to transmit the status quo or to transform it?" Should they transmit or transform the social order? When one looks at the question of education for social transformation in the context of American history, three prevailing perspectives emerge. First, a strong form of education for social transformation was developed by George Counts in the 1930s and remains part of more recent work by various proponents of "critical pedagogy" and counter-socialization. A second, and frequently misunderstood, perspective is found in John Dewey's curriculum theory, which rejected Counts's core argument. The influence of Dewey's pragmatic approach to education is also found in the work of more recent curriculum theorists such as Cleo Cherryholmes and Tony Whitson. A third view, opposed to education for social transformation, is found in the work of various conservative writers, most recently George Posner, and social studies educator James Leming. Posner's views have roots in the earlier work of Walter Lippmann, one of Dewey's intellectual colleagues in the 1920s and 30s. In this article, the author summarizes briefly each of the three perspectives and then concludes with his thoughts on how this issue remains relevant to social studies education. Descriptors: Social Studies, Teachers, Social Change, Social Structure

Marquart-Pyatt, Sandra T.; Petrzelka, Peggy (2008). Trust, the Democratic Process, and Involvement in a Rural Community, Rural Sociology. A number of dimensions of the democratic political process are important for understanding civic communities and civic engagement. While many of these aspects have been examined at the federal level, less is known about how these dynamics operate at the local level, especially in rural communities, and that, moreover, involve a specific issue. In this study, we explore the relationships between trust in public officials, views of the decision-making process, and issue-related involvement in a rural community in Utah. In particular, we examine the factors underpinning citizens' expressed levels of general trust in public officials, support for the decision-making process in their community related to a specific issue, the factors influencing individuals to participate in the issue, and how citizens view various groups involved in defining the public good related to the specific issue. We find 1) that perceptions of the political process influence all three aspects of the democratic process, 2) that neither lack of trust nor dissatisfaction appears to be detrimental to the democratic process at the local level, and 3) that differences in opinion regarding definitions of the public good intersect with other aspects of the political process. This research sheds light on factors influencing rural community functioning and citizen responses to proposed changes. In discussing the results, we reflect in particular on their implications for rural communities.   [More]  Descriptors: Trust (Psychology), Democracy, Public Officials, Rural Areas

O'Gorman, Ned (2008). Eisenhower and the American Sublime, Quarterly Journal of Speech. This essay presents Dwight D. Eisenhower's presidential rhetoric as an iteration of an American synecdochal sublime. Eisenhower's rhetoric sought to re-aim civic sight beyond corporeal objects to the nation's transcendental essence. This rhetoric is intimately connected to prevailing political anxieties and exigencies, especially the problem of "the Bomb" and the related philosophy of deterrence. Over and against the material presence of the atomic bomb, which threatened to concentrate national energies, Eisenhower advanced an expansive vision of national "spiritual" being to which corporeal images could only gesture. Correlatively, he positioned himself as a kind of priestly mediator. Therefore, he not only justified a strong deterrent stance in the Cold War, but made moral sense of it.   [More]  Descriptors: United States History, Weapons, Rhetoric, War

Center for Civic Education (2005). Voting and Political Participation of We the People: The Citizen and the Constitution Alumni in the 2004 Election. Between November 2004, and March 2005, the Center for Civic Education conducted a survey of alumni from the We the People: The Citizen and the Constitution program. Altogether, 522 alumni responded, ranging in age from 18-34. The primary focus of the study was on voting and other forms of political engagement. Due to self-selection by respondents, these findings should be considered as suggestive rather than generalizable to all We the People alumni. We the People alumni were compared with a national probability study from the 2004 "National Election Studies" (NES) of other young Americans their age. In other questions, alumni were also compared with over 289,000 American college freshmen ("The American Freshman: National Norms for Fall 2004"). Among alumni eligible to vote in 2004, key findings are: (1) 92% of alumni reported voting in November 2000, in contrast to 78% of those surveyed in the NES study; (2) 85% of alumni said they had voted in all previous elections; (3) 63% reported being very interested in national politics and national affairs; (4) 60% of alumni discussed national politics and affairs every day or nearly every day; and (5) 58% of alumni felt becoming a community leader was essential or very important, in contrast to 31% of college freshmen. In summary, We the People alumni surveyed are better informed and more politically engaged than their peers.   [More]  Descriptors: Probability, Politics, College Freshmen, Voting

Barton, Fred (2005). Walking the Talk: Creating Engaged Citizens in English Class, English Journal. An English teacher describes his use of advocacy project for writing instruction and its ironies in the classroom. He asserts that such projects meet the instructor's educational aims while helping students recognize their place in a democratic society with the ability to influence institutional change.   [More]  Descriptors: Organizational Change, English Teachers, Democracy, Writing Instruction

Armstrong, Keith B. (2005). Autophotography in Adult Education: Building Creative Communities for Social Justice and Democratic Education, New Directions for Adult and Continuing Education. A composite technique blending photography and autobiography, known as autophotography, was used to unleash individual and group potential in a twelve-year participatory community.   [More]  Descriptors: Justice, Democracy, Autobiographies, Social Change

Winton, Sue (2008). The Appeal(s) of Character Education in Threatening Times: Caring and Critical Democratic Responses, Comparative Education. This article examines the resurgence in popularity of character education in the USA and Canada. It links this renewed interest to insecurities about academic achievement, economic competitiveness, civic engagement, personal safety, moral decline, and the loss of a common culture. Conceptualising policy as rhetoric, the article shows how character education policies in both countries use similar strategies to appeal to diverse audiences. The policies respond to desires for predictability and stability by claiming that traditional character education prepares students for the workforce, improves academic achievement, fosters active citizenship, creates safer schools, and teaches students universal values. The article concludes by proposing commitments to caring relationships and critical democratic education as socially just alternatives to traditional character education.   [More]  Descriptors: Citizenship, School Safety, Democracy, Academic Achievement

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Bibliography: Democracy (page 507 of 605)

This bibliography is independently curated for the I'm with Jill website.  Some of the authors featured on this page include Nancy F. Burroughs, Glenda Moss, Lillian Benavente-McEnery, Marja-Liisa Hassi, Sung-Sang Yoo, Roger Stahl, Richard N. Engstrom, C. P. Gause, Thomas Muhr, and Laia Salo i Nevado.

Wagner, Paul A.; Benavente-McEnery, Lillian (2008). The Autistic Society and Its Classrooms, Educational Forum. Autistic means a subject has limited affect or may be without affect altogether. Though traditionally individuals are described as autistic, the authors find it increasingly apparent that American society is becoming autistic as a whole, as citizens are desensitized to needs of neighbors near and far, losing the commensurate loyalty of being in community. This essay suggests that classrooms must be on the front line of challenging the effects of an increasingly autistic society.   [More]  Descriptors: Social Influences, Social Attitudes, Interpersonal Relationship, Social Values

Moss, Glenda (2008). Diversity Study Circles in Teacher Education Practice: An Experiential Learning Project, Teaching and Teacher Education: An International Journal of Research and Studies. This paper addresses the dilemma of trying to prepare primarily white preservice teachers for educational arenas in which they will interface with students of colour and many who are socially disadvantaged. This paper describes how diversity study circles can be integrated as integral to education that is multicultural in the development of preservice teachers' critical self-reflection as a bridge to developing a critical lens for classroom practice and a democratic society.   [More]  Descriptors: Preservice Teacher Education, Preservice Teachers, Democracy, Disadvantaged

Smith, David Geoffrey (2008). From Leo Strauss to Collapse Theory: Considering the Neoconservative Attack on Modernity and the Work of Education, Critical Studies in Education. This paper locates the work of Leo Strauss within the broader conservative assault on modernity and especially its roots in liberalism. Four themes from Strauss's work are identified, then hermeneutically engaged for their relevance to educational practice in global times. The four themes are: (1) the liberal/modern concept of an open society is essentially nihilistic and cannot protect "particularities" from assimilation and encroachment; (2) the cosmopolitanism of modernity is inherently totalitarian, leading to a culture of management; (3) philosophy as the practice of persuasion has its limits, beyond which the practical necessities of life require the use of force; and (4) the reasons most vigorously offered in public for certain actions need not be the actual reasons.   [More]  Descriptors: Social Influences, Philosophy, Political Attitudes, History

Fennell, Jon M.; Simpson, Timothy L. (2008). Leo Strauss: Education and the Body Politic, Critical Studies in Education. Leo Strauss is commonly cited as a seminal influence for the neoconservatism that, in the minds of many commentators, dominates the administration of George W. Bush. What intersection, if any, exists between Strauss's views and neoconservatism? This paper investigates that question by studying Strauss's writings on liberal education and assessing whether, and on what grounds, liberal education as conceived by Strauss is capable of the vital role which he assigns to it. In addressing this question the paper examines the work of Joseph Tussman, a contemporary of Strauss, as a means of elucidating the depth and distinctiveness of the Straussian project. The essay concludes that while Strauss may have much in common with the themes of neoconservatism, his priorities extend beyond the neoconservative agenda and, in some cases, run counter to it.   [More]  Descriptors: Liberal Arts, General Education, Educational Philosophy, Politics of Education

Nimmo, John (2008). Young Children's Access to "Real Life": An Examination of the Growing Boundaries between Children in Child Care and Adults in the Community, Contemporary Issues in Early Childhood. Young children in industrialized societies are increasingly separated from the everyday lives of adults in their community. This article explores the historical and cultural dynamics (and contradictions) of a growing boundary between children, particularly those in child care, and adults without primary care-giving roles. The article proposes that young children's participation in and contributions to a democratic society are rooted in access to this "real life". The active role of children in the formation of social capital should be recognized by educators and policy makers as significant in the development of identity. A framework and strategies for developing meaningful child-adult relations in the context of child care are proposed as the basis for further research and practice.   [More]  Descriptors: Democracy, Young Children, Social Capital, Child Care

Stahl, Roger (2008). A Clockwork War: Rhetorics of Time in a Time of Terror, Quarterly Journal of Speech. Expressions of time have increasingly infused the rhetorical experience of post-industrial war, especially since 9/11. This essay demonstrates how these "signs of time" operate as one of three tropes: deadline/countdown, infinite/infinitesimal war, and the ticking clock. The persistence of such signs of time in public discourse can be seen as an expression of what Paul Virilio has called the "chronopolis," a political universe textured by real-time communication technologies. The chronopolitical will exhibits certain autocratic traits at odds with democratic ideals, primarily the refashioning of citizen identity into that of the "contemporary." The analysis here charts the autocratic rhetoric of the chronopolis as a critical democratic project.   [More]  Descriptors: War, Terrorism, Time, Democracy

Hassi, Marja-Liisa; Hannula, Aino; Salo i Nevado, Laia (2008). Adults' Numeracy in Finland: What Do We Know about It?, Adult Learning. Adult education has become a significant aspect of Finnish educational and developmental policy as well as of Finnish labor and social policies. Such factors as the need for occupational proficiency, employment, and economic growth have strongly influenced adult education in Finland. Besides the development of personality and support for the life of communities, principles such as the development and support of a democratic society, an increase in social cohesion, and the creation of opportunities for citizens' welfare have been expressed as current principles of Finnish adult education. The education settings that offer adults opportunities to improve their basic skills in mathematics are tightly connected to the overall Finnish education system and education tradition. In this article, the authors discuss the challenges for Finnish adult education and contrast Finland's first place ranking on the international assessment of mathematics skills, the Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA), with the country's challenges of a future labor shortage and a need to educate large numbers of older adults with low numeracy levels.   [More]  Descriptors: Economic Progress, Democracy, Numeracy, Adult Education

Burroughs, Nancy F. (2008). Raising the Question #10 Non-Native Speakers of English: What More Can We Do?, Communication Education. The author believes that communication courses, especially those that require mastery of skills and behaviors, should be embedded with a sensitivity to culture and communication apprehension. Her reflections here are designed to support the critical need to develop curriculum options that address students' anxieties and speaking English as a second language. In this article, she states that communication-trained professionals need to exert their expertise to assist college students and to reach out to high school populations to manage apprehension and to improve overall oral communication competence. As their borders become more permeable and fluid with both migration and globalization, the democratization of education means the time is ripe to address the needs of all their learners, not just the privileged few–the white, the wealthy, and the native-born speaker.   [More]  Descriptors: Curriculum Development, Global Approach, Democracy, English (Second Language)

Puaca, Brian M. (2008). Navigating the Waves of Change: Political Education and Democratic School Reform in Postwar West Berlin, History of Education Quarterly. This article concentrates on two pieces of legislation promulgated in the early 1960s in order to investigate the broader ideas and concerns surrounding political education in the postwar Federal Republic of Germany. These pieces of educational policy highlight the consensus for continued reform while recognizing the value of curricular and pedagogical innovations introduced after 1945. These documents signal the beginning of a "second wave" of reform that would result in more visible, dramatic changes in the curricula and pedagogy of the postwar schools. More importantly, they reflect a renewed commitment at the highest levels to political education that built upon previous initiatives–the "first wave" of reform–and promoted further innovation.   [More]  Descriptors: Educational Change, Educational Policy, Citizenship Education, Educational History

Engstrom, Richard N. (2008). Introductory American Government in Comparison: An Experiment, Journal of Political Science Education. Introduction to American Government classes can benefit from the addition of examples from comparative politics. Presenting students with examples of other democratic systems encourages them to confront the costs and benefits of choices made in the American context. Dealing with these "cognitive conflict" tasks facilitates higher level learning on the part of students. Examples of topics that can be presented comparatively are outlined, and experimental evidence is presented demonstrating that a comparative approach to teaching American Government can lead to improved student learning.   [More]  Descriptors: United States Government (Course), Introductory Courses, Teaching Methods, Comparative Analysis

Miedema, Siebren; Bertram-Troost, Gerdien (2008). Democratic Citizenship and Religious Education: Challenges and Perspectives for Schools in the Netherlands, British Journal of Religious Education. This article deals with the question what pedagogical and religious educational contributions have to offer to the debate on citizenship. Some historical background and theoretical conceptualisations of nowadays political focus on citizenship are described particularly focusing on the Dutch case. Explicit attention is given to the role of religion in the public domain. It is stressed that religion is more and more perceived as a source of power which could be positively used within the public domain. This development raises questions in relation to religious education at school, as schools are located in the intermediate domain between the public and the private domain. It is stated that both state schools and religious-affiliated schools have to take the impact of the process of globalisation seriously by preparing students for their encounter with cultural and religious "others." From a societal as well as pedagogical point of view, it is argued that all schools should be obliged to foster a religious dimension to citizenship.   [More]  Descriptors: Democracy, Educational Objectives, Religion, Foreign Countries

Yates, James R. (2008). Demographic Imperatives for Educational Reform for Culturally and Linguistically Diverse Students, Multiple Voices for Ethnically Diverse Exceptional Learners. Rapid demographic changes in culture, race/ethnicity, and language in the United States have exerted a powerful influence on public schools, raising significant concerns or issues relative to the ability of the educational system to successfully educate all of its children as future citizens of a democratic society. Educational outcome data for students from nondominant sociocultural and linguistic backgrounds highlight the failure of public schools to successfully educate all students. This lack of success is reflected in higher rates of retention, attrition, and placement in special education; lower rates of high school graduation and college entrance; and fewer degrees awarded. Implications for the future of society and policy priorities are suggested.   [More]  Descriptors: Public Schools, Democracy, Educational Objectives, Outcomes of Education

Yoo, Sung-Sang (2008). Democratization during the Transformative Times and the Role of Popular Education in the Philippines and Korea, Asia Pacific Education Review. Comparing popular education in the Philippines and South Korea, it is clear that a number of similarities and differences exist regarding the characteristics, methods, and main fields in which popular education has operated. "Church-related practices," "uniting with CO movements," "an elite-led tendency," and "a disregard for the Left" have all occurred in similar ways in both countries. While introducing the socio-political situation during 1970s and 1980s of these two countries, this paper discusses the theories and practices of popular education. Our findings indicate how popular education in both countries has played a significant role in raising the levels consciousness in the powerless and transforming societies and enabled them to establish a better community. Moreover, each country developed different concepts, initiatives and methods in relation to popular education. In addition, popular educators have been asked to play different roles in each popular education field while most methods were in fact heavily dependent upon elite-led practices.   [More]   [More]  Descriptors: Popular Education, Foreign Countries, Comparative Education, Educational Practices

Gause, C. P. (2008). Old School Meets New School: Unsettling Times at Freedom Junior-Senior High, Journal of Cases in Educational Leadership. This article is a case study designed to challenge the beliefs, values, and ideology of graduate students in educational leadership preparation programs regarding social justice and democratic education. This case is designed to assist students in developing the knowledge, skills, and dispositions to navigate the micropolitical environments that exist in learning communities. This case navigates the multiple sociocultural and political issues a superintendent might experience regarding demographic and cultural change. The case is multilayered and can be used in courses for the principalship and/or superintendency, as well as courses in the foundations of education and leadership.   [More]  Descriptors: Case Studies, Instructional Leadership, Leadership Training, Graduate Students

Muhr, Thomas (2008). Nicaragua Re-Visited: From Neo-Liberal "Ungovernability" to the Bolivarian Alternative for the Peoples of Our America (ALBA), Globalisation, Societies and Education. In this paper I conduct a historical analysis of the emergence of ALBA in Nicaragua prior to Daniel Ortega's return to the presidency and the country's official membership in the initiative from January 2007 on. I argue that ALBA is a rival structure that evolved from the contradictions inherent in hegemonic globalisation. Within the framework of a material analysis of poverty and exclusion under globalised neo-liberalism, I draw particular attention to the World Bank-led education "decentralisation" in Nicaragua. The failure of the finance-driven strategy, especially with respect to access to education and literacy, provided the grounds for the first ALBA project in Nicaragua to evolve within an "environment of ungovernability" from 2004 on. The response and challenge provided by ALBA builds on the regionalisation of Venezuela's endogenous development paradigm guided by the principles of solidarity, cooperation and complementarity. In contrast to other contemporary regionalisms, in ALBA the social dimension assumes a leading role from the outset, together with energy integration. The Nicaraguan case exemplifies ALBA's counter-hegemonic transnational operational mode, as well as its construction from the bottom up. This is illustrated in the fields of education, health care and energy supply.   [More]  Descriptors: Foreign Countries, Access to Education, Political Issues, Political Affiliation

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Bibliography: Democracy (page 506 of 605)

This annotated bibliography is curated specifically for the I'm with Jill website.  Some of the authors featured on this page include Mairtin Mac an Ghaill, Shelley Terzian, Cheryl C. Smith, Amy Schmidt, Catherine Ashcraft, Kristin A. Moore, Lynn E. Nielsen, Judith M. Finkelstein, Deborah M. Sanchez, and Hanne B. Mawhinney.

Huerta, Juan Carlos; Jozwiak, Joseph (2008). Developing Civic Engagement in General Education Political Science, Journal of Political Science Education. How can we promote student and civic engagement amongst our students? At Texas A&M University-Corpus Christi, the political science courses in the First Year Learning Communities Program have been using the "New York Times" as a supplemental reader to increase student engagement both inside and outside the classroom. The paper will examine the effectiveness of the "New York Times" in increasing student civic engagement inside the classroom by assessing the newspaper effectiveness in three ways: making the class material more relevant; helping the students to stay abreast with the news; and improving their attitude toward politics. The paper will also examine whether reading the "New York Times" has stimulated a desire to make a difference in their communities. The expectation is that students using the newspaper will demonstrate gains in all four attitudes about civic engagement in comparison to students not using the "New York Times."   [More]  Descriptors: Political Science, Citizenship Education, Citizen Participation, Student Participation

Mawhinney, Hanne B. (2010). Shifting Scales of Education Politics in a Vernacular of Disruption and Dislocation, Educational Policy. Article comments on contributions to an issue of Educational Policy that focuses on glocal politics of education in multiple national and international arenas. Commentary offered considers the ways in which the set of articles in this issue of EP require readers to take scalar leaps across the semiotic landscape of the local into the global. The problematic of scale that undergirds considerations of the glocal is explored. Discussed are the contributions of the set of articles to highlighting the disruption and dislocation associated with contemporary examples of glocal phenomena in education politics. The possibility that "things fall apart" under conditions of glocalization is contrasted with the hopefulness engendered by stances of vernacular cosmopolitanism. Implications for further research on the shifting scales of education politics discussed in the article focus on questions framing the democratic challenges of technological glocalization.   [More]  Descriptors: Politics of Education, Educational Policy, International Education, Global Approach

Smith, Cheryl C. (2008). Technologies for Transcending a Focus on Error: Blogs and Democratic Aspirations in First-Year Composition, Journal of Basic Writing (CUNY). How are the internet and its online spaces for open exchange changing reading and writing practices, and how can we capitalize on these changes in composition instruction? This article traces the author's experiment with blogging in her first-year writing class and considers how and why blogs help students negotiate the unfamiliar demands of college writing and enter into a more democratic arena for learning where their voices and arguments gain fuller, freer expression. In particular, the article proposes that the space of the blog, which is familiar to many students, opens up possibilities for risk-taking and interactivity that teach important lessons about the role of error and audience response in the composing process. As students rethink and revise their initial ideas, working off one another's comments, they develop more authority as critics with valued opinions and voice and let go of some of their fear about making mistakes that can prevent inexperienced writers from discovering and communicating their best arguments. By embracing the inventive and often messy space of blogs in composition instruction, students and teachers alike can evolve a new view of what it means to learn to write–and write effectively–in academic settings.   [More]   [More]  Descriptors: Web Sites, Freshman Composition, Writing (Composition), Electronic Publishing

Nielsen, Lynn E.; Finkelstein, Judith M.; Schmidt, Amy; Duncan, Annette (2008). Citizenship Education: Engaging Children in Building Community, Social Studies and the Young Learner. During the 1980s, two of the authors of this article were inspired to link good citizenship to solid classroom practices. These practices were articulated as the "Democratic Classroom Interaction Model," which grew directly from the authors' classroom experiences. The purpose of this model was to identify and illustrate how teachers could organize their classrooms to teach the citizenship dispositions on which a solid democratic society is founded. This model also provides an analytical lens through which teachers can examine the degree to which the five Citizenship Processes are present in their teaching. In this article, the authors describe how second grade teachers implemented the Democratic Classroom Interaction Model to inspire students to grow as citizens and as scholars. The authors organize their description around the five citizenship processes of the Democratic Classroom Interaction Model.   [More]  Descriptors: Democracy, Citizenship Education, Interaction, Grade 2

Rivera, Sharon Werning; Simons, Janet Thomas (2008). Engaging Students through Extended Simulations, Journal of Political Science Education. This article describes a simulation that fulfills many of the goals of a scholar/apprentice model–one that requires a sustained period of time during which an apprentice practices a set of discipline-specific skills under the guidance of his or her mentor. Such an extended simulation differs from shorter exercises in several ways, such as the necessity of including numerous checkpoints for monitoring student progress and of utilizing objective and systematic assessment tools. In particular, students must know that they will be assessed on the basis of both group results and their individual contributions. The simulation discussed in this article pays explicit attention to these two issues–the importance of "deliverables" and the need for dual-pronged, objective assessment instruments–as well as to the desirability of coordinated college-wide instructional support.   [More]  Descriptors: Simulation, Student Evaluation, College Students, Political Science

Thomas, P. L. (2010). Parental Choice? A Critical Reconsideration of Choice and the Debate about Choice. Critical Constructions: Studies on Education and Society, IAP – Information Age Publishing, Inc.. Education has rarely been absent from local and national public discourse. Throughout the history of modern education spanning more than a century, individuals have as a culture lamented the failures of public schooling, often making such claims based on assumptions instead of any nuanced consideration of the many influences on teaching and learning in any child's life–notably the socioeconomic status of a student's family. School reform, then, has also been a frequent topic in political discourse and public debate. Since the mid-twentieth century, a rising call for market forces to replace government-run schooling has pushed to the front of those debates. Since A Nation at Risk in the early 1980s and the implementation of No Child Left Behind at the turn of the twenty-first century, a subtle shift has occurred in the traditional support of public education–fueled by the misconception that private schools out perform public schools along with a naive faith in competition and the promise of the free market. Political and ideological claims that all parents deserve school choice has proven to be a compelling slogan. This book unmasks calls for parental and school choice with a postformal and critical view of both the traditional bureaucratic public school system and the current patterns found the body of research on all aspects of school choice and private schooling. The examination of the status quo and market-based calls for school reform will serve well all stakeholders in public education as they seek to evaluate the quality of schools today and form positions on how best to reform schools for the empowerment of free people in a democratic society. Following a preface and an introduction, this book contains: (1) "Pay No Attention to the Man Behind the Curtain": A Critical Guide to Education, Research, and the Politics of It All; (2) Education as Political Football: What We Know (and Don't Know) About School Choice and Accountability; (3) Seeing Education Again for the First Time, Or School Isn't What It Used to Be… Or Is It?; (4) The Child in Society, the Child at Home, the Child at School; (5) Caught Between our Children and Testing, Testing, Testing; and (6) Parental Choice?–A Postformal Response. Conclusion, References, and About the Author are also included.   [More]  Descriptors: Private Schools, School Restructuring, Free Enterprise System, Federal Legislation

Rivers, Andrew; Moore, Kristin A. (2008). What Works for Civic Engagement: Lessons from Experimental Evaluations of Programs and Interventions. Fact Sheet. Publication #2008-22, Child Trends. Civic engagement and participation are central to the functioning of a democratic society. In addition, young people who are involved in civic activities are more engaged in academics, are less likely to participate in risky behaviors, and more than likely continue on to adulthood as contributing members of their communities. Rates of young people's civic participation in American society have been on the decline. Greater engagement of young people would benefit the larger society as well as youth themselves. This review is based on five experimental studies from the Child Trends database of experimental evaluations of social interventions for children and youth–LINKS (Lifecourse Interventions to Nurture Kids Successfully). The small number of studies limits the authors' conclusions; nevertheless, several conclusions appear warranted.   [More]  Descriptors: Democracy, Children, Adolescents, Citizen Participation

Sanchez, Deborah M.; Paulson, Eric J. (2008). Critical Language Awareness and Learners in College Transitional English, Teaching English in the Two-Year College. Critical Language Awareness (CLA) is one literacy tool that students need in order to examine limit-situations or "what went wrong." Norman Fairclough defines CLA as an awareness of the ways in which ideas become naturalized or taken for granted as "truths" about the natural and social world and how these "truths" are tied up with language in use. The purpose of CLA is to encourage students to uncover the ways that the language of texts is socially constructed and how language may position students in negative ways, both purposefully and inadvertently. Therefore, reading and writing instruction should not be concerned only with basic skills, but rather it should focus on how students use reading and writing to analyze language–in various textual forms–in order to understand the ways in which texts, and the discourse that makes up texts, may impose certain ideas about the world onto readers. Students would benefit from an awareness of how language functions to impose certain beliefs and values about society. The premise the authors are developing is that the teaching of CLA and critical analysis should begin in transitional English courses, in order to prepare students fully for college-level literacy, democratic citizenship, and the realities of work; it should not be deferred for later composition courses, as is frequently the case. This article reviews literature on CLA studies in transitional English courses and with other related student populations in order to build an argument for and give implications for using CLA as a curricular approach in the classroom.   [More]  Descriptors: Writing (Composition), Metalinguistics, Democracy, Critical Reading

Alo, Edita (2010). Democratic Approaches in Education and Language Teaching, Interchange: A Quarterly Review of Education. In this paper the author asserts that as post- conflict Kosovo has emerged from the stage of emergency rehabilitation towards long-term development planning to independence, its peaceful and successful development largely depends on the development of a strong education system based on tolerance and human rights values. This paper looks at ways to promote an education system which accessible to all and also builds on the human potential of Kosovo by encouraging democratic behavior amongst the younger generation. The author asserts that traditional teaching in schools is no longer appropriate and looks at efforts to introduce new approaches to teaching. She suggests that a transformation is needed in order to have effective reforms. Part of this transformation suggests that educators in Kosovo will need to better understand that, while the country may be undergoing a transformation, teaching is a changing and dynamic profession with continuing demands and that education and professional development is a lifelong process.   [More]  Descriptors: Civil Rights, Educational Change, Foreign Countries, Teaching Methods

Asamoah-Gyadu, J. Kwabena (2010). Religious Education and Religious Pluralism in the New Africa, Religious Education. This article examines some of the pertinent challenges arising out of personal experiences encountered through teaching religion and theology within an African environment. What the author describes as the "new Africa" in his title is a continent that has transitioned from slavery and colonialism into a global fraternity of democratic governance, access to wealth, sophisticated media technologies. In addition, the rise of new religious movements of both Christian and non-Christian persuasions following political and economic liberalizations and media explosion in Africa has been phenomenal. The author added that the rise of African migrant churches in the Diaspora has emerged as an important field of study and all indications are that the relationship between religious globalization and Religious Education may be more complex than people think.   [More]  Descriptors: Global Approach, Governance, Slavery, Foreign Countries

Ashcraft, Catherine (2008). So Much More than "Sex Ed": Teen Sexuality as Vehicle for Improving Academic Success and Democratic Education for Diverse Youth, American Educational Research Journal. Although sexuality saturates adolescent life, schools do little to address teen sexuality. As educators feel increasingly burdened by competing societal demands, caring for youth sexual health becomes a secondary goal at best. This article argues that the public health costs are only one reason for addressing sexuality in schools and suggests that academic and democratic reasons for addressing sexuality also exist. It illustrates how sexuality can be a potentially powerful resource for increasing the academic achievement and civic engagement of a diverse range of youth. As such, addressing sexuality serves not only public health goals but also academic and democratic goals–goals that have long been central for schools. To make this argument, the author draws from her ethnography of ESPERANZA, a community-based sex education program, illustrating how ESPERANZA used teen interest in sexuality to help youth become leaders, increase academic skills, expand career aspirations, and engage in democratic civic action.   [More]  Descriptors: Sex Education, Democracy, Academic Achievement, Public Health

Cuypers, Stefaan E.; Haji, Ishtiyaque (2008). Educating for Well-Being and Autonomy, Theory and Research in Education. Liberals champion the view that promoting autonomy–seeing to it that our children develop into individuals who are self-governing in the conduct of their lives–is a vital aim of education, though one generally accredited as being subsidiary to well-being. Our prime goal in this article is to provide a partial validation of this liberal ideal against the backdrop of a freedom-sensitive attitudinal hedonism–our favored life-ranking axiology. We propose that there is a pivotal connection between the concept of maximizing well-being and another concept central in the philosophy of education and in the literature on free agency: the concept of our springs of action, such as our desires or beliefs, being "truly our own" or, alternatively, autonomous. We suggest that it is the freedom that moral responsibility requires that bridges the overarching aim of securing well-being, on the one hand, and the subsidiary aim of promoting autonomy, on the other.   [More]  Descriptors: Freedom, Educational Philosophy, Ethical Instruction, Well Being

Slater, Robert O. (2008). American Teachers: What Do They Believe?, Education Digest: Essential Readings Condensed for Quick Review. While educators desire to separate the teaching of values from the teaching of reading, writing, and mathematics–the so-called value neutral subjects–they nonetheless do teach values in the course of teaching these subjects. Teaching is as much a moral effort as it is an intellectual enterprise. This article examines the National Opinion Research Center's (NORC) General Social Survey to gain understanding of teachers' values. The author presents a summary description of some values of America's elementary and secondary school teachers gleaned from data collected from 1972 to 2006 in the areas of freedom of speech, family values, economic inequality, religion, and human nature.   [More]  Descriptors: Teacher Attitudes, Values, Beliefs, Elementary School Teachers

Terzian, Shelley (2010). Curriculum Reform in Post-Soviet Armenia: Balancing Local and Global Contexts in Armenian Secondary Schools, ProQuest LLC. Structured according to the conceptual frameworks of nationalism and globalization, this study examined relationships between and among the Armenian Ministry of Education, the World Bank, the Open Society Institute Assistance Foundation-Armenia, and Armenian secondary school teachers and principals from 1991 to the present. Each group played a central role, developing and implementing the Armenian National Curriculum and State Standard for Secondary Education throughout the education system.   Using Laurence Neuman's inductive approach to open, axial, and final coding, this qualitative case study investigated the global and national groups that produced the Armenian National Curriculum (the Curriculum) and the State Standard for Secondary Education (SSSE) [W. Lawrence Neuman, "Social Research Methods: Qualitative and Quantitative Approaches" (3rd edition) (Needham Heights: A Viacom Company, 1997), 206-209]. Analysis of the Curriculum and the SSSE provided an understanding of educational policy guidelines for the Armenian secondary schools; themes central to the Curriculum and SSSE drove the analysis of semi-structured interviews and observations that completed research for this study.   This sophisticated system of analysis created a depth examination of curriculum reform at both policy and implementation levels in Armenia. Multiple interviews, including policy discussions with numerous officials from the Armenian Ministry of Education and Science, the directors of education from the World Bank and from the Open Society Institute Assistance Foundation-Armenia combined with interviews of Armenian teachers and school principals, to present a reliable picture of the creation of democratic education policy in Armenia in this period.   Since independence from the Soviet Union in 1991, Armenia has struck a balance between the local and global perspectives that influenced post-Soviet curriculum reform. Armenia moved away from closed Soviet educational approaches and began to integrate international educational standards of the European Union into its system. Invited by the Armenian Ministry of Education and Science to assisting this transition, the World Bank and the Open Society Institute Assistance Foundation-Armenia encouraged the use of specific content and teaching techniques to institute democratic practices in the Armenian context of schooling. These educational standards were aligned with Western approaches to education to allow Armenia to compete in the global market. Subjects such as civic education stressing ideas of openness, tolerance, and human rights were aligned to curriculum practices to meet requirements for membership in the European Union. On the other hand, subjects such as the history of the Armenian Church provided citizens with an understanding of the importance of Christianity to the Armenian nation. Thus, curriculum reform in post-Soviet Armenia balanced local and global contexts in Armenian secondary schools, furnishing a complex and fascinating overview of the dramatic process of structural educational change in a nation transitioning from membership in the former Soviet Union. The analysis and interviews in this study with both local participants and leaders of international agencies that was critically important in the period of political, cultural, and educational transformation present elements essential to understanding the role of education in Armenia today.   [The dissertation citations contained here are published with the permission of ProQuest LLC. Further reproduction is prohibited without permission. Copies of dissertations may be obtained by Telephone (800) 1-800-521-0600. Web page:   [More]  Descriptors: National Curriculum, Curriculum Development, Secondary Schools, Secondary Education

Mac an Ghaill, Mairtin (2010). Educating for Political Activity: A Younger Generational Response, Educational Review. This paper is a response to Professor Chitty's "Educational Review" Guest Lecture article, "Educating for political activity". I address the three sections of his paper: a global and national-based politics of war, corporate manipulation and parliamentary scandals. This provides a basis to draw upon empirical material from a recent critical ethnography with which I am involved, which suggests the need to redefine the politics "of" and "within" schools. A case study of the schooling experiences of Asian working-class young men provide insightful narratives about the complexity of educating for political activity. A number of themes are identified including: different social and cultural realities; expanding the concept of politics and a younger generation's political sensibility.   [More]  Descriptors: Foreign Countries, Politics, Political Issues, Activism

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Bibliography: Democracy (page 505 of 605)

This bibliography is independently curated for the I'm with Jill website.  Some of the authors featured on this page include Daniel W. Stuckart, Martin L. Mitchell, Jeffrey Glanz, Chance W. Lewis, Stuart Beall Phipps, Larry K. Brendtro, Anissa Lokey Vega, Kurt Mosser, Alison George Dover, and Helena Pedersen.

Pedersen, Helena (2010). Education Policymaking for Social Change: A Post-Humanist Intervention, Policy Futures in Education. The humanist tradition in Western education systems is increasingly coming under critical scrutiny by posthumanist scholars, arguing that Enlightenment humanism accommodates a number of serious shortcomings such as being essentialist, exclusive, and unable to meet its own criteria of value pluralism, tolerance, and equity for all. This article formulates some challenges posed to formal education by posthumanist theory, addressing international education policymaking for social change. Based on an analysis of a number of education policy documents produced by UNESCO, the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, the World Bank, the European Commission, and the Nordic Council of Ministers, it elicits five pervasive ideas about the relationship between education and social change that are frequently appearing in contemporary rhetoric of education policymaking: "the knowledge society"; "the democratic society"; "the multicultural society"; "the globalized society" and "the sustainable society". Inspired by critical discourse analysis, the article identifies a number of research questions focused on each of these five ideas and explores possible responses, inflected by a range of recent cross-disciplinary posthumanist scholarship, that deconstruct conventional assumptions about the idea of education in general and of education policymaking in particular. It concludes with a discussion of what subject positions and repertoires are, or are not, allowed to emerge in education policymaking for social change.   [More]  Descriptors: Democracy, Discourse Analysis, Social Change, Educational Change

Vega, Anissa Lokey (2010). Investigation of Alignment between Goals of Schooling Relevant to Georgia and the Georgia Performance Standards, ProQuest LLC. Since the American Revolution free public education has been a discussion of political debate. The purpose that such an institution should play in society is a debate fervently argued when the founding fathers wanted to build a republic based on meritocracy. The problem this study addresses is the undefined relationship between the goals of schooling relevant to Georgia and the Georgia Performance Standards (GPS) which is a critical piece to creating a complete systemic view of public schooling in Georgia. The purpose of this study is to investigate the alignment between the GPS and schooling goals. The guiding question and sub-questions are: How well are the GPS, or the intended curriculum of Georgia schools, and each of the various stated goals of schooling aligned? How relevant are the eighth-grade GPS to the latent themes of each of the stated goals of schooling? How balanced are the latent themes of each of the stated goals of schooling in the eighth-grade GPS?   Through a historical investigation of the literature and current policy the author establishes the currently relevant goals of schooling which serve as the latent goals for which the method will seek to find evidence within the Georgia Performance Standards. The study employs a quantitative content analysis of a significant section of the Georgia Performance Standards (GPS) looking for themes associated with various stated goals of schooling as indicated by the literature review. The manifest themes, developed from the latent goals of schooling, are incorporated as the dependent variables in the study, while the GPS serve as the independent variable. Neuendorf's (2001) framework for content analysis is used to develop a new method for investigating the goal-curriculum alignment relationship through new measures of Curricular Balance, Curricular Relevance, and Manifest Theme Presence. This study presents a new visual model to compare a curriculum's alignment to multiple goals of schooling called the Goal-Curriculum Alignment Measures (G-CAM) model. This study finds that the GPS are strongly aligned to the goals of Americanization, high student test scores, post-secondary enrollment, and national gain, while poorly aligned to democratic participation and social justice. Evidence for these conclusions are discussed and related to the current socio-political literature.   [The dissertation citations contained here are published with the permission of ProQuest LLC. Further reproduction is prohibited without permission. Copies of dissertations may be obtained by Telephone (800) 1-800-521-0600. Web page:   [More]  Descriptors: Social Justice, Investigations, Academic Achievement, Predictor Variables

Stuckart, Daniel W.; Glanz, Jeffrey (2010). Revisiting Dewey: Best Practices for Educating the Whole Child Today, Rowman & Littlefield Education. Since the passage of the No Child Left Behind Act of 2001, high-stakes testing has become a ubiquitous feature of public school children's daily rituals. Reform advocates argue that testing leads to greater alignment of the curriculum with teaching and learning, teacher and student accountability, and in some cases, a preservation of our cultural heritage. Opponents contend that testing results in prolific cheating, higher drop-out rates, and a narrowing curriculum with emphases on teaching to the test. Moreover, some evidence suggests that a singular focus on passing the test at all costs leads to neglect in other areas including attending to students' spiritual and ethical needs as well as developing abilities to collaborate with others, communicate effectively, and innovatively solve problems. Nearly a century ago, Dewey proposed a philosophy of education addressing the needs of the whole student. He provided insights into the development of intelligence, the importance of socially useful skills, and the healthy growth of the individual. In the context of high-stakes testing and best practices, his insights may be more prescient than ever.   [More]  Descriptors: Federal Legislation, Educational Change, High Stakes Tests, Testing

Haynes Writer, Jeanette (2010). Broadening the Meaning of Citizenship Education: Native Americans and Tribal Nationhood, Action in Teacher Education. The reality of tribal nationhood and the dual citizenship that Native Americans carry in their tribal nations and the United States significantly expands the definition and parameters of citizen education. Citizenship education means including and understanding the historical and political contexts of all U.S. citizens–especially, those indigenous to this land. Schools and teachers have the responsibility for students' exposure to and understanding of the complexity of the United States' politically situated past and present relationship with and obligations to tribal nations and their citizens. I contend that if the historical and contemporary context of Native American citizenship is not addressed in schools' citizenship education, then that is evidence of ongoing colonization and practice of cultural imperialism.   [More]  Descriptors: Citizenship Education, American Indians, Tribes, Citizenship

Einarsdottir, Johanna (2010). Icelandic Parents' Views on the National Policy on Early Childhood Education, Early Years: An International Journal of Research and Development. Considerable change has taken place in Icelandic early childhood education during the past few decades. Preschool, from being geared primarily towards children with evident social needs, has become all but universal. The aim of this study was to shed light on Icelandic parents' views on their children's preschool education and to examine how their views harmonize with the nation's preschool policy. The participants in this study, 43 parents of five- and six-year-old children in three preschools in Reykjavik, participated in focus-group interviews concerning the preschool curriculum. The results indicate that the parents' main expectation of the preschools was that they should support the children's social development; the way in which the preschool day was organized, and the content of the curriculum seemed to be less important to them. Parents wanted their children to have the opportunity not only to enjoy themselves as individuals, but to learn self-reliance and respect for other people. Care-giving and attentiveness of the staff were more important than the teaching of knowledge and skills. These views are compatible with the social pedagogical tradition, the Icelandic Preschool Act, and the National Curriculum Guidelines for Preschools.   [More]  Descriptors: Preschool Curriculum, National Curriculum, Preschool Education, Preschool Children

Wylie, Scott; Marri, Anand R. (2010). Teledeliberative Democratic Discourse: A Case Study of High School Students' Use of Web 2.0, Campus-Wide Information Systems. Purpose: The paper aims to examine high school students' use of social networking to participate in teledeliberative democratic dialogue and explicates the implications of this dialogue for democratic education that is inclusive of all students. Design/methodology/approach: The case study analyzes the comments of 111 high school students over ten days following what they perceived to be an injustice committed by the administration against one of their fellow classmates. Findings: Analysis of student commentary led to the development of three categories of teledeliberative citizenship: the demagogue, the proselyte, and the egalitarian. Together, these categories serve as a spectrum of sophistication along which democratic discourse can be classified. Research limitations/implications: The primary limitation of this research is a product of the online medium in which it occurs. Though "observing" students' interactions on Web 2.0 application was beneficial for cataloguing conversations, social cues like body language and tone of voice had to be inferred. Practical implications: Web 2.0 provides students with an opportunity to build a community of shared belief that crosses gender, racial, religious, and cultural divisions. Originality/value: Teachers could use Web 2.0 as a forum for teledeliberative democratic dialogue in a multicultural democratic educational framework to engage students and encourage a sophisticated, active citizenship.   [More]  Descriptors: Cues, Nonverbal Communication, Citizenship, Democracy

Hill-Jackson, Valerie, Ed.; Lewis, Chance W., Ed. (2010). Transforming Teacher Education: What Went Wrong with Teacher Training, and How We Can Fix It, Stylus Publishing, LLC. In this book, 12 distinguished scholars provide a hard-hitting, thoroughly researched, historical and theoretical critique of our schools of education, and offer clear recommendations on what must be done to ensure all children can achieve their potential, and contribute to a vibrant, democratic society. This book contains a Foreword by Peter McLaren and four parts. Part I, "History & Philosophy in Teacher Education", contains: (1) (Re)enVISIONing Teacher Education: A Critical Exploration of Missed Historical Moments and Promising Possibilities (Jennifer Milam); and (2) Liberal Progressivism at the Crossroads: Towards a Critical Philosophy of Teacher Education (Nathalia Jaramillo). Part II, "Implementing Value-Added Teacher Training & Development", contains: (3) Dispositions Matter! Advancing Habits of the Mind for Social Justice (Valerie Hill-Jackson and Chance W. Lewis); and (4) Teacher Candidate Selection, Recruitment, and Induction: A Critical Analysis with Implications for Transformation (F. Blake Tenore, Alfred C. Dunn, Judson C. Laughter, and H. Richard Milner). Part III, "Accountability & Evaluation", contains: (5) A Modest Proposal for Making Teacher Education Accountable (Martin Haberman); (6) High Stakes Accountability and Teacher Quality: Coping with Contradictions (Jennifer Rice); and (7) Meeting the Challenge of High-Stakes Testing: Toward a Culturally-Relevant Assessment Literacy (Kris Sloan). Part IV, "Transforming Teacher Education", contains: (8) When Policies Meet Practice: Leaving No Teacher Behind (Jeanita Richardson); and (9) Constructing 21st Century Teacher Education (Linda Darling-Hammond). "This is Our Moment: Contemplating the Urgency of Now for the Future of Teacher Education" by Chance W. Lewis and Valerie Hill-Jackson is included in the epilogue.   [More]  Descriptors: Social Justice, Preservice Teacher Education, Schools of Education, Teacher Effectiveness

Thornton, Stephen (2010). From "Scuba Diving" to "Jet Skiing"? Information Behavior, Political Science, and the Google Generation, Journal of Political Science Education. It is often suggested that the swift arrival of a world shaped by information superabundance–symbolized by the astonishing growth in popularity of the digital search engine Google–has changed the manner in which many learn. A particular concern of some is the perception that younger people have turned away from books and long articles and have taken to regarding the Internet uncritically as the fount of all knowledge. This anxiety has been reflected with recent growth in literature about the so-called "Google generation," in which it assumed that changes in the manner in which young people access information will necessitate major reforms to the higher education system. This article will examine these claims and will present findings–from the United Kingdom and United States–that suggest a more nuanced picture of this particular cohort of students than has sometimes been presented. This will be followed by recommendations that have been made to address some remaining issues, particularly those pertinent to students of political science.   [More]  Descriptors: Foreign Countries, Internet, Access to Information, Corporations

Dover, Alison George (2010). Teaching for Social Justice with Standards-Based Secondary English Language Arts Curriculum, ProQuest LLC. Teaching for social justice is the attempt by classroom teachers to use their position in the classroom to promote social and educational reform within and despite current educational conditions and mandates. However, while a growing number of K-12 teachers have published anecdotal reports of their attempts to teach for social justice in secondary classrooms (e.g., Bender-Slack, 2007; Christensen, 2000; Singer, 2005), there is great variability among these accounts, and scant evaluation of their impact on specific academic, behavioral/motivational, and attitudinal outcomes (see Grant & Agosto, 2008; Kelly & Brandes, 2008; Poplin & Rivera, 2005).   This qualitative study addresses this research gap by offering a concrete framework for teaching for social justice that is informed by multiple education reform traditions (including democratic education, critical (Freirian) pedagogy, multicultural education, culturally responsive education, and social justice education) and associated with positive academic, behavioral/motivational, and attitudinal outcomes. Next, I present the results of a constructivist grounded theory analysis examining how twenty-four English Language Arts teachers conceptualize teaching for social justice, as well as a content (lesson plan) analysis detailing how they operationalize the practice through the use of standards-based curriculum.   Findings indicate that secondary ELA teachers define teaching for social justice as having three primary dimensions: curriculum, pedagogy, and social action. These priorities are reflected in their curriculum, which addressed all four strands of the Massachusetts ELA Curricular Frameworks (Language, Reading and Literature, Writing, and Media) and a range of social justice topics. Additional study findings examine challenges associated with teaching for social justice, the impact of teachers' identities and school contexts on their social justice practice, and variance in how teachers conceptualize and implement teaching for social justice according to their sociopolitical emphases.   This study has several implications for policy and practice. Specifically, this study challenges critics' attempts to portray social justice education as poorly aligned with academically rigorous content-area instruction (e.g., Will, 2006), offers curricular guidance to pre- and in-service teachers interested in transforming their own practice, and lays the foundation for future empirical research related to how teaching for social justice affects student outcomes.   [The dissertation citations contained here are published with the permission of ProQuest LLC. Further reproduction is prohibited without permission. Copies of dissertations may be obtained by Telephone (800) 1-800-521-0600. Web page:   [More]  Descriptors: Social Justice, Grounded Theory, Constructivism (Learning), Multicultural Education

Mosser, Kurt (2010). Teaching the Bill of Rights in China, History Teacher. In this article, the author shares his experience in teaching a course called "American Political Theory" at Nanjing University in Nanjing, People's Republic of China. The course the author designed was intended to explore the philosophical background of what drove the North American colonists to declare their independence; what ideas informed the writing of the Declaration of Independence, the Constitution, and the Bill of Rights; and what models competed in determining the state envisaged. Although his professional training is in philosophy, the author was teaching the course under the auspices of the History Department at Nanjing University. The course presented two sets of challenges. One set might be considered "technical" challenges in actually delivering the course content. The second set resides in the traditions, history, and culture of China, and the radically distinct conception of the state they presuppose. Here, the author deals with the technical challenges, before taking up the more difficult issues of those presuppositions.    [More]  Descriptors: Course Content, Foreign Countries, Civil Rights, College Faculty

Liao, Sze-wei (2010). Identity, Ideology, and Language Variation: A Sociolinguistic Study of Mandarin in Central Taiwan, ProQuest LLC. Since the lifting of martial law in 1987, the rapid liberalization and democratization of Taiwan has led to the transformation of its political structure from a single-party system to a full-fledged two-party system. Along with this political opposition are the two contrastive concepts, the North and the South. Located in this background, this dissertation focuses on two groups of Taichung people ("Taizhong" "central Taiwan") in two different sociopolitical contexts. One group resides in Taichung, their home region, and the other group migrates to Taipei, the capital located in northern Taiwan. Taichung is chosen because it serves as the main city on the north-to-south corridor and its speakers are known for their distinctive variety of Mandarin.   This dissertation examines linguistic behavior and ideologies of speakers who stay in their home region versus speakers who migrate from one dialect area to another. Employing the methodology of sociolinguistic variation studies, coupled with qualitative analyses, this study specifically examines two salient dialectal features of Taichung Mandarin: (1) the realization of T4, the high-falling tone, as T1, the level tone, and (2) the substitution of lateral [l] for retroflex approximant [r\'].   Qualitative analyses of speakers' social identities, attitudes, ideologies and language practices complement quantitative analyses of patterns of phonological variation. The study finds that the migrant group does make changes in their linguistic production upon constant exposure to a new dialect. Furthermore, the result suggests that speakers' linguistic behavior is significantly linked with their social networks, identities, language attitudes and ideologies, and the broader sociopolitical context of contemporary Taiwan.   An interesting finding emerges after the examination of how linguistic behavior is conditioned by internal linguistic constraints and external factors such as gender, age, political affiliation, and occupation. The analysis of the data suggests that external factors play a more important role in the substitution of [l] for [r], whereas internal constraints precede external factors in the realization of T4 as T1. I argue that different status and social meanings of the two linguistic variables explain how they pattern in each residence group and how they trigger or fail to trigger accommodation by speakers migrating to Taipei.   Issues examined in this dissertation add to our understanding of voice (identities, attitudes and ideologies) in the border that is generally unheard and unresearched when the contesting ideologies between the north and the south are so dramatic. Additionally, this dissertation provides a detailed understanding of how different linguistic resources (varieties of Mandarin, Taiwanese, and codeswitching to Taiwanese or English from Mandarin) are associated with different social meanings and how speakers use the resources to construct their identities. Finally, combining quantitative rigor and qualitative methods, this dissertation contributes to a broader understanding of identity and language use since the complexity of language use cannot be understood within one single analysis.   [The dissertation citations contained here are published with the permission of ProQuest LLC. Further reproduction is prohibited without permission. Copies of dissertations may be obtained by Telephone (800) 1-800-521-0600. Web page:   [More]  Descriptors: Political Affiliation, Dialects, Sociolinguistics, Language Attitudes

Phipps, Stuart Beall (2010). High School Social Studies Teachers' Beliefs and Education for Democratic Citizenship, ProQuest LLC. This study explores secondary social studies teachers' beliefs about the concept of citizenship. The development of citizenship in young people is an often-stated goal for schooling in the USA. The most prominent social studies professional organization, the National Council for the Social Studies, describes education for citizenship as the ultimate aim for social studies in the schools. Researchers in both political science and social studies education have linked certain aspects of classroom climate to positive political socialization outcomes. Classroom climate is related to teachers' instructional decision-making. Teachers' instructional decision-making, in turn, is related to teachers' beliefs, conceptualizations, and thinking.   This study used multiple data sources to explore and describe teachers' beliefs about citizenship and education for citizenship. Four teachers in a college preparatory urban public secondary school participated. Data sources included a survey instrument, a series of teacher interviews, a series of classroom observations, and examination of documents. Data analysis was an ongoing and recursive process. All data were analyzed using hand coding.   The research supported nine findings consistent with related research relevant to perceptions about social studies and its goals, conceptions of citizenship, ideas about education for citizenship and influences on teacher decision-making. A tenth finding emerged from this study: teachers' levels of personal political engagement seemed consistent with their conceptions of citizenship, the relative openness of the climate in their classroom, and the degree to which their students would discuss controversial issues in the classroom.   [The dissertation citations contained here are published with the permission of ProQuest LLC. Further reproduction is prohibited without permission. Copies of dissertations may be obtained by Telephone (800) 1-800-521-0600. Web page:   [More]  Descriptors: Political Socialization, Political Science, Citizenship, Democracy

Brown, Kathleen M. (2010). Preparing School Leaders to Serve as Agents for Social Transformation, Scholar-Practitioner Quarterly. The major priorities that should guide leadership education in preparing leaders for their work of leading schools in a democratic society are: (1) Teaching leaders to understand the inequities of society; (2) Teaching leaders to serve as agents for social transformation; and (3) Teaching leaders to help each and every student learn and succeed. In the context of preparing such leaders, efforts by preparation programs to involve students in consciousness-raising activities and democratic-defining strategies can lead to reflective analysis and activist intervention. It is important for such programs to bridge theory and practice, to make connections between course material and the broader social context, to explain to pre-service leaders how they might take an active part in bringing about social change, and to validate and incorporate adult learners' personal knowledge and experience. People rarely change through a rational process of analyze-think-change. They are much more likely to change in a see-feel-change sequence. As such, the exploration of new understandings, the synthesis of new information, and the integration of these insights throughout personal and professional spheres can lead future educational leaders to a broader, more inclusive approach in addressing issues of student learning and equity. Respect for diversity and culturally inclusive education entails advocacy, solidarity, an awareness of societal structures of oppression, and critical social consciousness. Preparing educational leaders to accept this challenge necessitates both a close examination of personal beliefs coupled with a critical analysis of professional behavior. Through critical reflection, rational discourse, and policy praxis, preparation programs must implement ways for future leaders to grow in awareness, acknowledgement, and action! According to Giroux (1992), "If students are going to learn how to take risks, to develop healthy skepticism towards all master narratives, to recognize the power relations that offer them the opportunity to speak in particular ways, and be willing to critically confront their role as critical citizens who can animate a democratic culture, they need to see such behavior demonstrated in the social practices and subject positions that teachers live out and not merely propose."   [More]   [More]  Descriptors: Inclusion, Democracy, Equal Education, Leadership Training

Lopez, Gretchen E.; Zuniga, Ximena (2010). Intergroup Dialogue and Democratic Practice in Higher Education, New Directions for Higher Education. Academic communities must learn to address many of the social divisions, misunderstandings, and inequities of society as a whole. Although challenging, this offers tremendous opportunities for educators to develop, study, and learn from innovative programs that respond effectively to these social issues on college and university campuses. This knowledge may then be shared with wider communities. This chapter introduces one such initiative, intergroup dialogue. Intergroup dialogue is "a face-to-face facilitated learning experience that brings together students from different social identity groups over a sustained period of time to understand their commonalities and differences, examine the nature and impact of societal inequalities, and explore ways of working together toward greater equality and justice." As examples, intergroup dialogues may bring together students (or faculty, staff) across race, gender, sexual orientation, social class, and religion- or faith-based divisions. Intergroup dialogue presents an important opportunity for students and others to practice the skills needed to cultivate diverse democratic culture in higher education and broader society.   [More]  Descriptors: Higher Education, Social Class, Sexual Orientation, Student Diversity

Brendtro, Larry K.; Mitchell, Martin L. (2010). The Profound Power of Groups, Reclaiming Children and Youth. Decades of studies show that children's behavior is shaped by relationships in the "social ecology" of family, peers, school, and community. But in recent decades the prevailing scientific dogma was that genes determine destiny. Now it is clear that experience changes genes. For better or worse, environmental experiences including nutrition, stress, emotions, and learning can modify the genes. The knowledge that experience shapes genes can also provide new hope for healing and building resilient brain pathways.   [More]  Descriptors: Child Behavior, Genetics, Environmental Influences, Nutrition

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Bibliography: Democracy (page 504 of 605)

This annotated bibliography is curated specifically for the I'm with Jill website.  Some of the authors featured on this page include Emery J. Hyslop-Margison, Dana Vedder-Weiss, Gary Wilkinson, Trudy Kuehner, Maurice Isserman, Ronald Swartz, Megan Boler, Jan Germen Janmaat, Joseph Agassi, and Johannes L. van der Walt.

Wilkinson, Gary (2007). Civic Professionalism: Teacher Education and Professional Ideals and Values in a Commercialised Education World, Journal of Education for Teaching: International Research and Pedagogy. The last three decades have seen an intensification of commercialization throughout the public sector in general and state schools in particular. Policies designed to introduce business ideologies, structures and practices have operated in tandem with a push to include the corporate world in the running, governance and provision of educational services. Together these policy instruments are eroding the influence and power of education professionals and precipitating a transformative shift in the nature of public education. A specific threat which these policies may encourage is the use of corporate propaganda techniques targeted at schools which may harm children, undermine the proper purposes of education, subvert the moral and social fabric of school life and damage the foundations of civil society. This paper argues that educators must recognize the dangers of commercialized schools and organize to protect civic education, speak up for its values and preserve the distinctiveness of educational practice operating within non-commercialized public spaces. Such a strategy also offers the opportunity to redefine the central role of educators as servants of the twin professional ideals of children's civic welfare and democratic citizenship.   [More]  Descriptors: Teacher Role, Propaganda, Ideology, Educational Practices

Davis, Jonathan Ryan (2007). Making a Difference: How Teachers Can Positively Affect Racial Identity and Acceptance in America, Social Studies. The author examines the important role schools, teachers, and the high school social studies classroom can play in helping students develop positive racial identities. Using the Classroom-based Multicultural Democratic Education framework, the author argues that high school social studies teachers need to adapt pedagogical strategies and curricula to foster racial tolerance, understanding, and respect within the classroom and for individual students. This is necessary training to prepare students for life in a racially strained American society. Teachers can help students achieve a positive racial identity by (1) understanding students' racial and cultural backgrounds, (2) providing students with a more diverse, multicultural curriculum, and (3) generating cooperative learning between students. The author offers suggestions for achieving this goal and urges teachers and scholars to conduct further research in this area.   [More]  Descriptors: Teacher Role, Teaching Methods, Racial Identification, Multicultural Education

Pinto, Laura; Boler, Megan; Norris, Trevor (2007). Literacy is Just Reading and Writing, Isn't It? The Ontario Secondary School Literacy Test and Its Press Coverage, Policy Futures in Education. This article examines how the public discourse of print news media defines and shapes the representation of the Ontario Secondary School Literacy Test (OSSLT) based on coverage in three primary newspapers between 1998 and 2004. The data were analysed using qualitative and quantitative measures to identify types of coverage, themes, and inclusion/exclusion of voices. The analysis, which is framed by discourse about conceptions of literacy relating to Dewey's democratic vision for the press, suggests some disappointments on the measure of democratic representation and participation. The article concludes that, if the media is to represent the diversity of voices and provide a wide range of views so as to fulfil its democratic responsibility as envisioned by Dewey, a wider debate over representations of literacy must occur and more perspectives and voices must be included in newspaper coverage.   [More]  Descriptors: Foreign Countries, Newspapers, Tests, Literacy

Isserman, Maurice (2007). How Old Is the New SDS?, Chronicle of Higher Education. Students for a Democratic Society (SDS) was the principal campus radical organization of the 1960s. When SDS first took form in 1960-62 under the leadership of Al Haber and Tom Hayden, it was a small organization of a few hundred members. By the time the author joined the Reed College chapter as a freshman in 1968, SDS had grown into a very large organization–at least by the standards of the American left–with perhaps as many as 100,000 members. But by that time, leaders of SDS, if not all of its rank and file, had largely forgotten the organization's original goals and values. Leaders of a faction known as Weatherman shut down the organization. So when the author heard that a new SDS was in the offing, he felt that even if the organizers were determined to avoid a repetition of past disasters, it would still prove a mistake to revive an organization whose very name imposed on its members the necessity of constantly explaining to skeptical outsiders that, no, it wasn't the SDS of 1969 they sought to emulate, but that of earlier, saner years. This article explains the distinctions between SDS in 1960s and SDS in 2006.   [More]  Descriptors: Democracy, Politics of Education, Student Organizations, United States History

Schertges, Claudia (2007). Political News and Political Consciousness, Policy Futures in Education. This article deals with mass media in modern democratic societies, using the example of Israeli news reports in German television (TV) news. Central to this interest are processes of mediating politics: political socialisation and education; that is to say, empowering citizens via TV news to participate in democratic processes. The article outlines the current state of TV news making in Germany. Against this background, whilst focusing on TV news production, processes of alienation within the making of news as well as a process of alienation making by the news are discussed.   [More]  Descriptors: Foreign Countries, Television, Mass Media, Political Socialization

Kuehner, Trudy (2007). Understanding China. Footnotes. Volume 12, Number 1, Foreign Policy Research Institute. On October 21-22, 2006, FPRI's Marvin Wachman Fund for International Education hosted 46 teachers from 26 states across the country for a weekend of discussion on teaching about China. Sessions included: (1) Classical Chinese Thought and Culture and Early Chinese History (Victor Mair); (2) State and Society in Late Imperial China (Matthew Sommer); (3) "China's Democratic Prospects" (Edward Friedman); (4) China's Economy: Problems and Prospects (Nicholas Lardy); (5) China and the World (Panel discussion with June Teufel Dreyer and Jacques deLisle); (6) What Every American Needs To Know about Taiwan (Shelley Rigger); and (7) A Taste of China: The Language (Mimi Yang).   [More]  Descriptors: Foreign Countries, Asian Culture, Asian History, Democracy

Hyslop-Margison, Emery J.; Pinto, Laura (2007). Critical Literacy for Democratic Learning in Career Education, Canadian Journal of Education. In this article, we explore the models of literacy conveyed by contemporary secondary career education policies, programs, and imperatives in the province of Ontario. The Ontario career education policies we reviewed uniformly advance a functional and socially reproductive model of literacy that undermines the democratic agency of learners. In response to these concerns, we propose that critical literacy should be introduced into Ontario secondary career education initiatives to encourage the democratic participation of students in shaping their vocational experience.   [More]   [More]  Descriptors: Foreign Countries, Career Education, Educational Change, Critical Reading

Agassi, Joseph; Swartz, Ronald (2007). Educating Elites in Democratic Societies: A Dialogue, Policy Futures in Education. This dialogue centers on the following questions: (1) How can schools help a society select or identify new elites who are hopefully as good as and perhaps even better than those individuals who belong to the existing elite system?, and (2) How can we create learning situations that provide the most general learner with a broad basic education? The first question is rejected as highly inadequate and unsatisfactory partly because it makes a number of mistaken assumptions about how schools can best meet the educational needs in modern countries (such as the United States, the United Kingdom, and Canada). The second question is deemed extremely worthwhile; it should be at the heart of educational dialogues in liberal democratic societies. The discussion is mainly about the desirability of replacing the first problem (of selecting new elites) with the second problem (of a broad basic education) by the way of commentary on the development of Western educational thought from Plato to Popper and beyond. A major aim of this dialogue is to upgrade the way elites in liberal democratic societies attempt to reform and improve our educational institutions.   [More]  Descriptors: Educational Needs, Democracy, Schools, Educational Change

Picher, Marie-Claire (2007). Democratic Process and the Theater of the Oppressed, New Directions for Adult and Continuing Education. This chapter describes the methodology of the Theater of the Oppressed as developed by Augusto Boal along with examples of its application.   [More]  Descriptors: Drama, Theaters, Aesthetics, Teacher Role

Social Education (2013). Technology: A Position Statement of National Council for the Social Studies. Technological change has proven one of the few constants of the early 21st century, providing social studies educators with the challenge and opportunity of preparing digital citizens in a global setting. This requires rethinking the type of social studies learning necessary in the 21st century. As the National Academies concluded in the "Education for Life and Work" report, "the process of deeper learning is essential for the development of transferable 21st century competencies" and "the application of 21st century competencies in turn supports the process of deeper learning, in a recursive, mutually reinforcing cycle." Social studies educators already have identified what characterizes deeper or powerful social studies learning. What now is necessary is bringing this vision of powerful social studies education into the 21st century. In this position statement, the National Council for the Social Studies makes the following recommendations for social studies educators to achieve this goal: (1) Establish guidelines for the promotion of media literacy and related research skills in social studies; (2) Rethink the curricular role of society, technology, and science, and related themes, in the National Standards for Social Studies; (3) Adapt social studies' civic and socialization role to blended and online places; (4) Determine ways to best enable children and youth to translate their informal, socially oriented democratic experiences into a more academic, civically oriented setting; and (5) Promote the integration by pre-K-16 educators of technology into student learning.   [More]  Descriptors: Social Studies, Educational Change, Competence, Position Papers

Kraince, Richard G. (2007). Islamic Higher Education and Social Cohesion in Indonesia, Prospects: Quarterly Review of Comparative Education. This study explores the role of public Islamic higher education in promoting better relations between various religious communities in post-authoritarian Indonesia. Based on field research conducted between December 2005 and March 2006, it documents how progressive Islamic education leaders have advanced a tradition of critical intellectualism in efforts toward the "renewal" of Islamic thought. This report provides an analysis of how this tradition has served as a foundation for educators seeking to promote democratization and address issues of social cohesion. It examines some of the core values expressed by educational leaders as they have aspired to transform the most prominent State Institutes for Islamic Studies (IAIN) into genuine universities. The study also highlights the conservative backlash against public Islamic higher education and other purveyors of progressive ideas within Indonesian society.   [More]  Descriptors: Higher Education, Public Education, Role of Education, Islam

Labi, Aisha (2007). Controversial Higher-Education Reforms Spark Riots in Athens, Chronicle of Higher Education. This article discusses the Greek Parliament's controversial education bill passed recently that sparked riots and unrest in Athens. The government's controversial education package includes measures that would limit the number of years students can take to complete a university degree and would curtail university asylum laws. A separate proposal to alter the Constitution and allow the operation of private universities in Greece has also mobilized opponents, who believe the changes foreshadow a privatization of higher education and higher costs for students. The higher-education legislation prompted protests and have hampered the operations of universities across Greece, and opposition demonstrations and marches have become a regular occurrence. The government nonetheless won the passage of the bill and resulted to uncontrolled violence. Despite the spasm of violence, some academics and students expect that the finality of the vote will mean that Greece's beleaguered higher-education sector can now focus on the future.   [More]  Descriptors: Foreign Countries, Universities, Private Colleges, Privatization

Vedder-Weiss, Dana; Fortus, David (2013). School, Teacher, Peers, and Parents' Goals Emphases and Adolescents' Motivation to Learn Science in and out of School, Journal of Research in Science Teaching. Achievement goal theory distinguishes between mastery goals (the goals of developing competence) and performance goals (the goals of demonstrating competence) [Ames [1992] "Journal of Educational Psychology" 84: 261-271]. In this study, we employed this theory aiming to better understand why adolescents' motivation to learn science declines with age in many schools yet not in others. We collected survey data from 5th to 8th grade Israeli students (N?=?1,614). Utilizing Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) methods, we investigated the relations between students' perceptions of goals emphases in their environment (by parents, peers, teachers, and schools), their own goals orientations and their engagement in science learning in and out of school (classroom and extra-curricular engagement). In addition, we compared between these relations in traditional and democratic schools and in elementary and middle school grade levels. Findings show that: (A) perceptions of the goals that significant adults (parents and teachers) emphasize were better predictors of students' motivation, in and out of school, than perceptions of the goals that peers and schools emphasize; (B) perceptions of teachers' performance goals emphases negatively predicted classroom engagement; (C) the relative effect of perceived parents' mastery emphasis on extra-curricular engagement was higher in elementary grades than in middle school grades; (D) the relative effect of perceived school's mastery emphasis was higher in middle school grades than in elementary grades; and (E) students' mastery goals orientation in science class was a strong predictor of their extra-curricular engagement. Implications for both research and practice are discussed.   [More]  Descriptors: Foreign Countries, Achievement, Goal Orientation, Theories

Janmaat, Jan Germen; Piattoeva, Nelli (2007). Citizenship Education in Ukraine and Russia: Reconciling Nation-Building and Active Citizenship, Comparative Education. This paper examines the discourses framing citizenship education in Ukraine and Russia from "perestroika" to the present and assesses the role of the Council of Europe in promoting democratic citizenship in both countries. We argue that there is a tension between the discourses of active citizenship, strongly disseminated by international agencies (the Council of Europe in our case), and national consolidation, pursued by Ukraine and Russia since the fall of the Soviet regime. While the beginning of the 1990s was marked by democratization and individualization, from the mid-1990s the emphasis on state cohesion became more prominent in both states. From the end of the 1990s, however, citizenship education aims started to diverge, despite a similar approach of the Council of Europe to the two countries. In Russia the government reinforced the state cohesion agenda, which led to the patriotic education discourse gaining strength. In Ukraine, nation-building was made secondary to bringing the education system in line with international standards in order to improve the country's competitiveness. The nature of citizenship education in the two countries therefore seems to be more a reflection of domestic political developments than the product of international policy agenda.   [More]  Descriptors: Patriotism, Citizenship, Democracy, Citizenship Education

Mentz, Kobus; van der Walt, Johannes L. (2007). Multicultural Concerns of Educators in the Western Cape Province of South Africa, Education and Urban Society. In the new democratic South Africa that emerged after 1994, educators are having to cope with the demands of multicultural situations that are developing in the former racially and ethnically segregated schools, and in the process striving for the equal treatment of the learners, the removal of discrimination and prejudice, the inculcation of respect, and an appreciation for diversity. In an empirical study to determine the extent to which educators harbor concerns about multiculturalism in their classrooms, a survey was done including 628 teachers in 13 multicultural, well-performing schools in the Western Cape Province of South Africa. It was found, inter alia, that educators have not been adequately prepared to meet the challenges confronting them in the increasingly multicultural schools in which they are teaching. They are, however, aware of the challenges posed by the new multicultural school environment and show real concern about dealing with them effectively.   [More]  Descriptors: Cultural Pluralism, Foreign Countries, Educational Environment, Teacher Surveys

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Bibliography: Democracy (page 503 of 605)

This bibliography is selected and organized by the I'm with Jill website.  Some of the authors featured on this page include Simeon Maile, Chi-Ming Lee, Panagiotis Kanellopoulos, Klarita Gerxhani, Graeme Chalmers, Michael Eckert, Dipti Desai, Pearl Amelia McHaney, Gordon M. Pradi, and Kenneth J. Saltman.

Pradi, Gordon M. (2004). Nancy Martin and James Britton: The Language Work of Democratic Learning, Language Arts. Nancy Martin and James Britton are two retired teachers whose collaborative research on the use of language in learning is profiled. Their language education project promotes personal and democratic uses of literacy.   [More]  Descriptors: Language Usage, Democratic Values, Literacy Education, Language Arts

Lee, Chi-Ming (2004). Changes and Challenges for Moral Education in Taiwan, Journal of Moral Education. Taiwan has gradually transformed from an authoritarian to a democratic society. The education system is moving from uniformity to diversity, from authoritarian centralization to deregulation and pluralism. Moral education is a reflection of, and influenced by, educational reform and social change, as this paper shows in describing the history of moral education in Taiwan. From 1949 to the 1980s, Taiwan's moral education consisted of ideological, nationalistic, political education and the teaching of a strict code of conduct. Since the late 1980s moral education has changed rapidly due to educational reforms. Political ideologies and traditional culture in moral education have gradually been phased out. Since August 2004, diversified and generalized moral education has replaced the special subject of moral education offered in school. Moral education in Taiwan faces great changes and new challenges. The paper concludes by suggesting some strategies, such as facilitating critical thinking, civic values and multiple teaching approaches, for the development of a new moral education suitable to modern democratic society in Taiwan.   [More]  Descriptors: Democracy, Educational Change, Moral Development, Ethical Instruction

Witenberg, R. T. (2007). The Moral Dimension of Children's and Adolescents' Conceptualisation of Tolerance to Human Diversity, Journal of Moral Education. This study examined the kinds of justifications children and adolescents used to support tolerant and intolerant judgements about human diversity. For the tolerant responses, three main belief categories emerged, based on the beliefs that others should be treated fairly (fairness), empathetically (empathy) and that reason/logic ought to govern judgements (reasonableness). Fairness emerged as the most used belief to support tolerant judgements and the most commonly used combination of beliefs was found to be fairness/empathy, linking tolerance to moral reasoning, rules and values. Specifically noticeable was that 6-7-year-olds appealed to fairness more often in comparison to the 11-12 and 15-16-year-olds. Older students used a larger repertoire of beliefs to support tolerance, indicating developing cognitive maturity. There was also a tendency for females to appeal to fairness/empathy more often than males. The major constraint to positive tolerance was not prejudice toward the target groups but the adolescents' beliefs in freedom of speech as a democratic right, pointing to a conflict in values between tolerance and other human rights.   [More]  Descriptors: Civil Rights, Freedom of Speech, Adolescents, Empathy

Brookfield, Stephen (2007). Diversifying Curriculum as the Practice of Repressive Tolerance, Teaching in Higher Education. Diversifying curriculum is often assumed to be an unequivocal good in higher education–a way of opening up an educational conversation to include the widest possible diversity of perspectives and intellectual traditions. This democratic attempt to be open and inclusive springs from a humanistic concern to have all student voices heard, all experiences analyzed, and all viewpoints honored. Herbert Marcuse's concept of repressive tolerance stands directly against these sentiments. Marcuse argues that an alternative idea, concept or text can be inserted into a curriculum of familiar, mainstream materials in such a way that serves only to underscore the normality of the center while positioning the alternatives as exotic others. As a result, the attempt to diversify actually undercuts the serious consideration of diverse perspectives. This paper explores how this process occurs and suggests how it might be countered.   [More]  Descriptors: Higher Education, Curriculum Development, Cultural Pluralism, Democracy

Desai, Dipti; Chalmers, Graeme (2007). Notes for a Dialogue on Art Education in Critical Times, Art Education. Schools have always been subject to an overwhelming variety of socio-political demands, which shift in response to the political climate–impacting art education in different ways. The current debate on social and political issues in art education is not new. Beginning with McFee (1966), and particularly since the 1970s, there has been a growing body of literature relating art education to social issues. However, its resurgence at this particular historical moment requires the authors to revisit the question: "What should the relationship be between art education in schools and society at large?" This question is not simply academic but also has real consequences in such perilous times for the future of art education in schools. The war on terrorism, the curtailing of civil liberties under the Patriot Act, the censorship of civil society, and the increased militarization of life have created a state of uncertainty. Adding more layers to these unsettling times are the forces of globalization that contribute to a world that is simultaneously connected, yet extremely fragmented; racism, often state sanctioned, has been implemented in different ways around the globe; and the world's economy, dominated by transnational corporations, has increased the gap between the rich and poor. In order to keep the possible roles of art in a democratic society alive in teaching, the authors focus on two beliefs that shape understanding of social justice art education and also explore contemporary art practices that may assist and inspire students in engaging critically with a variety of pressing issues.   [More]  Descriptors: Global Approach, Political Issues, Corporations, Justice

Waghid, Y. (2007). Educating for Democratic Citizenship and Cosmopolitanism, South African Journal of Higher Education. Over the past century our world has witnessed much uncertainty and ambivalence as a consequence of inhumane acts perpetrated against humanity such as murder, extermination, enslavement, deportation, persecution on political, racial or religious grounds, war crimes (mistreatment of civilians and non-combatants as well as one's enemy in combat), and genocide (through ethnic cleansing, mass executions, rape and cruel punishment of the enemy). These "crimes against humanity" once again require the emergence of norms which ought to govern relations among individuals in a global civil society (Benhabib 2006, 20). Drawing on the seminal ideas of Amy Gutmann (1996) and Seyla Benhabib (2006), I want to offer some ways democratic citizenship and cosmopolitanism can enhance the educational project of ensuring universal justice for all individuals and not just members of our own societies. Firstly, I shall argue that educating for cosmopolitanism is conditional upon the cultivation of democratic citizenship, in particular showing how democratic citizenship can help us to recognise and respect every individual's claim to justice. Secondly, I shall show how cosmopolitanism can bring about the recognition of the rights claims of human beings everywhere.   [More]  Descriptors: Citizenship, Democracy, Citizenship Education, Democratic Values

Maile, Simeon (2004). School Choice in South Africa, Education and Urban Society. In this article, the author investigates the basic elements of choice and markets theory. In recent years, children were moving from rural and township schools to suburban White schools. This trend emerged in the late 1980s and simmered after the demise of apartheid. At face value, school choice appears to be happening merely for the reason of accessing resources in the former Model C[1] schools. The author argues that school choice is not simply driven by a lack of resources in local schools or by the motivation to gain access to educational opportunities. It happens because of several factors, which the author analyzes through selected theories. In the conclusion, the author argues that school choice is a complex phenomenon with many ambiguities and dilemmas.   [More]  Descriptors: Foreign Countries, Racial Segregation, Educational Opportunities, School Choice

Young, Morris (2004). Native Claims: Cultural Citizenship, Ethnic Expressions, and the Rhetorics of "Hawaiianness", College English. The rhetorics of Hawaii were once generated around expressions of cultural identities and resistance, which has now shifted to organizing around a belief in self-determination as a fundamental human right. This rhetorical shift is illustrated with the help of the site of Hawaii.   [More]  Descriptors: Democracy, Civil Rights, Rhetoric, Self Determination

Saltman, Kenneth J. (2007). Capitalizing on Disaster: Taking and Breaking Public Schools, Paradigm Publishers. Breaking new ground in studies of business involvement in schooling, this book dissects the most powerful educational reforms and highlights their relationship to the rise of powerful think tanks and business groups. Over the past several decades, there has been a strong movement to privatize public schooling through business ventures. At the beginning of the millennium, this privatization project looked moribund as both the Edison Schools and Knowledge Universe foundered. Nonetheless, privatization is back. The new face of educational privatization replaces public schooling with EMOs, vouchers, and charter schools at an alarming rate. In both disaster and nondisaster areas, officials designate schools as failed in order to justify replacement with new, unproven models. Saltman examines how privatization policies such as No Child Left Behind are designed to deregulate schools, favoring business while undermining public oversight. Examining current policies in New Orleans, Chicago, and Iraq, this book shows how the struggle for public schooling is essential to the struggle for a truly democratic society.   [More]  Descriptors: School Business Relationship, Politics of Education, Federal Legislation, Public Education

Reio, Thomas G., Jr. (2007). Exploring the Links between Adult Education and Human Resource Development: Learning, Risk-Taking, and Democratic Discourse, New Horizons in Adult Education & Human Resource Development. Learning is indeed an integral component of adapting successfully to an everchanging world, one full of intriguing possibilities and insidious barriers. Democratic societies establish educative systems where learning and development is promoted to advance a citizenry of skillful problem solvers, knowledgeable decision makers, incisive risk takers, and proactive participants in the democratic process. Learning and its unequivocal support are thus vital for an evolving democratic society where its citizens are mindful of and committed to the social good. The fields of adult education (AE) and human resource development (HRD) play particularly significant roles in providing quality learning and development opportunities for adults, yet both are underrated in terms of their contributions to society as a whole. In this paper, I explore AE and HRD as closely related, but underestimated parts of a greater educative system. Both fields' perceived marginal role as educative system participants may be a function of unnecessarily fractious debates among scholars and practitioners in their respective fields. Unfortunately, differences and not similarities are promoted too often at the expense of useful cooperation and one unified voice.   [More]  Descriptors: Adult Education, Labor Force Development, Learning, Risk

Thompson, Jane (2007). All over Bar the Shouting?, Adults Learning. The author expresses surprise and concern about what she perceives as an absence of feminist analysis in current discussions of adult education issues and discusses why talking about social class or women's oppression is no longer popular. Looking at examples of current gender inequalities in the workforce, the writer contends that women's inequality remains a problem.   [More]  Descriptors: Feminism, Social Class, Females, Lifelong Learning

Gerxhani, Klarita (2007). "Did You Pay Your Taxes?" How (Not) to Conduct Tax Evasion Surveys in Transition Countries, Social Indicators Research. Gathering large-scale data on tax evasion is an undisputable challenge in and of itself. Doing so in a country in transition from a communist to a democratic system is even more difficult. This paper discusses the challenges and presents a case study to show how they can be dealt with effectively. One important implication of the paper is that such a sample survey can be successful if it combines a careful sample design, research method and questionnaire design, and explicitly takes country-specific institutional and cultural features into account.   [More]  Descriptors: Research Methodology, Taxes, Data Collection, Democracy

McHaney, Pearl Amelia (2004). Let Every Voice Be Heard: Focus Essays Create Democratic Classrooms, English Journal. Pearl Amelia McHaney provides focus essays for students to develop their thoughts and contribute to meaningful class discussions. Teofilo Ruiz provides three principles to educate his students as per them.   [More]  Descriptors: Essays, Discussion (Teaching Technique), Student Development, Democracy

Kanellopoulos, Panagiotis (2007). Musical Improvisation as Action: An Arendtian Perspective, Action, Criticism, and Theory for Music Education. A basic premise of this essay is that music education practice is a form of–a broadly conceived notion of–political practice insofar as it creates situations where specific meanings are produced, attitudes built, identities shaped, and hierarchies of musical and social values constructed. Every music education practice expresses, and at the same time constructs, particular conceptions of the meaning of music, of concrete musical practices and their interrelationships. It also plays a significant role in the construction of particular relationships between music and wider cultural practices. Music education teaches children how to "order" sound by "ordering" the body. It creates a wide range of hierarchical relationships among participants in the educational processes; among different modes of musical experience; among various forms of musical knowledge; and among different musical practices. But music education "transforms social hierarchies into academic hierarchies" not only through its various institutional configurations, but also through the minute actions that constitute learning, creating, and performing music. Adopting this perspective as a starting point, the author addresses the political character and the political role of improvisation as a vehicle for constructing particular modes of human agency, of human relationship, and of relationships among children, music, and knowledge. This essay seeks to construct a view of improvisational practice as a kind of political or communicative "action," in the sense given to these terms by Hannah Arendt (1906-1975). Drawing parallels between improvisation and Arendt's "revelatory and aesthetic concept of action"–describing, in other words, the experience of improvisation as a practice that is based on principles that parallel those of Arendtian action–might help construct a theoretical perspective on the role improvisation might play within music education practices actively concerned with the advancement of the democratic imperative: practices committed to the pursuit of freedom, equity, and plurality.   [More]  Descriptors: Music Education, Music, Creative Activities, Learning Processes

Eckert, Michael (2007). "A Peace That Lasts": Notes Towards a Pedagogy of Peace, CEA Forum. As a teacher, Michael Eckert writes that he believes the classroom is the place where he can be most effective in promoting global peace and justice while he teaches students how to write essays and read literature. In part, Eckert's interest in this approach is a response to a challenge issued by Ihab Hassan, and recalled by Mary Rose O'Reilly in "The Peaceable Classroom" and paraphrased as "Is it possible to teach so that people stop killing one another?" This meditation encompasses a period of seven years of reading, thinking, and experimenting. Summarizing the highlights, Eckert says that Mary Rose O'Reilley's" The Peaceable Classroom" got him wondering how to make teaching a more peaceful encounter. Michael True's speech led him to look at teaching and learning in a more global context, and Parker Palmer encouraged him to see those principles as a personal and professional commitment. Finally, Eckert credits Stephen Brookfield and Stephen Preskill for offering several concrete methods for promoting the ideal of peaceful teaching.   [More]  Descriptors: Empathy, Ethics, Ethical Instruction, Peace

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Bibliography: Democracy (page 502 of 605)

This bibliography is selected and organized by the I'm with Jill website.  Some of the authors featured on this page include Ottilia Chakera, Bob Stake, Debbie Epstein, Social Studies, National Service Learning Clearinghouse, Gert J. J. Biesta, Alan Sears, Bjarne Bruun Jensen, John Hergesheimer, and Jeffrey Ayala Milligan.

National Service Learning Clearinghouse (2004). Quick Guide: Democratic Classrooms. Democratic classrooms are those in which the curriculum actively engages students in collaborative inquiry, decision making is shared between students and staff, and students choose their daily activities. Compared with traditional classrooms, students in democratic classrooms take more ownership of and responsibility for their own learning. Helping students become active citizens and preparing them for participation in a democratic society are two purposes of service-learning.   [More]  Descriptors: Democracy, Service Learning, Classroom Techniques, Student Empowerment

Stake, Bob (2004). How Far Dare an Evaluator Go Toward Saving the World?, American Journal of Evaluation. This is a statement on advocacy, activism, confluence of interest, and uncertainty, perhaps with a surprise ending. No two professional evaluators are the same but many use similar methods. Still, each person will use a method in a somewhat idiosyncratic way. Especially in the interpretation of data, personality and experience have a play. Professional evaluators come from many backgrounds. They have greatly different aspirations. As a group they are considerate people. They are ethical. They follow disciplined procedures to find the merit and worth of a program or other object. Oh, there is a rogue here and there. He or she may go where the money is. But most evaluators are good people, most of the time. They are specialists at recognizing differences among greater and less quality. They hope that their work will contribute to the making of a better world. This commentary concludes: Evaluators should be encouraged to "have a life" and to "have a dream" so their interpretations are enriched by personal experience. Comprehensive, idiosyncratic interpretations are small steps toward saving the world.   [More]  Descriptors: Ethics, Standards, Democracy, Advocacy

Epstein, Debbie; Boden, Rebecca (2006). Democratising the Research Imagination: Globalising Knowledge about HIV/AIDS, Globalisation, Societies and Education. This paper problematises globalisation and the democratisation of the research imagination, highlighting the potentials for harm and good. We do so, first, by exploring two philosophical/epistemological issues: the definition of "knowledge" and the role of "research" in knowledge creation. The paper then considers some of possible consequences of the democratisation of knowledge by examining the case of HIV/AIDS in sub-Saharan Africa and using it to test a heuristic device we have developed as a way of distinguishing between "really useful" and "potentially harmful" knowledges.   [More]  Descriptors: Foreign Countries, Global Approach, Research, Heuristics

Hergesheimer, John (2004). Two Words in Need of Redemption, Social Education. It appears that the worst name a person can be called is "politician." And the worst thing a person can be accused of doing is "compromising." This article asserts that negative attack-ad campaigning, so prevalent in recent years, has made the vocation of politician appear less attractive to young citizens. It indicates that the difference between campaign promises and the real policy-making that follows an election, usually painfully obvious, has made the art of compromise seem less than respectable. The article concludes that teachers, need to be more aggressive in helping students to see politics as an honorable and necessary activity in a democratic society. They need to move just as vigorously to help students see that compromise is an essential skill and strategy in governing. Descriptors: Ethics, Democracy, Political Campaigns, Political Candidates

Chakera, Ottilia; Sears, Alan (2006). Civic Duty: Young People's Conceptions of Voting as a Means of Political Participation, Canadian Journal of Education. Many citizens have disengaged from participation in civic life with a resulting call for new initiatives in civic education. Many of these programs have had little research on citizens' prior conceptions of participation. In this article, we provide a map of the conceptions of civic participation, specifically voting, held by two groups: recent African immigrants to Canada and native-born Canadians. Youth understand voting as a key element of democratic governance, a hard won democratic right, and a duty of democratic citizenship yet most indicate they do not plan to vote because voting does not make a difference.   [More]   [More]  Descriptors: Foreign Countries, Youth, Voting, Governance

Cavanagh, Sean; Greifner, Laura (2006). Students Sound Off on Immigration, Education Week. Thousands of students nationwide marched in the streets or rallied in public parks, at state capitols, and in other locations in response to the legislation pending in Congress that would significantly tighten enforcement of immigration laws. Some of the largest demonstrations were in California and Texas, but students have also rallied in Arizona, Nebraska, Virginia, and elsewhere across the country. As waves of students staged walkouts and joined protests over proposed punitive changes to federal immigration law, school administrators sought a balance between allowing students to demonstrate peacefully and setting clear expectations that they should return to class soon. Some school leaders said the events were the largest and most quickly organized protests among precollegiate students they could remember. Several principals and superintendents admitted to being taken aback by what they described as an unusually forceful display of civic activism among their students.   [More]  Descriptors: Immigration, Immigrants, Civil Disobedience, Federal Legislation

Ortloff, Debora Hinderliter (2006). Becoming European: A Framing Analysis of Three Countries' Civics Education Curricula, European Education. This study investigates how the European dimension emerges in the various European member states' civics education curricula. Does an image of the European citizen appear alongside that of the national citizen or are the two still highly interwoven? Is the curricular goal primarily knowledge-based, that is, to know about Europe, or normative-based, that is, to be a European? To explore these questions empirically, Austria, Denmark, and Germany were chosen as initial case studies because their education systems, in particular upper secondary schools, are highly comparable and draw generally on the same principles of an elite education. Their civics education curricula for upper secondary schools will be examined using framing theory. This study hypothesizes that an analysis of civics education curricula may reveal important differences in how countries balance European identity and national identity through education.   [More]  Descriptors: Foreign Countries, War, Nationalism, Civics

Sklar, Kathryn Kish (2006). The New Political History and Women's History: Comments on "The Democratic Experiment", History Teacher. The new directions in American political history have been ably described by the editors of "The Democratic Experiment." These are now freshly out of the gate, but it is clear that they will continue to unfold in the years ahead. The author read the book with distinct pleasure–so much so that she wondered–more than once–whether it was not just a bit sinful. Why is this book so much fun when women rarely appear in its pages? Gradually she came to understand why. Its pages provide a fine context for evaluating the relationship between United States women's history and United States political history. The articles in the book brought to mind four paradigms of that relationship. This article presents the author's comment on these paradigms with the goal of understanding how scholars in the fields of women's history and political history are cooperating now and how they might cooperate even better in the future.   [More]  Descriptors: Females, United States History, Politics, Democracy

Jensen, Bjarne Bruun; Schnack, Karsten (2006). The Action Competence Approach in Environmental Education, Environmental Education Research. In this article, the concept of action competence is presented and an attempt is made to locate it within the concept of general educational theory. The concept of action competence, it is argued, should occupy a central position in the theory of environmental education as many of the crucial educational problems concerning a political liberal education are united in this concept. The preoccupation with action competence as an educational concept is based on scepticism about the educational paradigm in environmental education which manifests itself partly in a marked tendency to individualisation and partly in a tendency to regard the educational task as a question of behaviour modification. At the same time, action competence should be seen as a necessary alternative to the traditional, science-oriented approach to environmental education. Examples from developmental work in Danish schools are used to clarify and demarcate the concept of "action" from "activity" and "behaviour change". Different kinds of actions are discussed, environmental actions are identified and a distinction is drawn between "direct" and "indirect" environmental actions. Finally, four problem areas are identified which require future research. (Contains 1 figure.) [This article was reprinted from "Environmental Education Research" (1997) 3(2), pp. 163-178 (see EJ546571).]   [More]  Descriptors: Environmental Education, Competence, Educational Theories, General Education

Social Studies (2004). Center for Media Literacy Unveils the CML Medialit Kit[TM]: A Free Educational Framework that Helps Students Challenge and Understand Media. Five key questions form the basis of the new CML MediaLit Kit, an educational framework and curriculum guide developed by the Center for Media Literacy. Adaptable to all grades, the key questions help children and young people evaluate the thousands of media messages that bombard them daily. More than two years in development and available for free downloading at the center's Web site, the CML MediaLit Kit provides an overview of the core elements in the burgeoning field of media literacy education and contains practical implementation tools for classrooms from kindergarten to college. Descriptors: Democracy, Media Literacy, Mass Media Effects, Critical Viewing

Milligan, Jeffrey Ayala (2004). Democratization or Neocolonialism? The Education of Muslims under US Military Occupation, 1903-20, History of Education. Recent events in Afghanistan and Iraq appear to mark the beginning of a new and challenging relationship between the United States and the Muslim world. As the US embarks upon its self-appointed task of helping to bring about the development of peaceful, democratic civil societies in Islamic nations wracked by decades of war, ethnic strife and political oppression, it may prove instructive to reflect on earlier US efforts to foster democratic social development through education of Muslim communities under US military and civilian occupation. This essay proposes to examine the use and consequences of educational policy to foster development and democratic self-governance of Muslims under US rule in the southern Philippines between 1903 and 1920. This case, which occurred precisely one century ago, offers important insights into the ways in which culturally and historically constructed discursive lenses shape both the construction and interpretation of development policies and thus profoundly complicate efforts to introduce Western conceptions of modern democratic society in Muslim communities. It shows how such discursive lenses distorted publicly avowed aims of democratization into a neocolonial relationship between the US and an independent Philippines and an internal colonial relationship between the Philippine government and its Muslim minority characterized, in both cases, by continuing 'economic and social relations of dependency and control' by the former colonial power. The experience, offers a cautionary tale for contemporary US social agendas in the Muslim world.   [More]  Descriptors: Foreign Countries, Social Development, Educational Policy, Democracy

Hughes, Andrew S.; Sears, Alan (2006). Citizenship Education: Canada Dabbles while the World Plays On, Education Canada. The summer of 2006 saw the eyes of the world, including those of Canadians, transfixed on Germany as 32 teams from across the globe competed for the World Cup of football–but due to the lack of capacity to support the development of world class Canadian players and teams, Canada perennially cannot mount a team able to qualify for World Cup competition. The authors' work comparing policy and practice in citizenship education in Canada with that in several international jurisdictions (Australia, England, the European Community, and the U.S.) reveals an analogous situation. While Canada has joined the rest of the world in proclaiming the fostering of democratic citizenship as a key–in fact, "the" key–goal for education, it has failed to keep pace in terms of building the capacity to meet this objective. The authors see a clear connection between the World Cup and the findings outlined in this article. In the field of citizenship education Canadian teachers and schools operate under very similar mandates to their counterparts in other jurisdictions. Other nations that face similar challenges to those they find in Canada have moved forward to build capacity to support quality teaching and learning related to democratic citizenship; Canada has not. As with the World Cup, while the world plays on Canada dabbles on the sidelines.   [More]  Descriptors: Foreign Countries, Democracy, Citizenship, Citizenship Education

le Grange, L. (2006). Quality Assurance in South Africa: A Reply to John Mammen, South African Journal of Higher Education. In this article I point out that prominence given to higher education quality assurance by contemporary states might be viewed in the context of the ascendance of neoliberalism over the past few decades and a concomitant culture of performativity. However, I argue for a shift in the angle of vision on performativity and quality assurance through a poststructural reading of these constructs. My key argument is that all constructs/concepts are territories that have the potential to become deterritorialised and reterritorrialised, and that terms such as performativity and quality assurance should not be abandoned but rather viewed as carriers of new constellations of universes. In short, perfomativity and quality assurance should not be viewed simply as negative processes, but also as sites for creative change.   [More]  Descriptors: Higher Education, Quality Control, Foreign Countries, Educational Quality

Rubenson, Kjell (2006). The Nordic Model of Lifelong Learning, Compare: A Journal of Comparative Education. This article explores how the so called Nordic welfare state, with its specific institutional make up, handles Lifelong Learning in a time characterised by the challenges of economic globalisation and the hegemonic impact of the neo-liberal agenda. The analysis reveals a high participation in the Nordic countries in Lifelong Learning and, in comparison to other countries, low inequalities. This can be directly linked to a state that sets a very demanding equity standard and has developed an institutional framework to support this ambition. This model explicitly recognises market failures in contributing to a system of Lifelong Learning for "all". The findings support the growing awareness in the literature that those forecasting the end of the welfare state had misunderstood and/or undervalued the important impact of the specific institutions that constitute the welfare state itself.   [More]  Descriptors: Foreign Countries, Lifelong Learning, Comparative Education, Equal Education

Biesta, Gert J. J. (2004). Education, Accountability, and the Ethical Demand: Can the Democratic Potential of Accountability Be Regained?, Educational Theory. This paper analyzes the impact of the idea of accountability on education. It considers the kind of relationships that are promoted or produced by the culture of accountability, both in order to understand what kind of relationships are made possible and to understand what kind of relationships are made difficult, or even impossible, as a result of the accountability regime. The paper explores how the managerial uses of the idea of accountability have become pervasive in contemporary education and how this has changed relationships among students, parents, teachers, and the state. Ultimately, accountability erodes relationships of responsibility. Zygmunt Bauman's postmodern ethics is used to gain a detailed understanding of why it has become so much more difficult to develop relationships of responsibility under the accountability regime. Bauman's proposal that we should take responsibility for our responsibility also suggests a starting point from which the democratic potential of accountability might be regained.   [More]  Descriptors: Educational Responsibility, Ethics, Accountability, Postmodernism

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Bibliography: Democracy (page 501 of 605)

This bibliography is independently curated for the I'm with Jill website.  Some of the authors featured on this page include Marvin W. Berkowitz, Helen Drenoyianni, Augustine Romero, Robert B. Kottkamp, Eli J. Lesser, Courtney Ann Vaughn, Mary John O'Hair, Dennis Francis, Julio Cammarota, and Jean McGregor Cate.

Hess, Diana E. (2006). Should Intelligent Design Be Taught in Social Studies Courses?, Social Education. In this article, the author examines whether the very reasons that explain why intelligent design is controversial in the science curriculum also apply to social studies. She reports what teachers at a recent democratic education conference said about four different lessons on intelligent design that could fit into social studies courses. She asked them whether they would teach the lessons and why. Then she generalizes from these lessons and explains reasons in favor of and against including intelligent design in the social studies curriculum before examining the intelligent design controversy as a type of problem that social studies teachers face frequently.   [More]  Descriptors: Social Studies, Science Curriculum, Democracy, Creationism

Carrington, Suzanne (2011). Service-Learning within Higher Education: Rhizomatic Interconnections between University and the Real World, Australian Journal of Teacher Education. This paper discusses Service-learning within an Australian higher education context as pedagogy to teach about inclusive education. Using Deleuze and Guattari's (1987) model of the rhizome, this study conceptualises pre-service teachers' learning experiences as multiple, hydra and continuous. Data from reflection logs of pre-service teachers highlight how the learning experience allowed them to gain insights in knowledge as socially just, ethical and inclusive. The paper concludes by arguing the need to consider Service-learning as integral to university education for pre-service teachers.   [More]  Descriptors: Higher Education, Inclusion, Learning Experience, Service Learning

Eick, Caroline (2011). Evolving Cross-Group Relationships: The Story of Miller High, 1950-2000, Intercultural Education. This paper examines students' evolving cross-group relationships in a comprehensive high school in Baltimore County, Maryland, USA, between 1950 and 2000. The findings of this research, situated at the intersections of two lenses of inquiry: oral historical analysis and critical studies, uncover both the power of students accustomed to integrated spaces to break social barriers in spite of institutionally entrenched segregating norms; and the power of institutional norms to segregate students when major demographic shifts bring into institutional parameters youth unaccustomed to integrated spaces and diversity.   [More]  Descriptors: High Schools, Democracy, School Role, Socialization

Cate, Jean McGregor; Vaughn, Courtney Ann; O'Hair, Mary John (2006). A 17-Year Case Study of an Elementary School's Journey: From Traditional School to Learning Community to Democratic School Community, Journal of School Leadership. This case study explores one elementary school's 17-year evolution from a traditional Title I elementary school into a learning community and, eventually, a high-achieving democratic school community. The investigation adds specificity and context to the existing theoretical framework outlining this change process. The school's journey is reflected and described through shared learning, leadership, and practices across four thematic findings.   [More]  Descriptors: School Restructuring, Democracy, Elementary Schools, Case Studies

Cammarota, Julio; Romero, Augustine (2006). A Critically Compassionate Intellectualism for Latina/o Students: Raising Voices above the Silencing in Our Schools, Multicultural Education. Latina/o students often experience coursework that is remedial and unchallenging–benign at best, a dumbing-down at worst. This potential limiting curriculum is not only failing to provide Latinas/os with the credentials necessary to advance economically, but their education denies them the opportunity to develop the critical voices and intellectual capacities necessary to do something about it. Thus, the standard educational experience for young Latinas/os tends to submerge them into silence, where they are taught to be quiet and avoid independent and critical thinking. In this article, the authors present an educational model based on a critically compassionate intellectualism that can foster the liberation of Latinas/os as well as other students of color from the oppression of silencing they currently experience in school. A teacher following critically compassionate intellectualism implements the educational trilogy of: (1) critical pedagogy; (2) authentic caring; and (3) social justice centered curriculum. The authors argue that these trilogy's elements must be implemented simultaneously in the classroom to present the most effective preparation for Latina/o students to participate in the development of a truly democratic society.   [More]   [More]  Descriptors: Critical Theory, Credentials, Justice, Educational Experience

Althof, Wolfgang; Berkowitz, Marvin W. (2006). Moral Education and Character Education: Their Relationship and Roles in Citizenship Education, Journal of Moral Education. Any democratic society must concern itself with the socialization of its citizens. This begins in childhood, and schools are critical to this process. The interrelations and roles of educating for character (character education, moral education) and educating for citizenship (citizenship education, civic education) are explored, largely in a North American context. It is argued that citizenship education necessarily entails character and moral formation, but this integration is hindered by negative stereotyping between the two fields. In addition, negative stereotyping between the fields of moral education and character education further complicates attempts at synthesis. Through explorations of each of these domains and their similarities and differences, it is concluded that the role of schools in fostering the development of moral citizens in democratic societies necessitates focus on moral development, broader moral and related character development, teaching of civics and development of citizenship skills and dispositions. Moreover, these outcomes overlap and cut across the fields of moral, character and citizenship education.   [More]  Descriptors: Ethical Instruction, North Americans, Personality, Values Education

Biesta, Gert (2006). Beyond Learning: Democratic Education for a Human Future, Paradigm Publishers. Many educational practices are based upon philosophical ideas about what it means to be human, including particular subjectivities and identities such as the rational person, the autonomous individual, or the democratic citizen. This book asks what might happen to the ways in which we educate if we treat the question as to what it means to be human as a radically open question; a question that can only be answered by engaging in education rather than as a question that needs to be answered theoretically before we can educate. The book provides a different way to understand and approach education, one which focuses on the ways in which human beings come into the world as unique individuals through responsible responses to what and who is other and different. This book raises important questions about pedagogy, community and educational responsibility, and helps educators of children and adults alike to understand what truly democratic education entails. The following chapters are included: (1) Against Learning; (2) Coming into Presence; (3) The Community of Those Who Have Nothing in Common; (4) How Difficult Should Education Be?; (5) The Architecture of Education; and (6) Education and the Democratic Person. This book also contains an Epilogue: A Pedagogy of Interruption.   [More]  Descriptors: Educational Practices, Educational Responsibility, Democracy, Democratic Values

Myers, John P. (2006). Rethinking the Social Studies Curriculum in the Context of Globalization: Education for Global Citizenship in the U.S, Theory and Research in Social Education. Scholarship on globalization suggests that new forms of democratic citizenship and politics are emerging, yet the U.S. educational system remains resistant to global perspectives in the curriculum and continues to favor national identity and patriotism over learning about the world. A national approach to citizenship, which is the norm in U.S. social studies classrooms, is unable to explain the complexity of global issues and their impact on students' lives. The argument is made that a new orientation to social studies education is necessary in order to understand and address the effects of globalization. Two exemplary programs that teach about the world illustrate some of the problems and issues with global perspectives specific to the U.S. educational context. These cases indicate that, significant aspects of globalization are overlooked in the social studies curriculum.   [More]  Descriptors: Global Approach, Patriotism, Democracy, Citizenship

Rainey, Isobel (2011). Grassroots Action Research and the Greater Good (La investigación acción de base y el bien mayor), PROFILE: Issues in Teachers' Professional Development. This study examines the action research topics and topic preferences of two groups of grassroots teachers: active researchers, and potential researchers. The analysis of the topics appears to indicate that, over the past decade, action research at the teaching of English at the grassroots level to speakers of other languages has been principally understood in terms of professional development with respect to teachers' methodologies and learners' learning behaviours. A nascent concern for a more ample approach to professional development and issues conducive to the greater good of the profession can, it is mooted, flourish only with the collaboration of all relevant stakeholders.   [More]  Descriptors: Action Research, English (Second Language), Professional Development, Teaching Methods

Silverberg, Ruth P.; Kottkamp, Robert B. (2006). Language Matters, Journal of Research on Leadership Education. In 1993, a Special Interest Group, "Teaching in Educational Administration" (TEA/SIG), was born at the annual meeting of the American Educational Research Association as a result of work of the Division A (Administration) Task Force on Teaching and Learning in Educational Administration and the particular efforts of Jane Lindle and Paul Bredeson. In this essay, the authors note that Fulmer and Frank (1994) consistently referred to "teaching and learning" as the focus and work of the new SIG, yet, only the word "teaching" appeared in the official title. They present a proposal that contains the rationale recently sent to TEA/SIG members to change what they believe is an anachronistic name of a professional organization that has provided legitimization to the study of their work in preparing school leaders. While written specifically for the membership of TEA/SIG, the authors' proposal has much wider application and import beyond the SIG.   [More]  Descriptors: Educational Research, Educational Administration, Leadership, Professional Associations

Van de Kleut, Geraldine (2011). The Whiteness of Literacy Practice in Ontario, Race, Ethnicity and Education. In the spring of 2008, the Literacy and Numeracy Secretariat of the Ontario Ministry of Education in Canada released a DVD that was one in a series designed to train literacy teachers in what the Ministry referred to as "high-yield" comprehension strategies. Using the lens of Critical Race Theory, this article analyses the picture book used in the model lesson as well as the teaching methods recommended for all Ontarian teachers in the DVD. While the selection of the picture book fits the present policies of multiculturalism in Ontario, its romanticized portrayal of an indigenous people serves to perpetuate racism, particularly in the uncritical reading demonstrated in the DVD. In addition, the teaching methods demonstrated as "high-yield" arise from the global movement towards standardization in education, and establish measurable student achievement, in a classroom portrayed as socially neutral, as the end goal of education. Nowhere in this model lesson, given in a multiracial classroom where minority races are both invisible and deficit, is difference acknowledged as present or important. The result is that this DVD, designed to be used as a training resource in all Ontarian elementary schools, serves to re-inscribe the whiteness of literacy practice in Ontario, and to silence the possibilities for debate and negotiation that are the hallmarks of democratic education.   [More]  Descriptors: Foreign Countries, Video Technology, Literacy, Teacher Education

Francis, Dennis; Msibi, Thabo (2011). Teaching about Heterosexism: Challenging Homophobia in South Africa, Journal of LGBT Youth. This article, a critical review of a module on heterosexism and homophobia, sets out the challenges to be overcome if the oppressive conditions for lesbian, gay, and bisexual students and teachers in South Africa are to be changed. It draws on evidence from student assignments, records of participatory discussions and the notes of the authors, who taught the module. The authors argue that the participatory methods used in this course are essential if teachers are to become agents of change. However, these methods need to be linked to a clear and coherent theoretical foundation that enables students to draw links between different forms of oppression.   [More]  Descriptors: Change Agents, Teacher Role, Foreign Countries, Homosexuality

Lesser, Eli J. (2006). Constitution Day: Start the School Year with Civics, Social Education. The celebration and recognition of Constitution Day on September 17th is now required by federal law. The new law, known colloquially as the Byrd Amendment, requires all schools receiving any federal assistance, from kindergarten to higher education, to teach students about the Constitution on Constitution Day. The concept of a school's civic mission has been growing in recent years, since the publication of the Civic Mission of Schools report in 2003 and with the launching of the Campaign for the Civic Mission of Schools. Constitution Day is the perfect opportunity to enlighten students, administrators, faculty and parents that their school has a "Civic Mission." Based on the suggestions of best classroom practices from the "Civic Mission of Schools" report, the National Constitution Center has created a three sphere approach to civic education, with the belief that great civic education can be led by social studies teachers but must be carried out in all classrooms and at all grade levels. The "civic education philosophy" of civic knowledge, public action, and democratic deliberation is designed to promote the teaching of active citizenship. The three-sphere approach creates a framework for educators to consider when putting together lessons and activities. This framework, although best applied in the social studies classroom, can be used across all disciplines. Constitution Day and its federal requirement is an opportunity for social studies educators to lead, not just their classrooms, but their whole school, toward renewing its civic mission.   [More]  Descriptors: Federal Legislation, Civics, Citizenship, Citizenship Education

Drenoyianni, Helen (2006). ICT in Education: The Opportunity for Democratic Schools?, European Journal of Vocational Training. What is the future of schools and what is the role of ICT in this future? To some of us, ICTs are emblematic of contemporary discussions about educational reform; their incorporation into education offers significant improvement to the overall quality of education our children receive. For others, this improvement cannot be realised under current educational conditions. For the liberating, dynamic and emancipatory capacities of ICT use to grow, we need a different terrain, suited to a human and democratic vision for education. This article attempts to examine these two perspectives in the context of facts, figures and stories from the reality of classrooms, and to raise critical arguments about the potential role of ICT in education.   [More]   [More]  Descriptors: Educational Change, Information Technology, Democratic Values, Democracy

Faulks, Keith (2006). Rethinking Citizenship Education in England: Some Lessons from Contemporary Social and Political Theory, Education, Citizenship and Social Justice. The introduction of compulsory citizenship education in England's schools, following the Crick Report's recommendations of 1998, has proved controversial and, according to a growing body of evidence, largely unsuccessful in its implementation. If citizenship education is to play an effective role in democratic renewal this article argues that its form and content needs to be reconsidered beyond the limits of Crick. Contemporary citizenship theory, and especially notions of intimate and multiple citizenship, provide useful conceptual tools for this critical revaluation. Having first set the Crick Report in political context, this article develops a critique of the Report's sociological naivety and its contradictory recommendations. The analyses of intimate and multiple citizenship that follow further point to the limits of Crick and suggest the need for a broader and bolder approach to citizenship education. The final section draws out some of the implications of this argument for the citizenship curriculum in schools.   [More]  Descriptors: Citizen Participation, Citizenship Education, Foreign Countries, Democracy

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Bibliography: Democracy (page 500 of 605)

This annotated bibliography is curated specifically for the I'm with Jill website.  Some of the authors featured on this page include Narcie Kelly, Demet Seban, Lauren Hoffman, Steven Jay Gross, Mark Noe, Robert Lawy, Vance Scott Martin, Henry A. Giroux, M. Fernanda Astiz, and Azadeh F. Osanloo.

Kelly, Deirdre M. (2011). The Public Policy Pedagogy of Corporate and Alternative News Media, Studies in Philosophy and Education. This paper argues for seeing in-depth news coverage of political, social, and economic issues as "public policy pedagogy." To develop my argument, I draw on Nancy Fraser's democratic theory, which attends to social differences and does not assume that unity is a starting point or an end goal of public dialogue. Alongside the formation of "subaltern counterpublics" (Fraser), alternative media outlets sometimes develop. There, members of alternative publics debate their interests and strategize about how to be heard in wider, mass-mediated public arenas. I address the normative implications of this non-unitary, multiple-publics model for news journalism, analyzing how current conventions in mainstream news journalism (e.g., "balance" defined as "airing two extremes") can restrict public debate and impoverish the public policy pedagogy on offer. I illustrate my arguments with a case study of media coverage of the creation and implementation of a social justice curriculum in British Columbia, Canada.   [More]  Descriptors: Foreign Countries, Social Justice, Democracy, Mass Media Role

Duncum, Paul (2011). Engaging Public Space: Art Education Pedagogies for Social Justice, Equity & Excellence in Education. Considering social justice to be founded on human rights, which, in turn, are grounded in freedom of thought, expression, and assembly, this essay reviews efforts by art educators to engage with public space as a form of social justice pedagogy. Public space, whether actual or virtual, is understood to be inherently devoted to contestation in the pursuit and protection of human rights. However, today we face a serious contraction of public space. Due to the relentless logic of consumer markets and the visceral fear of physical attack, some have asserted that public space is now dead. In this article, the author points to pedagogies employed to take back physical public space, identified on a continuum that include learning about, learning from, acting within, and acting upon public space. These pedagogies involve: critiquing private, corporate space; engaging in public community and environmental art; and engaging in activist and protest art, including a critique of the public space itself. Additionally, different positions are identified, including descriptive, prescriptive, and proscriptive positions, as well as alternative and oppositional positions. The author then explores the possibilities for taking hold of virtual space and concludes by conceptualizing each of these strategies in terms of residual, dominant, and emergent culture, as well as providing consideration of challenges and possibilities for further activity.   [More]  Descriptors: Social Justice, Intellectual Freedom, Art Education, Urban Environment

Seban, Demet (2011). Teaching Peace through Picture Books in a Third-Grade Classroom, Intercultural Education. In 2000, UNESCO declared a mission for peace named the International Decade for a Culture of Peace and Non-violence for the Children of the World (2001-2010). The "culture of peace" was defined as a set of "values, attitudes and behaviours … that reject violence and endeavour to prevent conflicts by tackling their root causes to solve problems through dialogue and negotiation" (UN Resolutions 1997, 1). In addition, several other world organizations were giving priority to peace education; mass military action against terrorism was taking place in and around the country (Turkey), forcing educators to work toward ensuring that individuals and groups live together harmoniously in a peaceful and democratic society. In this article, the author wanted to portray children's literature as containing powerful material for peace education programs. He also wanted to encourage teachers whose mother tongue is not English to explore books in their native language for teaching about peace. In places where the curriculum is highly structured, and studying different aspects of peace is not included at all class levels, picture books can be selected purposefully by teachers for reading. This will allow teachers to create the space to teach the complex knowledge of peace-keeping, peace-making, and peace-building strategies. Through critical examination of these selected books, children may have a chance to challenge widely accepted stereotypes, values, and perspectives, which they may not have been able to think about elsewhere.   [More]  Descriptors: Childrens Literature, Picture Books, Democracy, Peace

Barney, Timothy (2009). Power Lines: The Rhetoric of Maps as Social Change in the Post-Cold War Landscape, Quarterly Journal of Speech. After the fall of the Berlin Wall and the collapse of state socialism in Eastern and Central Europe, cartographers were faced with choices on how the new post-Cold War political landscape would be mapped. One such group called the Pluto Project had been producing atlases since 1981 with a progressive point of view about the nature of state power in the Cold War. This essay examines two of the Pluto Project's atlases as they function to identify a radical cartographic style that animates the social control of space by subverting traditional cartographic forms and defying scientific expectations and standards.   [More]  Descriptors: Foreign Countries, World History, Social Change, Cartography

Hickman, Heather; Hoffman, Lauren (2011). Language and Leadership, Journal of Cases in Educational Leadership. This case looks at an urban high school and the interaction among teachers and administrators regarding the issue of language use at the school. Specifically, the teacher involved challenges heteronormative language. The case is intended to spark critical self-reflection, reflection of institutional norms, analysis of ways in which the status quo gets perpetuated, discussions of teacher and administrator agency and power, awareness of discourse and discourse analysis as well as policy. Included in the analysis and teaching notes is a recommendation for critical self-reflection to occur prior to studying the case. Also recommended prior to reading the case is the assignment of lenses through which students should approach the case (as a student, as a parent, as a teacher, as a school counselor, as an administrator, etc.). Following study of the case, additional analysis and teaching notes are suggested for engaging students in analysis and discussion of language, critical discourse analysis, critical policy analysis, social structure and faculty agency, and democratic education.   [More]  Descriptors: Democracy, Discourse Analysis, Social Structure, Policy Analysis

Education Commission of the States (NJ3) (2009). Service-Learning: Why It Matters. The Progress of Education Reform. Volume 10, Number 6. The term service-learning is used frequently these days, but confusion remains as to what it is and why it matters. More importantly, are there any measurable benefits? This issue of "The Progress of Education Reform" looks at four research studies that explore the impact of service-learning on student achievement and civic engagement. A list of ECS resources is included.   [More]   [More]  Descriptors: Educational Change, Service Learning, Academic Achievement, Citizen Participation

Siegel, Shepherd (2009). A Meaningful High School Diploma, Phi Delta Kappan. Creating a meaningful high school diploma will expose students to the full range of adult options which will enable them to shape their high school education in a way that connects to their current interests and stimulates the growth of new ones. Fully connecting all students to these four worlds of knowledge will equip them to build one incredible world that is our shared future.   [More]  Descriptors: High Schools, High School Students, Secondary School Curriculum, High School Graduates

De Lissovoy, Noah (2011). Pedagogy in Common: Democratic Education in the Global Era, Educational Philosophy and Theory. In the context of the increasingly transnational organization of society, culture, and communication, this article develops a conceptualization of the global common as a basic condition of interrelation and shared experience, and describes contemporary political efforts to fully democratize this condition. The article demonstrates the implications for curriculum and teaching of this project, describing in particular the importance of fundamentally challenging the interpellation of students as subjects of the nation, and the necessity for new and radically collaborative forms of political and pedagogical authority that can more powerfully realize the imaginative potential of educators and students alike as global democratic actors. In this effort, familiar progressive educational ideas (e.g. the importance of the continuity of the curriculum, and the meaning and purpose of experimentalism) are interrogated and rearticulated. The article concludes with a discussion of the unique ways in which education can contribute to constructing a democratic society in the global era, and how the central aspects of such a pedagogy in common can also suggest essential principles for the organization of social movements in this context.   [More]  Descriptors: Democracy, Politics of Education, Democratic Values, Global Approach

Osanloo, Azadeh F. (2011). Unburying Patriotism: Critical Lessons in Civics and Leadership Ten Years Later, High School Journal. This manuscript provides a historical and pedagogical framework for American educational and sociopolitical responses after national tragedies (e.g., Pearl Harbor, 9/11). Moreover, this research explores the overt xenophobic and ethnocentric tendencies (exacerbated by media forums) after these events, which triggered resurgence in a sort of "trauma-based patriotism" or jingoism. Lastly, the research puts forth pedagogical strategies for teachers and educational leaders based in diversity and multiculturalism that will assist in healing the fractured realities of the 9/11 tragedy and serve to offer a thread of social justice-based continuity in social studies and civic education in the continuing post-9/11 years.   [More]  Descriptors: Patriotism, Political Socialization, Terrorism, National Security

Noe, Mark (2009). The "Corrido": A Border Rhetoric, College English. The author questions the continued usefulness of inside/outside as a liberatory metaphor, particularly for Latino/a students, who experience that classroom quite differently from the privileged way that the author, their Anglo teacher, does. The author argues that the assumptions of the inside/outside metaphor accentuate the challenges that these students face when confronted by the demands for assimilation posed by academic writing. Inside/outside becomes a means of identifying what lies on either side of a boundary, while simultaneously bypassing how the boundary functions to categorize and, according to Lazaro Lima, even compartmentalizes by selecting who may pass through. The border rhetorics that Latino/a students bring into the classroom can help them and other students resist being appropriated by academic discourse. For example, the "corrido" involves a mimicry of conventions that enables students to envision a fluid identity rather than exchange one identity for another.   [More]  Descriptors: Mexican American Education, Rhetoric, Democracy, Figurative Language

Martin, Vance Scott (2011). Using Wikis to Experience History, ProQuest LLC. This dissertation is an action research study examining the use of technology to encourage critical thinking and digital literacy in a community college history class. The students are responsible for researching course material and teaching the class. They then use a wiki to contribute to and edit an interactive, online textbook that has been created by students over several semesters. The goal is to link more interactive technologies with what the author terms socially democratic education, by empowering students to create knowledge and encouraging them to consider biases in historical writing.   Two main research questions are considered, each with related sub-questions. First, what do students experience using an educational wiki and an open classroom? Are the students able to think critically about history? The work of Giroux (1978) is used to discuss the critical thinking that emerged in the class.   Second, what are the relationships between the wiki and open classroom, and democratic education? How is that observable? What role does the teacher play? Is this a critical pedagogy? Evidence of socially democratic learning is examined, and Freire (2009) is used to analyze the presence of a critical pedagogy.   Several issues are raised as the result of the study, and their implications are discussed. These include the loss of teacher control with this type of pedagogy, the need for a balance between allowing freedom for discovery and organizational structure, and issues related to trust and identity.   [The dissertation citations contained here are published with the permission of ProQuest LLC. Further reproduction is prohibited without permission. Copies of dissertations may be obtained by Telephone (800) 1-800-521-0600. Web page:   [More]  Descriptors: Critical Theory, Action Research, Democracy, Critical Thinking

Giroux, Henry A. (2011). Business Culture and the Death of Public Education: Mayor Bloomberg, David Steiner, and the Politics of Corporate "Leadership", Policy Futures in Education. This article provides a case study of how a business culture imposes modes of educational leadership on a public school system in New York City that has little if any concerns for empowering children, teachers, and the communities. The article provides a counter-narrative that serves to dispel the notion that the culture of educational empowerment is synonymous with a corporate model of leadership and education and that the latter is the best ideological and political template for understanding and governing public schools. In fact, the article attempts to make clear that the culture of business largely functions both to disempower students and teachers and to undercut the ability of schools to connect learning to social change, the power of the imagination, civic courage, and intellectual growth.   [More]  Descriptors: Case Studies, Urban Schools, Public Schools, Instructional Leadership

Mitra, Dana L.; Gross, Steven Jay (2009). Increasing Student Voice in High School Reform: Building Partnerships, Improving Outcomes, Educational Management Administration & Leadership. While we often write about adolescents as full of turmoil and angst, focusing on "student voice" instead highlights ways in which young people can learn democratic principles by sharing their opinions and working to improve school conditions for themselves and others. This article examines the connection between the types of student voice initiatives desired and the contexts in which student voice is pursued. Drawing upon cases from the USA and Australia, we suggest that turbulence theory can influence the way that student voice is received at a school and its ability to achieve desired goals. Student voice can help to increase the tension and focus on pressing issues when needed; it also can help to calm turbulence occurring within individual adolescents and also in school contexts that need resolution.   [More]  Descriptors: High School Students, Student Participation, Student Attitudes, Adolescent Development

Biesta, Gert; Lawy, Robert; Kelly, Narcie (2009). Understanding Young People's Citizenship Learning in Everyday Life: The Role of Contexts, Relationships and Dispositions, Education, Citizenship and Social Justice. In this article we present insights from research which has sought to deepen understanding of the ways in which young people (aged 13-21) learn democratic citizenship through their participation in a range of different formal and informal practices and communities. Based on the research, we suggest that such understanding should focus on the interplay between contexts for action, relationships within and across contexts, and the dispositions that young people bring to such contexts and relationships. In the first part of the article we show how and why we have broadened the narrow parameters of the existing citizenship discourse with its focus on political socialization to encompass a more wide-ranging conception of citizenship learning that is not just focused on school or the curriculum. In the second part of the article we describe our research and present two exemplar case studies of young people who formed part of the project. In the third part we present our insights about the nature and character of citizenship learning that we have been able to draw from our research. In the concluding section we highlight those dimensions of citizenship learning that would have remained invisible had we focused exclusively on schools and the curriculum. In this way we demonstrate the potential of the approach to understanding citizenship learning that we have adopted.   [More]  Descriptors: Young Adults, Adolescents, Social Environment, Interpersonal Relationship

Wiseman, Alexander W.; Astiz, M. Fernanda; Fabrega, Rodrigo; Baker, David P. (2011). Making Citizens of the World: The Political Socialization of Youth in Formal Mass Education Systems, Compare: A Journal of Comparative and International Education. Unique cross-national data on adolescents' civic skills, knowledge, and political attitudes are used to examine the democratic processes of modern mass schooling, effects of national political systems, and patterns of youth political socialization in 27 nations. Compared to the generally weak reported effects on mathematics and reading achievement, we find robust effects of schooling on youths' civics knowledge, skills, and attitudes. Secondly, there is empirical support for the importance of a supra-national political culture, beyond that of unique national cultures, in the political socialization of youth. Lastly, there is evidence of an emerging common polity among youth across nations. The results extend notions of the institutional influence of mass public schooling on the political socialization of youth.   [More]  Descriptors: Political Socialization, Political Attitudes, Citizenship Education, Reading Achievement

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Bibliography: Democracy (page 499 of 605)

This bibliography is independently curated for the I'm with Jill website.  Some of the authors featured on this page include Jorge Acevedo, Ricardo Barros, Jonathan Langdon, Sevan G. Terzian, Janet P. Stamatel, Natalia Realpe, Stuart R. Poyntz, Maria C. Powell, Benjamin Michael Superfine, and Rick Spradling.

Acevedo, Jorge; Barros, Ricardo; Ramirez, Catalina; Realpe, Natalia (2009). Engineers and Their Role in Public Policy: An Active Learning Experience for Enhancing the Understanding of the State, European Journal of Engineering Education. To achieve effective intervention of engineers in the public sector, engineers should develop skills to comprehend their ethical and professional responsibility, and they should gain the necessary education to understand the possible impact of engineering solutions in a global and social context. An active learning process has been conceived, which enables engineering students of Universidad de los Andes to comprehend the scope and limitations of public management, in general, with the objective of solving public problems. The method used to set the objective in motion comprises a workshop where students simulate a democratic republic with a parliamentary system. The simulation works as a pretext for students to compare their experience with some of the problems of Colombian public management. In this article, we will submit the evolution of the different processes that take place and that enable the optimization of resources in the republic, thus generating knowledge about public systems.   [More]  Descriptors: Active Learning, Engineering, Public Sector, Social Environment

Moller, Jorunn (2009). Approaches to School Leadership in Scandinavia, Journal of Educational Administration and History. In this article I examine approaches to school leadership in Scandinavia by applying a historical lens. I start by drawing attention to some aspects of the ideology and the history of the Scandinavian education systems in order to discuss how these aspects intersect with the globalised policy trends, and where there is likely to be tensions between the global trends and the cultural and historical imperatives of schooling and school leadership in Scandinavia. The devolution of greater responsibilities to schools has contributed to a number of demands upon them, in particular on school principals, but so far, the emerging age of accountability has had only small consequences on classroom practice. My main argument is that even though there is a growing homogenisation of approaches to school leadership due to global forces, local traditions ensure that they are played out differently in national contexts.   [More]  Descriptors: Foreign Countries, Instructional Leadership, Principals, Educational History

Stamatel, Janet P. (2009). Correlates of National-Level Homicide Variation in Post-Communist East-Central Europe, Social Forces. This article examines whether correlates of cross-national homicide variation tested with data from highly developed, predominantly Western nations could also explain homicide rates in East-Central Europe. Using pooled time-series analyses of data from nine countries from 1990 through 2003, this study found that homicide rates were negatively related to GDP/capita and positively related to ethnic diversity and population density. They were also negatively related to the percentage of young people and not significantly related to income inequality or divorce rates. This article also investigates whether conditions specific to the post-communist transformations contributed to homicide variation. Findings indicate that progressive reforms toward democratization and marketization decreased homicide rates. The discussion uses the socio-historical context of the nations to explain these results.   [More]  Descriptors: Divorce, Homicide, Foreign Countries, Correlation

Kawano, Marika Suziki (2009). The Development of Japanese Identity among Middle School Students in Japan: From the Perspectives of the State and Students, ProQuest LLC. This dissertation explores the issues related to the development of national identity amongst middle school students in Japan, from both macro and micro perspectives of the state's educational policy and the students' conception. While it is impossible to understand a national education without placing it in the larger context, the concept of "national" remains as relevant as ever, despite the fact that we live in this age of global interconnectedness. The development of a child's national identity has been raised as one of the top priorities in recent educational reforms in Japan. I conducted my document analysis on the historic revision of the Fundamental Law of Education of 2006, the proposed revision of the national curriculum of 2008, and the moral education workbook published by the state in 2002, which showed that the state continues to cling to the development of Japanese identity based on the myth of homogeneity around such concepts as "tradition" and "culture." It demonstrated a troubling trend that is slowly bringing the country back to its pre-war ways of nationalism. To find out how the micro actors of middle school students in Japan conceptualize "Japan" and "Japanese people," I conducted a case study using questionnaires and focus groups in two private schools in Kanagawa prefecture. The results not only showed that the students more or less hold a similar kind of national sentiment that is being promoted by the state, but they also showed a tendency to be more open and flexible towards the boundary making of "Japan" and "Japanese." I argue the need for the development of a more inclusive national self-understanding through education, reflecting the reality of cultural and ethnic diversity and heterogeneity that exist in Japan in order to construct a more democratic society.   [The dissertation citations contained here are published with the permission of ProQuest LLC. Further reproduction is prohibited without permission. Copies of dissertations may be obtained by Telephone (800) 1-800-521-0600. Web page:   [More]  Descriptors: Middle School Students, Foreign Countries, National Curriculum, Private Schools

Annette, John (2009). "Active Learning for Active Citizenship": Democratic Citizenship and Lifelong Learning, Education, Citizenship and Social Justice. This article explores to what extent citizenship education for lifelong learning should be based on a more "political" or civic republican conception of citizenship as compared to a liberal individualist conception, which emphasizes individual rights, or a communitarian conception, which emphasizes moral and social responsibilities. It also considers how people are finding new ways to engage in civic participation which can provide the basis for certificated or accredited lifelong learning for democratic citizenship. It examines, in particular, the "Active Learning for Active Citizenship" programme, which was funded by what was previously the Civic Renewal Unit of the Home Office and the possibility of a learning democratic citizenship based on the theory and practice of deliberative democratic engagement.   [More]  Descriptors: Citizenship, Democracy, Citizenship Education, Lifelong Learning

George, Shanti (2009). Too Young for Respect? Realising Respect for Young Children in Their Everyday Environments: A Cross-Cultural Analysis. Working Papers in Early Childhood Development, No. 54, Bernard van Leer Foundation (NJ1). This paper explores the conceptual underpinnings of the routine disrespect shown to young children in everyday life in cultures around the world. General Comment 7 of the Committee on the Rights of the Child urges that the youngest children should be respected as persons in their own right, within an environment of reliable and affectionate relationships based on respect and understanding. This paper examines two case studies, from Germany and Israel, to show what such environments look like on the ground. A bibliography is included.   [More]  Descriptors: Childrens Rights, Young Children, Foreign Countries, Cross Cultural Studies

Gounari, Panayota (2009). Rethinking Critical Literacy in the New Information Age, Critical Inquiry in Language Studies. This article looks at new information and communication technologies (ICTs) as sites of public pedagogy in that they produce particular forms of knowledge and literacies and reproduce representations that are always mediated through specific social relations. Public pedagogy as a process that constitutes a broader category beyond classroom practices, official curricula, and educational canons, extends to all sectors of human life, including virtual spaces. No longer restricted to traditional sites of learning such as educational or religious sites, public pedagogy produces new forms of knowledge and apprenticeship and new narratives for agency and for naming the world. Virtual spaces as sites of public pedagogy create, in turn, forms of literacy that go against traditional understandings of what constitutes a text. The article also attempts to discuss yet unrealized alternative directions in these virtual spaces, where critical literacy becomes emancipatory and an essential and powerful tool in the project for a radical pedagogy.   [More]  Descriptors: Critical Thinking, Educational Technology, Teaching Methods, Educational Methods

Garcia-Huidobro, Juan Eduardo; Corvalan, Javier (2009). Barriers that Prevent the Achievement of Inclusive Democratic Education, Prospects: Quarterly Review of Comparative Education. Inclusive education inherently involves the inclusion of all citizens in a democratic society. Based on this view, questions emerge with respect to equality and integration in educational systems. Although inclusion should be viewed as a requirement in a democratic society, along with the integration in schools of students from different social groups, the concept rarely becomes reality, despite its frequent acceptance in discourse. This article analyzes mechanisms that inhibit agreement on how equality and inclusion can be put into practice in education, taking as an example the case of Chile. One inhibitor is a lack of in-depth discussions about the major tendencies prevailing in contemporary educational systems. In addition, three types of segregation are linked to children's exclusion from schools: charges for educational services, schools' selection processes and the use of economic incentives. Finally, the article presents possible consequences of two pedagogical orientations: towards autonomous schools and flexible curriculum.   [More]  Descriptors: Inclusive Schools, Democracy, Foreign Countries, Educational Change

Powell, Maria C.; Colin, Mathilde (2009). Participatory Paradoxes: Facilitating Citizen Engagement in Science and Technology from the Top-Down?, Bulletin of Science, Technology & Society. Mechanisms to engage lay citizens in science and technology are currently in vogue worldwide. While some engagement exercises aim to influence policy making, research suggests that they have had little discernable impacts in this regard. We explore the potentials and challenges of facilitating citizen engagement in nanotechnology from the "top-down," addressing the following questions: Can academics and others within institutions "initiate" meaningful engagement with unorganized lay citizens from the top-down? Can they facilitate effective engagement among citizens, scientists, and policy makers while building citizen engagement capacities? Is it possible to create "independent" bottom-up citizen engagement in scientific and technological issues from the top-down, and what are the challenges in doing so? Our experiences show that although academics can build citizens' individual, collective, and political capacities to engage with each other, scientists, and policy makers, this work is enormously time and energy intensive, and institutional support is needed to sustain it.   [More]  Descriptors: Citizen Participation, Science and Society, Democracy, Molecular Structure

Teaching Tolerance (2009). Our Challenges as a People. Barack Obama's ascension to the highest elected office in America's land is surely a milestone in the American narrative. The events of Nov. 4, 2008, and Jan. 20, 2009, are marks of America's collective progress. In the course of the long campaign season, however, there is another date that also should be etched into American textbooks: March 18, 2008. On that day, in Philadelphia, then-Senator Obama delivered a landmark speech on race. Titled "A More Perfect Union," the speech was, as one commentator put it, "refreshing" in that a political candidate ushered in "a serious conversation about America's challenges as a people. One important role of a leader is to serve as an educator, clarifying how Americans have arrived where they are and what their choices are as they look toward the future." An excerpt of "A More Perfect Union" is presented.   [More]  Descriptors: Political Candidates, United States History, Racial Relations, Racial Discrimination

Superfine, Benjamin Michael (2009). The Evolving Role of the Courts in Educational Policy: The Tension between Judicial, Scientific, and Democratic Decision Making in "Kitzmiller v. Dover", American Educational Research Journal. In "Kitzmiller v. Dover" (2005), a court defined science to decide the legitimacy of teaching intelligent design to high school biology students. This study analyzes "Kitzmiller" in light of the complex and interrelated tensions between judicial, scientific, and democratic decision making that lie at the heart of modern educational governance. This study particularly explores how these tensions become more acute where the meaning of science itself is contested and examines how these tensions can be structured and balanced in a nuanced way in the institutional setting of the courts. Based on this examination, this study highlights major issues that bear upon an analysis of when it is appropriate for governmental entities to define science for educational policy purposes.   [More]  Descriptors: Courts, Educational Policy, Decision Making, Sciences

Poyntz, Stuart R. (2009). "On Behalf of a Shared World": Arendtian Politics in a Culture of Youth Media Participation, Review of Education, Pedagogy & Cultural Studies. More than 30 years since Hannah Arendt's death in 1975 at the age of 69, her novel theory of the public realm continues to attract attention and debate. In this article, the author contributes to this discussion by drawing on Arendt's theory of public life to investigate the space of youth media production in relation to questions of democratic habituation. Arendt is not typically thought of in relation to youth or media, but her concern for the nature of public acts, and for the way such acts expand people's lives by producing worldliness, offers a powerful framework for thinking about teenagers' media production work. The author introduces Arendt's thinking on the public realm and then uses her framework to examine the complex experiences of youth video production mentors involved in a summer digital media program located in Vancouver, Canada. The author situates a review of the youths' experiences in Summer Stories in relation to the development of what Henry Jenkins (2006a, 2006b) calls a culture of participation in contemporary Western societies. The author notes that while such a culture would appear to offer youth more opportunities than ever to produce their own cultural expressions, this does not mean such expressions are free of disciplinary practices that regulate and limit youth conduct. The author provides examples to support this argument and then turns to the experiences of youth mentors in Summer Stories. Through these experiences, the author indicates how and when production work nurtures democratic habits by fostering what Arendt contends is central to public life, that is, a form of thinking that is responsive to others, to the fact that people are all part of a shared world.   [More]  Descriptors: Foreign Countries, Politics, Theories, Democracy

Langdon, Jonathan (2009). Learning to Sleep without Perching: Reflections by Activist-Educators on Learning in Social Action in Ghanaian Social Movements, McGill Journal of Education. This article conveys results from a participatory action research (PAR) engagement with activist/educators working in Ghanaian social movements. First, this PAR group has articulated two typologies from which to understand Ghanaian social movements based on their processes of organization, communication and learning rather than merely the issues, resources or populations that occupy their focus. Second, expanding on Griff Foley's (1999) notion of learning in struggle, the PAR group provides three lenses from which to view learning in social movements in Ghana. Both of these contributions help to present a much needed African inflection to ongoing discussions of learning in social movements, especially as these contributions attempt to maintain a complex view of learning based on the shifting characteristics of power and capital.   [More]  Descriptors: Action Research, Social Action, Foreign Countries, Participatory Research

Terzian, Sevan G. (2009). The 1939-1940 New York World's Fair and the Transformation of the American Science Extracurriculum, Science Education. At the 1939-1940 New York World's Fair, several thousand boys and girls, all members of a growing national network of high school science and engineering clubs, displayed their science fair projects and conducted live experiments to more than 10 million visitors. Housed in the building sponsored by the Westinghouse Electric and Manufacturing Company, their exhibits depicted a wide range of scientific phenomena. They also represented the conflicting values of science educators and industrialists about the societal worth of science education. In some instances, students' projects and laboratory activities prized hands-on learning and aimed to abet widespread rational thinking for democratic citizenship, which reflected the civic priorities of Progressive science educators. In other cases, science was presented as a magical spectacle with consumer applications intended to entertain and inspire the public's confidence in American industry and scientific experts. Ultimately, the corporate sponsorship of the high school science extracurriculum at the World's Fair marked a turning point when the Progressive purposes of science education began to give way to "manpower" and "professionalist" ends that aligned with the nation's economic and military imperatives. This historical episode also anticipated recent proposals to reform science education in the United States and ideas about scientific learning in museum settings.   [More]  Descriptors: Science Education, Science Fairs, Science Activities, Science and Society

Spradling, Rick (2009). Sleeping Peacefully?, Schools: Studies in Education. American public school education was founded, in large measure, on the ideals of Horace Mann's leadership of Massachusetts schools in the 1800s. Later in that same century, private schools began to emerge and serve those disaffected with Mann's "common schools," and tension between publicly funded and privately paid education arose. This perhaps inevitable friction continued throughout the 1900s and remains pronounced today. The author of this essay is director (superintendent) of an American/International school in Holland; he revisited this public versus private education debate as part of a Klingenstein Fellowship at Teachers College, Columbia University, January-February 2009. Through on-site visits to alternatives to traditional public schools–including charter schools, parochial schools, and schools-within-schools–the author considers whether these alternatives are threats to Mann's ideal and concludes with an examination of whether American/International schools such as his own support or undermine the goals of universal public education in a democratic society.   [More]  Descriptors: Educational History, Public Education, Private Education, Inservice Teacher Education

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